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A Novel Kalman Filter Based Road Grade Estimation Method

FCA US LLC-Cevat Gokcek
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0563
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Accurate, robust and real-time estimation of road grade is extremely important in vehicle control (battery management, transmission shift scheduling, distance-to-empty prediction, anti-lock braking system, collision avoidance, stability control, etc.) to improve safety, stability, efficiency and performance. This paper presents a novel Kalman filter based road grade estimation method using measurements from an accelerometer, gyroscope and tachometer. The accelerometer measures the components of the vehicle acceleration (including the components of the acceleration due to gravity), and the measurements provided by the accelerometer are almost drift free but heavily corrupted by measurement noises. The gyroscope measures the components of the angular velocity of the vehicle, and the measurements provided by the gyroscope are quite clean but disturbed by gyroscope biases. The tachometer measures the longitudinal vehicle velocity, and the measurement provided by the tachometer is also corrupted by measurement noise. The Kalman filter uses the model of the sensors and their outputs, and fuses the sensor measurements to optimally estimate the road grade.
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Development of Active Rear Axles Steering Controller For 8X8 Combat Vehicle

OntarioTech University-Moataz Ahmed, Moustafa El-Gindy, Haoxiang Lang, Mohamed Omar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0174
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Lateral dynamic control considered to be crucial to enhance the handling characteristics and stabilization of a vehicle as a safety demand. In this paper, an active rear axles steering control system will be developed using optimal quadratic regulator (LQR) control methodology. The controller aims to minimize the vehicle sideslip and consequently increase its handling stability and transient state performance. The controller design has been utilized the independent steering of the vehicle`s 3rd and 4th axles as control inputs. Furthermore, the developed controller will be combined with feedforward zero sideslip (ZSS) controller based on the steady state model of the vehicle and satisfying the Ackermann steering condition. In addition, the steady state handling performance will be evaluated using Skid Pad test. The transient state performance will be assessed at low coefficient of friction (COF) surface using FMVSS 126 Electronic Stability Control (ESC) system test speed, while Open Loop Step Slalom Test will be used for assessing the controller at high COF. The controllers will be implemented using MATLAB Simulink and will be simulated in a co-software…
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Research on Yaw Stability Control of Unmanned Vehicle Based on Integrated Electromechanical Brake Booster

Jilin University-Dexing Lao, Jian Wu, Rui He, Bing Zhu, Jian Zhao, Zhicheng Chen
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0212
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The Electromechanical Brake Booster(EMBB) integrates active braking and energy recovery and becomes a novel brake-by-wire solution that substitutes the vacuum booster. While the intelligent unmanned vehicle is in unstable state, the Electromechanical Brake Booster can improve the vehicle yaw stability more quickly and safely. In this paper, a new type of intgarted EMBB has been designed, which mainly includes two parts: servo motor unit and hydraulic control unit. Aiming at the dynamics instability problem of intelligent unmanned vehicle, a three-layer vehicle yaw stability control structure including decision layer, distribution layer and execution layer is proposed based on integrated EMBB. Firstly, the decision layer calculates the ideal yaw rate and the side slip angle of the vehicle with the classic 2DOF vehicle dynamics model. The boundary of the stable region is determined by the phase plane method and the additional yaw moment is determined by the feedback PI control algorithm. Secondly, the distribution layer optimally selects the wheel with the highest differential braking efficiency and assigns the brake pressure to the corresponding wheel based on the…
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Vehicle Control History: Data from Driver Input and Pre-Collision System Activation Events on Toyota Vehicles

