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A Study on the Performance Deterioration of SCR for Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles

Department of Automotive Engineering, Kookmin University-Seangwock Lee
Graduate School of Automotive Engineering, Kookmin Universit-Manjae Kwon, Giyoung Park, Hyunjae Lim, Jungjun Kim
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2235
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
In this study, a six litres displacement, commercial vehicle engine that meets the EURO-5 regulation was used to evaluate the durability and performance deterioration of the SCR system mounted on a heavy-duty diesel vehicle. ESC and ETC modes were used for emission test. Characteristics of emissions by SCR catalyst deterioration were investigated using mileage vehicles of 0 km, 120,000 km, and 360,000 km. EDS (Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy) analysis on PM filters and CT scan to catalyst substrate were carried out in order to investigate the status of catalyst by each mileage. As a result, it was found that NOX, slipped NH3 as well as PM due to unreacted ammonia and urea increased as the mileage of the catalyst increased.
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A New Methodology to Study the Mechanisms of Combustion-Chamber Deposit Formation and the Effects of Engine Parameters on the Quantity and Morphology of Combustion-Chamber Deposits

IFP Energies Nouvelles, 1 et 4 avenue de Bois-Préau, 92852 R-L. Ganeau, M. Alves Fortunato, G. Pilla, G. Bruneaux
Institute for Combustion and Gas Dynamics – Reactive Fluids,-C. Schulz
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2355
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
In this work, a methodology is developed to study engine deposit formation mechanisms. It relies on analyzing the deposit with electron microscopy for morphology and infrared absorption spectroscopy for identifying typical chemical functions. Two lab-scale experiments are used to calibrate these measurement techniques by creating deposits through the two main phases: liquid film and soot deposition. To test this methodology, an optical engine is used to create a library of deposits. Two main deposit morphologies are found: a homogeneous underlayer as well as soot-like agglomerates. The underlayer is attributed to a fuel-film mechanism whereas the latter is attributed to particles formed through the combustion process. The influence of engine parameters, such as injection phasing and cooling temperature, on the quantity and morphology of the deposits is studied. Various substrate materials, such as quartz, sapphire, aluminum, and steel were used on the piston surface to investigate the materials influence on the morphology, the composition, and the quantity of the deposits.
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The performance and mechanisms of organic polymeric friction modifiers in low viscosity engine oils

Croda Europe Ltd-Gareth Moody, John Eastwood
Croda Japan-Keiko Ueno
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2204
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
The requirement of OEMs to reduce CO2 emissions is leading to a reduction in viscosity of engine oils with 0W20 approved oils now common. 0W 16 approvals are growing in popularity and will be further supported in the US by the introduction of ILSAC GF-6B. Japanese OEMs are driving the development of 0W- 12 and 0W08 grades which will be supported by JASO GLV-1. These low viscosity engine oils can contain MoDTC with very high levels of 1000+ppm molybdenum to achieve the fuel economy improvement required to pass engine tests such as Sequence VIE. Molybdenum usage at this level contributes to sulphated ash increase. It can also have a negative impact on deposits.This paper examines the performance and mechanism of two ashless polymeric friction modifiers in a 0W20 formulation. These polymeric friction modifiers have been shown to give fuel economy benefits in Sequence VIE engine tests. The aim of this work is to better understand the influence and interaction of these polymeric friction modifiers in the presence of ZDDP as well as other additives, in…
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Mechanical and Metallurgical Analysis of HSLA Steel for Gas Tungsten Arc Welding with Different Shielding Gases

CSI College of Engineering-Dhanraj Gurusamy, Prashanth Murthy, Senthilkumar Ramakrishnan, Sivakumar Nanjappan
Sri Krishna College of Engineering and Technology-Soundararajan Ranganathan
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The special designed HSLA (High Speed Low Alloy) Steel is most commonly used in Naval Steel Structures and aircraft structures due to its indigenous properties. The aim of this paper is used to investigate the effect of shielding gases in the Gas Tungsten Arc Welding process. DMR 249A [HSLA] plates were welded by GTAW by using helium and argon as shielding gas with a flow rate of 16 L/min, the interpass temperature is 140 degree Celsius and the heat input is less than 1.2KJ/min where the impact toughness, Tensile and micro hardness was studied with different shielding gas and the metallurgical properties were analysed in the base metal, heat affected zones and weld zones. A detailed study has been carried out to analyze the elements using Scanning Electron Microscopy and Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) analysis. The properties of the high speed low alloy steel carried out reveals a better mechanical properties suitable in naval applications.
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Investigation on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of Corrosion Resistance Alloy C-2000 Fabricated by Conventional Arc Welding Technique

