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Ammonia Measurement Investigation Using Quantum Cascade Laser and Two Different Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Methods

Caterpillar UK Ltd-Richard Barrett, Jim Baxter
Loughborough university-Nilton Li, Ashraf El-Hamalawi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0365
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Most diesel engine exhausts have been fitted with SCR (Selective Catalyst Reduction) in order to reduce NOX (Oxides of Nitrogen) by using NH3 (ammonia). However, both NOX and NH3 have been classified as compounds hazardous for the environment and human health. If the reaction between NOX and NH3 is unbalanced during treatment, it can lead to either NOX or NH3 being released into the environment. Accurate measurement is thus necessary. QCL (Quantum Cascade Laser) and FTIR (Fourier Transform InfraRed) are two methods that have been used to measure NH3 and NOX directly in diesel engine exhausts. However, only a few studies have compared those two methods of NH3 measurement, mainly from diesel engine exhausts. The aim of this paper is to compare the QCL and 2 different FTIR specifications for NH3 measurement directly from diesel engine exhausts under well-controlled laboratory conditions. Researchers have found that as NH3 is reactive, it is absorbed inside the exhaust pipe if the probe location is some distance away from the SCR. The results reported here contradict this and show…
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Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Models to Predict Cetane Number of Different Biodiesels and Their Blends

Indian Institute of Technology-Kiran Raj Bukkarapu, Anand Krishnasamy
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0617
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The ignition quality of a fuel is described by its cetane number. Experimental methods used to determine cetane number employ Co-operative fuel research (CFR) engine and Ignition quality tester (IQT) which are expensive, have less repeatability and require skilled operation, and hence least preferred. There are many prediction models reported, which involve number of double bonds and number of carbon atoms whose determination is not direct. Using models that relate biodiesel composition to its cetane number is limited by the range of esters involved. Hence, a model to predict cetane number of biodiesels that addresses the limitations of the existing models, without ignoring the influence of factors such as degree of unsaturation and number of carbon atoms, is needed. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) could be one such method. Five biodiesels with significant compositional variations were prepared from Camelina, Coconut, Karanja, Linseed and Palm oils, and blended in different volume proportions to arrive at 70 samples. The range of cetane number covered was from 42.2 to 65.4. Peak absorbance of different functional groups of these…
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LOW COST ELECTROMAGNETIC SHIELDING MATERIAL BASED ON POLYPYRROLE-BIO WASTE COMPOSITES

Dongguk University-Ganapathi Nagarajan
Hindustan University-Sheeba Rathina Selvi, Srimathi Krishnaswamy, Puspamitra Panigrahi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0226
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
There is a crucial need of Electromagnetic interference shielding in many of the applications in this digital world with low cost and high efficient shielding materials. Electrically conducting heterocyclic polymer polypyrrole has found its application as an EMI shielding materials due to its conducting property. Electrically conducting polypyrrole (PPy) coated on coconut fibres (coir) with different morphology, were prepared through in-situ chemical polymerization of PPy using strong oxidizing agent like ammonium per sulfate. The synthesized PPy on coconut fibre were characterised using UV-Visible spectrophotometer(UV-VIS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) which confirmed the product formation. The morphology was done using Scanning electron Microscopy(SEM).Thermal studies were performed by Thermo Gravimetric analysis (TGA). The effect of PPy morphology and content in composite with coir on the DC conductivity and shielding effectiveness (SE) were investigated. The shielding effectiveness was calculated theoretically and well matched with the experimental values.
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Durability study of automotive additive manufactured specimens

Colorado Photopolymer Solutions-Amelia Davenport, Neil Cramer
Eastern Michigan University-Forough Zareanshahraki
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0957
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The long term weathering behavior of three different 3D printable, non-stabilized UV cure resin formulations (A and B with thiol-ene, and C with acrylate chemistry) was studied using tensile testing, nano-indentation, and photoacoustic infrared (PAS-FTIR) spectroscopy. To this end, type IV tensile bars were printed from each resin system using a DLP 3D printer, and were post UV-cured under a broad spectrum source. Systems A and C showed a similar trend after weathering - they first experienced an increase in modulus and tensile strength, likely due to additional crosslinking of the residual unreacted species. This increase in mechanical properties was followed by a drop in modulus, tensile strength, and percent elongation due to the over-crosslinking and consequent embrittlement. Sample B, however, showed remarkable retention of the mechanical properties before/after weathering. Nano-indentation results were in good agreement with the tensile properties, showing a similar trend in hardness variations. Although systems A and C outperformed system B in photooxidation performance, all three systems demonstrated promising results considering no hindered amine light stabilizers (HALS) were used in the…
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A Study on the Performance Deterioration of SCR for Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles

Department of Automotive Engineering, Kookmin University-Seangwock Lee
Graduate School of Automotive Engineering, Kookmin Universit-Manjae Kwon, Giyoung Park, Hyunjae Lim, Jungjun Kim
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2235
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
In this study, a six litres displacement, commercial vehicle engine that meets the EURO-5 regulation was used to evaluate the durability and performance deterioration of the SCR system mounted on a heavy-duty diesel vehicle. ESC and ETC modes were used for emission test. Characteristics of emissions by SCR catalyst deterioration were investigated using mileage vehicles of 0 km, 120,000 km, and 360,000 km. EDS (Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy) analysis on PM filters and CT scan to catalyst substrate were carried out in order to investigate the status of catalyst by each mileage. As a result, it was found that NOX, slipped NH3 as well as PM due to unreacted ammonia and urea increased as the mileage of the catalyst increased.
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A New Methodology to Study the Mechanisms of Combustion-Chamber Deposit Formation and the Effects of Engine Parameters on the Quantity and Morphology of Combustion-Chamber Deposits

