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A Performance Measurement and Analysis Method for Infotainment System

Hyundai Motor Company-Peace Lee
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1347
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The car infotainment system provides various functions such as navigation, DMB, and external device interworking. In the future, complex new technologies such as remote diagnosis and control, V2X communication, integrated display, and autonomous driving interworking should be reflected. Also, even after mass production, such as smartphones, software must be constantly updated to apply bug fixes and new functions. However, as the internal software modules work together in a complicated way, system performance problems tend to occur due to changes in the software, and if they are not managed from the development stage, more costs must be paid for improvement over time. Moreover, after mass production, the scope of improvement will be limited. Therefore, software must be verified and optimized from time to time to ensure system performance quality from the minimum development process. Generally, various tools are used to verify software performance. Currently, top, perf, strace, gdb, DLT, and bootchart are mainly used on Linux-based platforms. In addition, there is a lack of intuitive statistical information to analyze and judge the overall performance of the…
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Ramped Versus Square Injection Rate Experiments in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

DAF Trucks NV-Bogdan Albrecht
Delphi Technologies-Tony Simpson
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0300
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
CO2 regulations on heavy-duty transport are introduced in essentially all markets within the next decade, in most cases in several phases of increasing stringency. To cope with these mandates, developers of engines and related equipment are aiming to break new ground in the fields of combustion, fuel and hardware technologies. In this work, a novel diesel fuel injector, Delphi’s DFI7, is utilized to experimentally investigate and compare the performance of ramped injection rates versus traditional square fueling profiles. The aim is specifically to shift the efficiency and NOx tradeoff to a more favorable position. The design of experiments methodology is used in the tests, along with statistical techniques to analyze the data. Results show that ramped and square rates - after optimization of fueling parameters - produce comparable gross indicated efficiencies. For the highest engine speed tested, ramped profiles attain these efficiency values at considerably lower NOx levels. Particulate matter emissions, on the other hand, are generally lower with the use of square profiles. Heat release analysis further reveals that ignition delays in ramped rate…
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Statistical Analysis of City Bus Driving Cycle Features for the Purpose of Multidimensional Driving Cycle Synthesis

University of Zagreb-Jakov Topić, Branimir Skugor, Josko Deur
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1288
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Driving cycles are typically defined as time profiles of vehicle velocity, and as such they reflect basic driving characteristics. They have a wide application from the perspective of both conventional and electric road vehicles, ranging from prediction of fuel/energy consumption (e.g. for certification purposes), estimation of greenhouse gas and pollutant emissions to selection of optimal vehicle powertrain configuration and design of its control strategy. In the case of electric vehicles, the driving cycles are also applied to determine effective vehicle range, battery life period, and charging management strategy. Nowadays, in most applications artificial certification driving cycles are used. As they do not represent realistic driving conditions, their application results in generally unreliable estimates and analyses. Therefore, recent research efforts have been directed towards development of statistically representative synthetic driving cycles derived from recorded GPS driving data. The state-of-the-art synthesis approach is based on Markov chains, typically including vehicle velocity and acceleration as Markov chain states. However, apart from the vehicle velocity and acceleration, a road slope and vehicle mass are also shown to significantly impact…
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Accelerometer-Based Estimation of Combustion Features for Engine Feedback Control

Army Research Laboratory-Kenneth Kim
Dept of Army-Chol-Bum Kweon
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1147
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
An experimental investigation of non-intrusive combustion sensing was performed using a tri-axial accelerometer mounted to a small-bore high-speed 4-cylinder diesel engine. This study investigates potential techniques to extract combustion features from accelerometer signals to be used for cycle-to-cycle engine control. Selection of accelerometer location and vibration axis were performed by analyzing vibration signals for three different locations along the block for all three of the accelerometer axes. A magnitude squared coherence (MSC) statistical analysis was used to select the best location and axis. Based on previous work from the literature, the vibration signal filtering was optimized and the filtered vibration signals were analyzed. It was found that the vibration signals correlate well with the second derivative of pressure during the initial stages of combustion. Two combustion parameters were the focus of this investigation, start of combustion (SOC) and crank angle of fifty-percent heat release (CA50). The results showed that, for a wide range of engine conditions, SOC can be obtained solely from the first derivative of the vibration signal with respect to crank angle. In…
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Impact of EV Charging on Power System with High Penetration of EVs -Simulation and Quantitative Analysis Based on Real World Usage Data-

Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Kenta Suzuki, Yuki Kobayashi, Kensuke Murai, Keigo Ikezoe
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0531
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The adoption of electric vehicle (EV) has been announced worldwide which aims at reduction of CO2 emissions. However, significant increase of electricity demand by EVs may impact the stable operation of conventional power system. On the other hand, EVs charging are acceptable to most of users if they are completed by the departure time of next driving event. From power system operator’s point of view, this flexibility of shifting the charge timings are highly favorable such as effective use of renewable energy. In this paper, EV model and simulation tool was developed to verify how charging demand of total EVs will be influenced by the future specification of EVs(e.g. battery capacity) and installation of the charging infrastructure. As a most influential factor, EV charging behavior according to their use cases and regional characteristics were statistically analyzed from the usage data of over 10, 000 real world EVs and incorporated to the simulation tool. Utilizing these statistical model, Monte Carlo method was adopted to the simulation for conducting parameter study of continuous days. Impact of EV…
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Process-Monitoring-for-Quality — A Step Forward in the Zero Defects Vision

