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Experimental Investigations on Engine-Out Emissions Sensitivity to Fuel Injection Pressure of a High-Performance DISI Single Cylinder Engine

Ferrari S.p.A.-Vincenzo Rossi, Nicola Silvestri, Massimo Medda
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0169
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
In recent times complying with increasingly stringent emission regulations has become ever more challenging. While an efficient after-treatment system that includes gasoline particulate filter enables compliance with legislation requirements, lowering engine-out emissions by improving combustion system has to be considered as a crucial advantage not only in regard to pollutants emission control, but also performance. In this respect, high-performance enabling contents such as relatively large displacement, flow-capacity oriented intake ports and a limited stroke-to-bore ratio have significant drawbacks on the charge motion quality and as direct consequence on mixture formation and homogeneity. As a countermeasure, fuel injection system components as well as control strategies need to be substantially improved; on the control side the increase of fuel injection pressure coupled with optimized injection timing and splitting, has proved to be effective in reducing emissions, with special regard to particulate matter. This paper provides results of an experimental study investigating the effect of different fuel injection strategies on engine-out emissions, with special emphasis on the influence of very high fuel injection pressures (up to 50 MPa)…

Optical Investigation of Mixture Formation in a Small Bore DISI Engine by Laser Induced Exciplex Fluorescence (LIEF)

Technische Univ. Braunschweig-Alexander Pauls, Peter Eilts
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0133
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Legislative and customer demands in terms of fuel consumption and emissions are an enormous challenge for the development of modern combustion engines. Downsizing in combination with turbocharging and direct injection is one way to increase efficiency and therefore meet the requirements. This results in a reduction of the displacement and thus the bore diameter. The application of direct injection with small cylinder dimensions increases the probability of the interaction of liquid fuel with the cylinder walls, which may result in disadvantages concerning especially particulate emissions. This leads to the question which bore diameter is feasible without drawbacks concerning emissions as a result of wall wetting. The emerging trends towards long-stroke engine design and hybridization make the use of small bore diameters in future gasoline engines a realistic scenario. In the previous project “GDI Boundary Bore” the feasibility of an SI engine with direct injection and small bore diameter was shown by the analyses of two different cylinder head concepts (3V and 4V). For the acquirement of deeper understanding of the mixture formation in such engines…

Analysis of Water Injection Strategies to Exploit the Thermodynamic Effects of Water in Gasoline Engines by Means of a 3D-CFD Virtual Test Bench

Brandenburg Univ of Technology-Tim Franken, Corinna Netzer
FKFS Stuttgart-Marco Chiodi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0102
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
CO2 emission constraints taking effect from 2020 lead to further investigations of technologies to lower knock sensitivity of gasoline engines, main limiting factor to increase engine efficiency and thus reduce fuel consumption. Moreover the RDE cycle demands for higher power operation, where fuel enrichment is needed for component protection. To achieve high efficiency, the engine should be run at stoichiometric conditions in order to have better emission control and reduce fuel consumption. Among others, water injection is a promising technology to improve engine combustion efficiency, by mainly reducing knock sensitivity and to keep high conversion rates of the TWC over the whole engine map. The comprehension of multiple thermodynamic effects of water injection through 3D-CFD simulations and their exploitation to enhance the engine combustion efficiency is the main purpose of the analysis. As basis for the research a single cylinder engine derived from a 1l turbocharged 3-cylinders engine is used to evaluate indirect and direct water injection. The entire engine flow field is reproduced and analyzed with 3D-CFD simulations and numerical models are employed to…

Water Injection Contribution to Enabling Stoichiometric Air-to-Fuel Ratio Operation at Rated Power Conditions of a High-Performance DISI Single Cylinder Engine