Toyota Motor North America-Lance Lewis
Toyota Motor North America, Inc.-Barry Hare, Harold Clyde, Robert Landis
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-5094
Published 2019-12-30 by SAE International in United States
Separate from the event data recorder (EDR), which records and stores data from qualifying vehicle crash events, the Vehicle Control History (VCH) on Toyota vehicles records and stores certain vehicle data based on select driver inputs, such as hard acceleration or braking, or upon the activation of certain vehicle dynamic control systems such as antilock braking system (ABS), traction control (TRAC), vehicle stability control (VSC), and the pre-collision system (PCS). In the United States, VCH was first equipped on the 2013 Toyota RAV4 and has been subsequently introduced into other Toyota and Lexus models. Most recently, in addition to VCH data, additional PCS operational data (PCS-O) and image data (PCS-I) may be recorded and stored. The image storage capability may record under certain conditions such as if the system has automatically applied the vehicle brakes. PCS-O and PCS-I data became available with the launch of Toyota Safety Sense (TSS), a grouping of advanced active safety features equipped on many Toyota vehicles generally available in 2017. Multiple dynamic tests with a 2017 Toyota Corolla were performed…
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A Comparative Study on ESC Drive and Brake Control Based on Hierarchical Structure for Four-Wheel Hub-Motor-Driven Vehicle

Wuhan University of Technology-Chen Lin, Xiaofei Pei, Xuexun Guo
Published 2019-11-04 by SAE International in United States
Electronic Stability Control (ESC) is an important measure to proactively guarantee vehicle safety. In this paper, the method of four-wheel hub-motor torque control is compared with the traditional single-wheel hydraulic brake control in ESC system. The control strategy adopts the hierarchical structure. In upper controller, the stability of the vehicle is identified by threshold method, the additional yaw moment control uses a way to get the moment including feedforward and feedback parts based on the linear quadratic regulator (LQR). The medium controller is tire slip rate control, in order to get the optimal target slip rate from the upper additional yaw moment, a method of quadratic programming to optimize the longitudinal force is proposed for each wheel. The inputs of tire state for the magic tire model is introduced so as to calculate the target slip rate from the target longitudinal force. The lower controller is wheel cylinder pressure control and motor torque control which is realized by Carsim ideal control. Finally, through Co-simulation of Carsim/Simulink in the condition of open steering wheel loop for…
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A Heavy Tractor Semi-Trailer Stability Control Strategy Based on Electronic Pneumatic Braking System HIL Test

SAE International Journal of Vehicle Dynamics, Stability, and NVH

Aptiv PLC, USA-Bin Li
State Key Laboratory of Automotive Simulation and Control, Jilin University, China-Hongyu Zheng, Yangyang Miao
  • Journal Article
  • 10-03-03-0016
Published 2019-10-15 by SAE International in United States
Aiming to improve the handling performance of heavy tractor semi-trailer during turning or changing lanes at high speed, a hierarchical structure controller is proposed and a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test bench of the electronic pneumatic braking system is developed to validate the proposed controller. In the upper controller, a Kalman filter observer based on the heavy tractor semi-trailer dynamic model is used to estimate the yaw rates and sideslip angles of the tractor and trailer. Simultaneously, a sliding mode direct yaw moment controller is developed, which takes the estimated yaw rates and sideslip angles and the reference values calculated by the three-degrees-of-freedom dynamic model of the heavy tractor semi-trailer as the control inputs. In the lower controller, the additional yaw moments of tractor and trailer are transformed into corresponding wheel braking forces according to the current steering characteristics. The HIL test bench of the electronic pneumatic braking system is built to verify the effectiveness of the strategy. Double lane-change maneuver, sinusoidal maneuver, and J-turn maneuver are selected as handling and stability test conditions. The LabView real-time…
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Modelling and Validation of a Control Algorithm for Yaw Stability & Body Slip Control Using PID & Fuzzy Logic Based Controllers

SITAMS-Chellappan Kavitha
VIT University-Umashankar Lath, Sanyam Kakkar, Aman Agarwal, Bragadeshwaran Ashok, Vemuluri Ramesh Babu, Sathiaseelan Denis Ashok
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Advanced driver-assistance systems (ADAS) are becoming an essential part of the modern commercial automobile industry. Vehicle handling and stability are determined by the yaw rate and body slip of the vehicle. This paper is a comparative study of a nonlinear vehicle stability control algorithms for steering control based on two different controllers i.e. fuzzy logic based controller and PID controller. A full vehicle 14DOF model was made in Simulink to simulate an actual vehicle. The control algorithms are based on a two-track 7-DOF model with a non-linear tire model based on Pacejka “Magic tire formula”, which was used to establish the desired response of a full vehicle 14DOF model. It was found that the fuzzy logic-based control algorithm demonstrated an overall superior performance characteristic than a PID based control algorithm; this includes a significant decrease in time lag and overshoot. The proposed control algorithms were validated through the co-simulation of Carsim and Simulink in real time.
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Braking Requirements for Optimizing Autonomous Emergency Braking Performance