General Motors LLC-Carlos Escobar, Jorge Arinez
Tecnologico de Monterrey-Ruben Morales-Menendez
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1302
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
More than four decades ago the concept of zero defects was coined by Phillip Crosby. At that time it was only a vision, but today with the introduction of Artificial Intelligence in manufacturing it has become attainable. Since most mature manufacturing organizations have merged traditional quality philosophies and techniques, their processes generate only a few defects per million of opportunities. Therefore, detecting these rare quality events is one of the modern intellectual challenges posed by this industry. Process Monitoring for Quality is a big data-driven quality philosophy aimed at defect detection and empirical knowledge discovery. Detection is formulated as a binary classification problem, where the right machine learning, optimization and statistics techniques are applied to develop an effective predictive system. Manufacturing-derived data sets for binary classification of quality tend to be highly/ultra unbalanced, making it very difficult for the learning algorithms to learn the minority (defective) class. In this paper, the learning and deployment paradigm of Process Monitoring for Quality is presented, a discussion of how it interacts with traditional quality philosophies to enable the…
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Defining Fundamental Vehicle Actions for the Development of Automated Driving Systems

Royal Institute of Technology-Martin Törngren
Zenuity-Carl Zandén
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0712
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Automated Driving Systems (ADSs) show great potential to improve convenience and effectiveness of our transport systems. Safety validation, prior to market launch, is however challenging due to the large number of miles required to gather enough evidence for a proven in use argumentation. Hence there is an ongoing search to find more effective ways of verifying and validating the safety of ADSs. One component of this search is refining the definition of the ADS. Both for the design and for the validation it is crucial to have a good understanding of the environment around the ADS (external conditions) and what the internal limitations of the ADS are. A natural way of characterising the external conditions is by modelling and analysing data from real traffic. Towards this end, we present a framework with the primary objective to completely model all the statistically significant actions that other vehicles conduct on motorways. Two categories of fundamental actions are identified by recognising that a vehicle can only move either longitudinally or laterally. The fundamental actions are defined in detail…
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Virtual Development of Injector Spray Targeting by Coupling 3D-CFD Simulations with Optical Investigations

FKFS-Marco Chiodi
University of Stuttgart-Antonino Vacca, Simon Hummel, Karsten Müller, Marc Reichenbacher, Michael Bargende
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1157
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Further improvements of internal combustion engines to reduce fuel consumption and to face future legislation constraints are strictly related to the study of mixture formation, in order to supply the engine with homogeneous charge, towards the direction of a global stoichiometric blend in the combustion chamber. Fuel evaporation and thus mixture quality, mostly depend on injector atomization features and charge motion within the cylinder. 3D-CFD simulations offer great potential to study not only injector atomization quality but also the evaporation behavior. Nevertheless coupling optical measurements and simulations for injector analysis is an open discussion because of the large number of influencing parameters and interactions affecting the fuel injections reproducibility. For this reason, detailed numerical investigations are used to describe the injection phenomena. For a virtual development of internal combustion engines this intensive calculations are not advisable but it is rather reasonable to find a methodology for a numerical characterization of the fuel injection process that takes into account macroscopic spray properties and to integrate these models into the complete engine simulations. Based on these concepts…
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Analysis of Vehicle Front Impact Pulse Severity in US NCAP

FCA US LLC-Jianping Wu, Yibing Shi, Brian Beaudet
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0986
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
There have been multiple studies on the effect of vehicle impact pulses on occupant responses, and studies on the previous and current US NCAP (New Car Assessment Program) vehicle pulses. This paper analyzes 35 mph (56.3 kph) front impact vehicle impact pulses and occupant responses in US NCAP tests conducted by the NHTSA from 2011 to 2019. Based on the occupant response analysis, a simple generic occupant restraint force-relative displacement model has been created. This generic model captures the fundamental restraint characteristics of the vehicles in the recent years, and together with the vehicle pulse, they provide several occupant response predictors. Furthermore, this paper proposes a new pulse severity metric PSD based on the vehicle impact data statistics, and uses the pulse severity to compare with other pulse severity definitions. It explains the shortcomings of using the vehicle dynamic crush and TTZV as pulse severity metrics, and shows how improvements can be made with simple modifications. Data regression methods are used to assess relationships among different metrics and variables. The paper also provides statistics of…
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Development of a Passenger Vehicle Seat Center-of-Gravity Measuring Device

SEA, Ltd.-Scott Zagorski, Dale Andreatta, Gary Heydinger
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1061
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A machine has been developed to measure the center-of-gravity (CG) location of a seat. Among other things these quantities are useful in studying ride comfort levels of a seat as well as determining the load application location needed during an endurance or strength test. The device is a derivative of a previously developed machine (C1000) that measures the three moments and three products of inertia, plus the CG location. This machine uses a system of pivots, a yaw bearing and two sensors to get the X, Y and Z CG of the seat. Object mass is measured separately on a scale. A stable pendulum arrangement is used to get the CG location. Based on the customer’s requirements one of the unique design criteria was the need to measure a light seat attached to a heavy fixture; approximately a 1:6 ratio. This resulted in having a short pivot height (13.1 in, 332.7 mm) and the need to know seat weight to 0.05 kg (0.1 lbs) or better. Governing equations for the machine are shown in the…