Ferrari SpA-Stefano Paltrinieri, Fabio Mortellaro, Nicola Silvestri, Massimo Medda, Daire Corrigan
Politecnico di Torino-Luciano Rolando
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0173
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The next generation of gasoline turbo-charged engines will have to deal with the continuous tightening of emissions regulations. In fact, to better represent real-world CO2 figures, WLTP and RDE cycles focus on stricter criteria; spanning higher speeds and loads potentially covering the whole engine operating map. It is common practice at present to use overfueling to avoid catastrophic failure of turbine and aftertreatment systems at very high engine speeds and loads due to excessive temperatures. A past technology, which is presently enjoying a resurgence of interest, is water injection. In particular for high-specific-power applications, this could be used as replacement strategy for overfueling, potentially enabling full operating range stoichiometric operation with no compromise in terms of maximum performance with respect to today. In order to validate this scenario, an experimental campaign on a single cylinder engine has been carried out to highlight port water injection benefits and possible limitations at high engine speed and loads. A dedicated port injector has been characterized in a spray bomb and 3D-CFD simulations have been performed with the goal…

Ultra-Lean Pre-Chamber Gasoline Engine for Future Hybrid Powertrains

FEV Europe GmbH-Knut Habermann
IFP Energies Nouvelles, Institut Carnot IFPEN TE-David Serrano, Jean-Marc Zaccardi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0104
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Lean burn gasoline spark-ignition engines can support the reduction of CO2 emissions for future hybrid passenger cars. Very high efficiencies and very low NOx raw emissions can be achieved, if relative air/fuel ratios (lambda) of 2 and above can be reached. The biggest challenge here is to assure a reliable ignition process and to enhance the fuel oxidation in order to achieve a short burn duration and a good stability for the combustion. This article aims at introducing an innovative combustion system fully optimized for ultra-lean operation and very high efficiency. Thereto, a new cylinder head concept has been realized with high peak firing pressure capability and with a low surface-to-volume ratio at high compression ratios. 1D and 3D simulations have been performed to optimize the compression ratio, charge motion and intake valve lift. Numerical calculations also supported the development of the ignition system. Stable ignition and fast flame propagation were achieved thanks to a centrally located active pre-chamber which allows to control the air/fuel ratio independently of the air/fuel ratio in the main combustion…

The Ultra Low Emissions Potential of the Recuperated Split Cycle Combustion System

Dolphin N2 Ltd-Nicholas Owen
Ricardo UK Ltd-Rhys Pickett, Andrew Atkins
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0189
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The recuperated split cycle engine is a fundamentally new class of internal combustion engine that offers a step change is thermal efficiency over conventional Otto and Diesel cycle engines – 50% brake thermal efficiency in its simplest form, approaching 60% with intensively cooled compression. The technology targets the heavy duty, long-haul sector where electrification is most challenging. In a split cycle engine, the compression and expansion strokes are performed in different cylinders. Waste exhaust heat is recovered between the compression and combustion cylinders via a recuperator which gives precise control of the charge temperature. Recent experimental and analytical research has shown the split cycle combustion system also has the potential to achieve ultra-low emissions. Experimental studies on a one litre single cylinder research engine, representative of a typical medium duty truck engine have showed engine out NOx emissions of less than 110ppm at mid speed – mid load, typical of a motorway cruise condition. Rigorous analysis of the impact of applying an SCR based aftertreatment system showed tailpipe NOx emissions of less than 5ppm are…

Experimental Assessment of Ozone Addition Potential in Direct Injection Compression Ignition Engines

IFP Energies nouvelles-Institut Carnot-Michele Bardi, Guillaume Pilla, Mickaël Matrat
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0118
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The potential of ozone addition in compression ignition engines is investigated experimentally in this paper. Experiments were carried out in an optically accessible single cylinder engine equipped with a common rail direct injection system. A commercially available ozone generator (P <100W) was used to add to the intake flow a controlled amount of ozone. EU Diesel fuel (CN 54) and a Naphtha fuel (CN 33) were tested investigating the impact of Ozone in conventional diesel combustion and LTC cases (e.g. high EGR rate). Minimal ozone concentration in the intake flow (10 ppm) demonstrated to reduce significantly the ignition delay. However, the impact observed strongly depends on the engine conditions tested and, in general, this effect observed becomes significant in conditions characterized by a long ignition delay: low intake temperature, high dilution, and low CN fuel. Significant practical benefits of ozone addition were found for engine cold-start, where ozone yields a significant reduction in misfire events during the first cycle and a faster stabilization of the combustion phasing and a reduction of the UHC produced in…

