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Optimal Cooperative Path Planning Considering Driving Intention for Shared Control

Hunan University-Mingjun Li, Xiao-lin Song, Haotian Cao
University of Waterloo-Dongpu Cao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0111
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Shared control is the solution that incorporates the capabilities of the human driver and the automated driving system together, and has received increasing attention in recent studies. This paper presents an optimal cooperative path planning method for shared control to address the target path conflicts during the driver-automation interaction by using the convex optimization technique based on the natural cubic spline and the driving intention recognition. The optimal path criteria (e.g. the optimal curvature, the optimal heading angle) are formulated as quadratic forms using the natural cubic spline, and the initial normal distance to the center lane of the cooperative path in the Fernet-based coordinate system is induced by considering the driver’s lane-changing intention utilized by the Support Vector Machine (SVM) method. Then, the optimal cooperative path could be obtained by the convex optimization technical. The noncooperative game theory is adopted to model the driver-automation interaction in this shared control framework, where the Nash equilibrium solution is derived by the model predictive control (MPC) approach. Finally, the proposed framework is tested with different driver’s driving…
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Modeling and Real-time Simulation Analysis of Path Planning and Tracking Control for Autonomous Vehicle with Avoidance of Multiple Obstacles

Wuhan Univ of Technology-Xuexun Guo, Xiaofei Pei, Jiaxing Yu
Wuhan Univ. of Technology-Wei Zhou
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0119
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Path planning and tracking control for autonomous vehicle is an important part, which can provide and implement safe and comfortable routes based on environmental information, the capability of actuators and objective drivability for vehicle. From the perspective of driving safety, a basic framework for smart car path planning and tracking control with multi-obstacle obstacle avoidance is proposed to achieve both steering stability, driving safety and comfort requirements simultaneously. This paper mainly focuses on the modeling and real-time simulation experiments of path planning and tracking control for autonomous vehicle, which considers the dynamics and kinematic constraints of the vehicle. Firstly, based on the static and dynamic multi-obstacle for off-road scenes, the rapidly exploring random tree(RRT) algorithm are optimized by target searching and pruning . The path tracking task is completed by combining the feedback of feedforward and sliding mode control, which is verified through the 8-shaped working condition. Then, the discrete points of the safety route are given by the path plan which are fitted with five splines, and transmitted to the underlying controller to achieve…
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BOLT, SPLINE DRIVE, EXTENDED WASHER, REDUCED SHANK, AMS5662 (UNS N07718), 1275 MPa UTS, METRIC

E-25 General Standards for Aerospace and Propulsion Systems
  • Aerospace Standard
  • MA4147A
  • Current
Published 2019-12-27 by SAE International in United States

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Definition and Measurement of Torque Biasing Differentials

Drivetrain Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2817_201908
  • Current
Published 2019-08-26 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice covers passive torque biasing axle and center differentials used in passenger car and light truck applications. Differentials are of the bevel gear, helical gear, and planetary types, although other configurations are possible.
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Wrenches, Twelve Spline, Metric

EG-1B Hand Tools Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • MA1547A
  • Current
Published 2019-05-10 by SAE International in United States
This standard covers the design, performance, and test requirements for high strength, thin wall, commercial sockets, universal sockets, and box wrenches used for the attachment and detachment of metric spline drive, high strength, and high temperature aircraft fasteners. Inclusion of dimensional data in this standard is not intended to imply that all of the products described herein are stock production sizes. Consumers are requested to consult with manufacturers concerning lists of stock production sizes. This standard is based on, but not limited to, the following external spline wrenching system:
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Study of Wrenching Engagement on AS870C Double Hexagon (12 Point) Fasteners

EG-1B Hand Tools Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR1936A
  • Current
Published 2019-05-10 by SAE International in United States
This study addresses the adequacy of sockets, wrenches, and torque adapters conforming to AS954 to wrench 12 point fasteners with wrenching configurations conforming to AS870C. Reported wrenching problems with smaller sizes are investigated through examining the combined tolerances on the fasteners and wrenches, conducting torque testing on typical high strength lock nuts. Possible solutions to correct these wrenching problems are presented.
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Wrench Configuration, 12 Spline Drive, Metric

EG-1B Hand Tools Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • MA1586A
  • Current
Published 2019-05-10 by SAE International in United States
No Abstract Available.
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Bolts, Screws, and Nuts - External Wrenching, Metric Threads - Design Parameters for

E-25 General Standards for Aerospace and Propulsion Systems
  • Aerospace Standard
  • MA1518C
  • Current
Published 2019-05-03 by SAE International in United States
To fully define the following requirements for bolts with spline and hexagon heads of strength class up to but not including 1250 MPa: a Head dimensions (see 3.1) b Shank dimensions (see 3.2) c Geometric control (see 3.3) d Surface texture (see 3.4) This document is based on one class of thread after all processing, including coating or plating, has been completed as follows: tolerance class 4h6h. For particulars of thread, see AS1370. For thread runout and lead threads, see AS3062. To fully define the following requirements for nuts with spline, plain hexagon and castellated configurations of strength class up to and including 1100 MPa: a Nut dimensions (see 4.1) b Geometric control (see 4.2) c Surface texture (see 4.3) For particulars of threads, see AS1370. This document is based on the following classes of internal threads after all processing, including coating or plating, has been completed: Tolerance class 4H6H for sizes up to and including 5 mm Tolerance class 4H5H for size 6 mm and larger For particulars of thread, see AS1370.
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Carburizing and Heat Treatment of Carburizing Grade Steel Parts

AMS B Finishes Processes and Fluids Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS2759/7D
  • Current
Published 2019-04-15 by SAE International in United States
This specification, in conjunction with the general requirements for steel heat treatment covered in AMS2759, establishes the requirements and procedures for three classes of gas, vacuum, liquid, and low pressure (LPC) carburizing and related heat treatment of parts fabricated from carburizing grade steels. Parts made from steels other than those specified in the detail specifications may be heat treated in accordance with the applicable requirements using processing temperatures, times, and other parameters recommended by the material producer unless otherwise specified by the purchaser. This specification does not cover pack carburizing.
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Customer Oriented Vehicle Dynamics Assessment for Autonomous Driving in Highway

Centro Ricerche Fiat-Giovanni Gabiati
Fiat Chrysler Automobiles-Silvio Data
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Autonomous Driving is one of the main subjects of academic research and one important trend in the automotive industry. With the advent of self-driving vehicles, the interest around trajectory planning raises, in particular when a customer-oriented analysis is performed, since more and more the carmakers will have to pay attention to the handling comfort.With that in mind, an experimental approach is proposed to assess the main characteristics of human driving and gain knowledge to enhance quality of autonomous vehicles. Focusing on overtaking maneuvers in a highway environment, four comfort indicators are proposed aiming to capture the key aspects of the chosen paths of a heterogeneous cohort.The analysis of the distribution of these indicators (peak to peak lateral acceleration, RMS lateral acceleration, Smoothness and Jerk) allowed the definition of a human drive profile. These characteristics were then transferred to the simulation environment to create a pseudo-natural trajectory planning strategy, via polynomial fitting and spline optimization. This strategy differs from the standard approach of trajectory planning, where absolute minimums of cost functions are pursued.The polynomial and spline…
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