IFP Energies Nouvelles, 1 et 4 avenue de Bois-Préau, 92852 R-L. Ganeau, M. Alves Fortunato, G. Pilla, G. Bruneaux
Institute for Combustion and Gas Dynamics – Reactive Fluids,-C. Schulz
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2355
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
In this work, a methodology is developed to study engine deposit formation mechanisms. It relies on analyzing the deposit with electron microscopy for morphology and infrared absorption spectroscopy for identifying typical chemical functions. Two lab-scale experiments are used to calibrate these measurement techniques by creating deposits through the two main phases: liquid film and soot deposition. To test this methodology, an optical engine is used to create a library of deposits. Two main deposit morphologies are found: a homogeneous underlayer as well as soot-like agglomerates. The underlayer is attributed to a fuel-film mechanism whereas the latter is attributed to particles formed through the combustion process. The influence of engine parameters, such as injection phasing and cooling temperature, on the quantity and morphology of the deposits is studied. Various substrate materials, such as quartz, sapphire, aluminum, and steel were used on the piston surface to investigate the materials influence on the morphology, the composition, and the quantity of the deposits.
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The performance and mechanisms of organic polymeric friction modifiers in low viscosity engine oils

Croda Europe Ltd-Gareth Moody, John Eastwood
Croda Japan-Keiko Ueno
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2204
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
The requirement of OEMs to reduce CO2 emissions is leading to a reduction in viscosity of engine oils with 0W20 approved oils now common. 0W 16 approvals are growing in popularity and will be further supported in the US by the introduction of ILSAC GF-6B. Japanese OEMs are driving the development of 0W- 12 and 0W08 grades which will be supported by JASO GLV-1. These low viscosity engine oils can contain MoDTC with very high levels of 1000+ppm molybdenum to achieve the fuel economy improvement required to pass engine tests such as Sequence VIE. Molybdenum usage at this level contributes to sulphated ash increase. It can also have a negative impact on deposits.This paper examines the performance and mechanism of two ashless polymeric friction modifiers in a 0W20 formulation. These polymeric friction modifiers have been shown to give fuel economy benefits in Sequence VIE engine tests. The aim of this work is to better understand the influence and interaction of these polymeric friction modifiers in the presence of ZDDP as well as other additives, in…
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Mechanical and Metallurgical Analysis of HSLA Steel for Gas Tungsten Arc Welding with Different Shielding Gases

CSI College of Engineering-Dhanraj Gurusamy, Prashanth Murthy, Senthilkumar Ramakrishnan, Sivakumar Nanjappan
Sri Krishna College of Engineering and Technology-Soundararajan Ranganathan
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The special designed HSLA (High Speed Low Alloy) Steel is most commonly used in Naval Steel Structures and aircraft structures due to its indigenous properties. The aim of this paper is used to investigate the effect of shielding gases in the Gas Tungsten Arc Welding process. DMR 249A [HSLA] plates were welded by GTAW by using helium and argon as shielding gas with a flow rate of 16 L/min, the interpass temperature is 140 degree Celsius and the heat input is less than 1.2KJ/min where the impact toughness, Tensile and micro hardness was studied with different shielding gas and the metallurgical properties were analysed in the base metal, heat affected zones and weld zones. A detailed study has been carried out to analyze the elements using Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. The properties of the high speed low alloy steel carried out reveals a better mechanical properties suitable in naval applications.
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Investigation on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Corrosion Resistance Alloy C-2000 Fabricated by Conventional Arc Welding Technique

Hawassa University-Sivan Rajkumar
KPR Institute of Engg and Technology-Balasubramanian Arulmurugan
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
In the current work the metallurgical and tensile properties of the weld joints of alloy C-2000 were investigated. Welding technique employed in this study is Tungsten Inert Gas Welding (TIG) and Pulsed Current Tungsten Inert Gas (PC-TIG) welding with autogenous mode and Ni-Cr-Mo rich ERNiCrMo-10 filler wire. The results show that PC-TIG weldment obtained the refined microstructure compared to the TIG weldment. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) showed the extent of Cr segregation was observed in all the weldments. PC-TIG welding shows reduced segregation compared to the corresponding TIG. X-ray diffraction (XRD) corroborated the existence of Ni3Cr2 phases in the weld fusion zone. Tensile test results show the PC-TIG weldment obtained marginally higher tensile properties comparing over the corresponding TIG weldment. The strength of the weldments is inferior in all cases in comparison to base metal.
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Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Organic Particulate Matter from Exhaust After-Treatment System of Euro 6 Diesel Engine Operating at Full Load

FPT Motorenforschung AG-Wolfgang Gstrein, Konstantinos Priftis
Istituto Motori-CNR-Ezio Mancaruso, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0053
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The current legislation does not take into account the limitation of sub 23 nm particles from engine. Nevertheless, the Common Rail Diesel engine emits a large number of nanoparticle, solid and volatiles, that are very dangerous for human health. In this contest, the challenge of the “dieper EU project” is to apply advanced technologies for exhaust after-treatment to existing diesel engines and to optimize the characteristics of a new generation of engines with regards to emissions, fuel consumption and drivability.Aim of the present paper is to provide useful information for the development of the after-treatment system that will have to fulfill Euro6 further steps. In order to characterize the chemical and physical nature of Particulate Matter emitted from Euro 6b Medium Duty diesel engine, the pollutants were collected and analyzed: from engine-out, downstream of the particulate filter (DPF), and at the exit of a selective catalytic reactor (SCR). An array of chemical, physical and spectroscopic techniques (Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), mobility analyzer, UV-visible absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy) was applied for characterizing the…
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