Analysis of the Effect of the Sampling Conditions on the Sub-23nm Particles Emitted by a Small Displacement PFI and DI SI Engines Fuelled with Gasoline and Ethanol

Istituto Motori CNR-Silvana Di Iorio, Francesco Catapano, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
UNIVERSITÀ DEGLI STUDI DEL SANNIO-Gaetano Continillo, Gianmarco Petito
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0155
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The growing concerns on the emission of particles smaller than 23 nm, which are harmful to human health, lead to the necessity of introducing a regulation for these particles not yet included in the current emission standards. Considering that measurements of concentration of sub-23nm particles are particularly sensitive to the sampling conditions, it is important to identify an effective assessment procedure. Aim of this paper is the characterization of the effect of the sampling conditions on sub-23nm particles, emitted by PFI and DI spark ignition engines fuelled with gasoline, ethanol and a mixture of ethanol and gasoline (E20). The experimental activity was carried out on a 250 cm3 displacement single cylinder engine, four stroke equipped with a prototype gasoline direct injection (GDI) head. The tests were conducted at 2000 rpm and 4000 rpm full load, representative of the homologation urban driving cycle. The combustion process was characterized by the analysis of the in-cylinder pressure, from which the Rate Of Heat Release and the Indicated Mean Effective Pressure were calculated. Particulate emissions were characterized in terms…

A New Approach for Development of a High-Performance Intake Manifold for a Single-Cylinder Engine Used in Formula SAE Application

SAE International Journal of Engines

VIT University, India-Venugopal Thangavel, Anubhav Routray
  • Journal Article
  • 03-12-04-0027
Published 2019-07-26 by SAE International in United States
The Formula SAE (FSAE) is an international engineering competition where a Formula style race car is designed and built by students from worldwide universities. According to FSAE regulation, an air restrictor with circular cross section of 20 mm for gasoline-fuelled and 19 mm for E-85-fuelled vehicles is to be incorporated between the throttle valve and engine inlet. The sole purpose of this regulation is to limit the airflow to the engine used. The only sequence allowed is throttle valve, restrictor and engine inlet. A new approach of combining ram theory and acoustic theory methods are investigated to increase the performance of the engine by designing an optimized intake runner for a particular engine speed range and an optimized plenum volume in this range. Engine performance characteristics such as brake power, brake torque and volumetric efficiency are taken into considerations. Ricardo Wave simulation software is used to evaluate the impacts of plenum volume and runner length on engine performance based on the afore-mentioned performance characteristics. Various intake manifold designs are iterated in accordance with the surface…

Control of the Effective Pressure in the Cylinder of a Spark-Ignition Engine by Electromagnetic Valve Actuator

Opole University of Technology-Jaroslaw Mamala, Mariusz Graba, Krzysztof Prażnowski, Krystian Hennek cEng.
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Internal combustion engines of vehicles which are equipped with classic drivetrains are mostly operating in variable load conditions. This fact especially refers to city driving, where the vehicle speeds are lower than in highway driving, but the accelerations are more frequent and intensive. The efficiency of the engine’s work is among others a load- and crankshaft rotation speed dependent parameter. Generally in low load conditions the efficiency of the engine is low, and in high load the efficiency is high. The authors conducted a series of road tests, searching for ranges of engine power most commonly used in urban traffic, adopting economical, dynamic and balanced driving strategies. In all strategies the passenger vehicle engine was most frequently operating in low power (and low efficiency) conditions. One of the ways to improve the efficiency of an IC engine is to raise its compression ratio (CR). However, high CR in spark ignition engines can be the reason of engine knock in high load and crankshaft rotation speed conditions. Therefore it would be favorable, that high CR would…
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