Hawassa University-Sivan Rajkumar
KPR Institute of Engg and Technology-Balasubramanian Arulmurugan
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
In the current work the metallurgical and tensile properties of the weld joints of alloy C-2000 were investigated. Welding technique employed in this study is Tungsten Inert Gas Welding (TIG) and Pulsed Current Tungsten Inert Gas (PC-TIG) welding with autogenous mode and Ni-Cr-Mo rich ERNiCrMo-10 filler wire. The results show that PC-TIG weldment obtained the refined microstructure compared to the TIG weldment. Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) showed the extent of Cr segregation was observed in all the weldments. PC-TIG welding shows reduced segregation compared to the corresponding TIG. X-ray diffraction (XRD) corroborated the existence of Ni3Cr2 phases in the weld fusion zone. Tensile test results show the PC-TIG weldment obtained marginally higher tensile properties comparing over the corresponding TIG weldment. The strength of the weldments is inferior in all cases in comparison to base metal.
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Chemical and Physical Characteristics of Organic Particulate Matter from Exhaust After-Treatment System of Euro 6 Diesel Engine Operating at Full Load

FPT Motorenforschung AG-Wolfgang Gstrein, Konstantinos Priftis
Istituto Motori-CNR-Ezio Mancaruso, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0053
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The current legislation does not take into account the limitation of sub 23 nm particles from engine. Nevertheless, the Common Rail Diesel engine emits a large number of nanoparticle, solid and volatiles, that are very dangerous for human health. In this contest, the challenge of the “dieper EU project” is to apply advanced technologies for exhaust after-treatment to existing diesel engines and to optimize the characteristics of a new generation of engines with regards to emissions, fuel consumption and drivability.Aim of the present paper is to provide useful information for the development of the after-treatment system that will have to fulfill Euro6 further steps. In order to characterize the chemical and physical nature of Particulate Matter emitted from Euro 6b Medium Duty diesel engine, the pollutants were collected and analyzed: from engine-out, downstream of the particulate filter (DPF), and at the exit of a selective catalytic reactor (SCR). An array of chemical, physical and spectroscopic techniques (Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), mobility analyzer, UV-visible absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy) was applied for characterizing the…
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Detecting Chemical Weapons Using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35165
Published 2019-09-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Chemical Warfare Agents (CWA) are a class of Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD) designed to kill and injure humans through exposure to extremely toxic chemicals. In addition to CWA many chemicals used by industry, often referred to as Toxic Industrial Chemicals (TICS) can potentially be used by terrorists as weapons.

Matrix-Free Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Using Metal-Organic Frameworks

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34534
Published 2019-06-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) is a soft ionization technique that is widely applied in the characterization of large biomolecules using various mass spectrometry (MS) analyzers, specifically, time-of-flight (TOF) analyzers. The MALDI process involves the deposition of an analyte solution onto a metal substrate before the addition of a matrix. The matrix/analyte dry spot is exposed to a UV laser, and the laser energy that is absorbed by the matrix/analyte is converted into heat energy that initiates charge transfer, which results in the desorption of the matrix and analyte molecules in ionized form. The positive ions are then accelerated through a vacuum into MS analyses.

Systems and Methods for Correcting Optical Reflectance Measurements

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34625
Published 2019-06-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Optical spectroscopy can be used to determine the concentration of chemical species in samples. The amount of light absorbed by a particular chemical species is often linearly related to its concentration through Beer’s Law. For nontransparent materials such as powders, tablets, natural materials (soil), blood, skin, and muscle, optical information can be collected via diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.

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Matrix-Free Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Using Metal-Organic Frameworks

Aerospace & Defense Technology: June 2019

  • Magazine Article
  • 19AERP06_10
Published 2019-06-01 by SAE International in United States

Army Research, Development and Engineering Command, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) is a soft ionization technique that is widely applied in the characterization of large biomolecules using various mass spectrometry (MS) analyzers, specifically, time-of-flight (TOF) analyzers. The MALDI process involves the deposition of an analyte solution onto a metal substrate before the addition of a matrix. The matrix/analyte dry spot is exposed to a UV laser, and the laser energy that is absorbed by the matrix/analyte is converted into heat energy that initiates charge transfer, which results in the desorption of the matrix and analyte molecules in ionized form. The positive ions are then accelerated through a vacuum into MS analyses.

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