Applus IDIADA-Álvaro Esquer Molina, Jordi Bargallo
Published 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle technology new developments have contributed to improve vehicle structural performance and therefore passive protection, but also the inclusion of electronic control units has provided new opportunities to expand active safety systems. This is the case for systems like anti-lock braking systems (ABS), electronic stability control (ESC) and brake assist (BA) among others. A more advanced generation of active systems includes sensorial units that monitor vehicle’s surrounding and detect potential hazards, such as an imminent collision, and performs an automatically and commanded emergency braking to lessen or mitigate the consequences of the impending accident. For this latest system, the so-called autonomous emergency braking (AEB), various consumer testing protocols, such as Euro NCAP protocols [1], propose and periodically update test catalogues in order to evaluate the performance of such systems and later to inform potential consumers.The aim of this study is to investigate the means of improving AEB performance in terms of efficiency and driver acceptance. For this, performance of current AEB system will be studied and compared with the limits of vehicle’s braking capabilities.
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Comparative Analysis between American and European Requirements for Electronic Stability Control (ESC) Focusing on Commercial Vehicles

Ford Motor Company-Silvia Faria Iombriller, Wesley Bolognesi Prado, Marco Andre Silva
Published 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
Analysis of road accidents has shown that an important portion of fatal crashes involving Commercial Vehicles are caused by rollovers.ESC systems in Commercial Vehicles can reduce rollovers, severe understeer or oversteer conditions and minimize occurrences of jackknifing events.Several studies have estimated that this positive effect of ESC on road safety is substantial. In Europe, Electronic Stability Control (ESC) is expected to prevent by far the most fatalities and injuries: about 3,000 fatalities (-14%), and about 50,000 injuries (-6%) per year.In Europe, Electronic Stability Control Systems is mandatory for all vehicles (since Nov. 1st, 2011 for new types of vehicle and Nov. 1st, 2014 for all new vehicles), including Commercial Vehicles, Buses, Trucks and Trailers.On 2015, NHTSA published Federal Motor Vehicle Safety Standard (FMVSS) No. 136, Electronic Stability Control systems for heavy vehicles, requiring Electronic Stability Control (ESC) systems on truck tractors and buses with a gross vehicle weight rating greater than 11,793 kilograms (26,000 pounds) for implementation in 2017.In South America, CONTRAN Resolution 641/2016 establishes mandatory installation of Electronic Stability and Rollover Control in Commercial…
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Estimation of Side Slip Angle Interacting Multiple Bicycle Models Approach for Vehicle Stability Control

Andong National University-Bongchoon Jang
Chassis R&D-Youngjin Hyun
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents an Interacting Multiple Model (IMM) based side slip angle estimation method to estimate side slip angle under various road conditions for vehicle stability control. Knowledge of the side slip angle is essential enhancing vehicle handling and stability. For the estimation of the side slip angles in previous researches, prior knowledge of tire parameters and road conditions have been employed, and sometimes additional sensors have been needed. These prior knowledge and additional sensors, however, necessitates many efforts and make an application of the estimation algorithm difficult. In this paper, side slip angle has been estimated using on-board vehicle sensors such as yaw rate and lateral acceleration sensors. The proposed estimation algorithm integrates the estimates from multiple Kalman filters based on the multiple models with different parameter set. The IMM approach enables a side slip angle estimation from originally equipped vehicle sensors without prior knowledge of tire and road. The proposed estimation algorithm is evaluated via vehicle tests in electronic control unit level. The results have shown that the proposed estimator can successfully estimate…
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