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The Virtual Engine Development for Enhancing the Compression Ratio of DISI-Engines by Means of Water Injection and Variable Valve Timing

FKFS-Antonino Vacca, Francesco Cupo, Marco Chiodi, Michael Bargende
Ford Werke GmbH-Oliver Berkemeier, Maziar Khosravi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0010
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
With the aim of significantly reducing emissions, while keeping CO2 production under control, gasoline engines are faced with a new challenge to survive the constraints imposed by the RDE cycles. Current downsized engines are developed with the most recent techniques for increasing efficiency, such as high direct injection pressure, selective valve actuation, variable turbine geometry, and innovative thermal management system. The factor limiting their further step towards enhanced efficiency is the onset of abnormal combustion process. Therefore the challenge for the further boost of modern engine efficiency is the improvement of the combustion process. Different combustion technics such as HCCI and the employment of pre-chamber have been investigated, but the possibility of effectively use them in a wide range of the engine map, by fulfilling at the same time the needing of fast load control are still limiting their dissemination. For these reasons the technologies for improving the characteristics of a standard combustion process are still deeply investigated. Among these water injection in combination with either early or late intake valve closing offers the possibility…
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Experimental Study of Additive-Manufacturing-Enabled Innovative Diesel Combustion Bowl Features for Achieving Ultra-low Emissions and High Efficiency

GM Global Propulsion Systems-Giacomo Belgiorno, Andrea Boscolo, Gennaro Dileo, Fabio Numidi, Francesco Concetto Pesce, Alberto Vassallo
Istituto Motori CNR-Roberto Ianniello, Carlo Beatrice, Gabriele Di Blasio
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0003
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
In recent years the research on Diesel thermodynamics has been increasingly shifting from performance and refinement to ultra-low emissions and efficiency. In fact, the last two attributes are key for the powertrain competitiveness in the automotive electrified future, especially in European market where 95gCO2/km fleet average and Euro6d RDE Step2 are phasing in at the same time. The present paper describes some of the most innovative research that GM and Istituto Motori Napoli are performing in the field, exploring how the steel additive manufacturing can be used to create innovative combustion bowl features that optimize the combustion process to a level that was not compatible with standard manufacturing technologies. In particular, an innovative highly-reentrant sharp-stepped profile featuring radial-lips has been studied on a 0.5l single-cylinder engine, coupled to a state of art 2500bar fast-acting fuel injection system, with the objective to demonstrate the full potential of optimized fuel stratification and spray separation enabled by the radial mixing zone concept. The results confirm that excellent reduction of engine-out emissions vs a Euro6-b design could be achieved…
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Is the “K Value” of an Engine Truly Fuel Independent?

Nissan Motor Co., Ltd.-Masaharu Kassai, Taisuke Shiraishi
Shell Global Solutions (Deutschland) GmbH-Sandro Gail
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0615
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The octane appetite of an engine is frequently characterised by the so-called K value. It is usually assumed that K is dependent only on the thermodynamic conditions in the engine when knock occurs, and not dependent on the fuel. In this work we test this hypothesis: further analysis was conducted on experimental results from SAE 2019-01-0035 in which a matrix of fuels was tested in a single cylinder engine. The fuels consisted of a relatively small number of components and the RON and MON were decorrelated. This simplifies the analysis of the chemical kinetic proprieties. It was shown previously that K increases with engine speed because a higher temperature and pressure is reached along the compression isentrope before knock onset. Through dividing the original fuels matrix into subsets, it was possible to explore the variation of K value with fuel properties. It was found that K value tends to increase slightly with RON. The explanation for this finding is that higher RON leads to advanced ignition timing (i.e. closer to MBT conditions) and advanced ignition…
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Experimental and Numerical Assessment of Active Pre-chamber Ignition in Heavy Duty Natural Gas Stationary Engine

Istituto Motori CNR-Gessica Onofrio, Carlo Beatrice
Lund University-Changle Li, Pablo Garcia Valladolid, Per Tunestal
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0819
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Gas engines (fuelled with CNG, LNG or Biogas) for generation of power and heat are, to this date, taking up larger shares of the market with respect to diesel engines. In order to meet the limit imposed by the TA-Luft regulations on stationary engines, lean combustion represents a viable solution for achieving lower emissions as well as efficiency levels comparable with diesel engines. Leaner mixtures however affect the combustion stability as the flame propagation velocity and consequently heat release rate are slowed down. As a strategy to deliver higher ignition energy, an active pre-chamber may be used. This work focuses on assessing the performance of a pre-chamber combustion configuration in a stationary heavy-duty engine for power generation, operating at different loads, air-to-fuel ratios and spark timings. The engine was originally a 6-cylinder compression ignition engine which is here employed as a single cylinder engine and then suitably modified to host the pre-chamber (with its natural gas injection system and spark plug) with a new bowl piston to decrease compression ratio. A 0D model is built…
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Extend Syngas Yield through Increasing Rich Limit by Stratified Air Injection in a Single Cylinder Engine

Southwest Research Institute-Yanyu Wang, Graham Conway, D. Ryan Williams, Christopher Chadwell
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0958
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Dedicated exhaust gas recirculation (D-EGR®) concept developed by Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) has demonstrated a thermal efficiency increase on many spark-ignited engines at both low and high load conditions. The syngas (H2+CO) produced in the dedicated cylinder (D-cyl) by rich combustion helps to stabilize combustion at highly dilute conditions at low loads and mitigate knock at high loads. The dedicated cylinder with 25% EGR can typically run up to equivalence ratio of 1.4, beyond which the combustion becomes unstable. By injecting fresh air near the spark plug gap at globally rich conditions, a locally lean or near-stoichiometric mixture can be achieved, thus facilitating the ignitability of the mixture and increasing combustion stability. With more stable combustion a richer global mixture can be introduced into the D-cyl to generate higher concentrations of syngas. This in turn can further improve the engine thermal efficiency. This study investigated the possibility of extending the rich limit by stratified air injection in a single cylinder engine. A custom modified spark plug with air passage was used to realize stratified air…
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Performance of a Printed Bimetallic (Stainless Steel and Bronze) Engine Head Operating under Stoichiometric and Lean Spark Ignited (SI) Combustion of Natural Gas

Argonne National Laboratory-Munidhar Biruduganti, Douglas Longman
Oak Ridge National Laboratory-Michael Kass, Brian Kaul, John Storey, Amelia Elliott, Derek Siddel
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0770
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Additive manufacturing was used to fabricate a head for an automotive-scale single-cylinder engine operating on natural gas. The head was consisted of a bimetallic composition of stainless steel and bronze. The engine performance using the bimetallic head was compared against the stock cast iron head. The heads were tested at two speeds (1200 and 1800 rpm), two brake mean effective pressures (6 and 10 bar), and two equivalence ratios (0.7 and 1.0). The bimetallic head showed good durability over the test and produced equivalent efficiencies, exhaust temperatures, and heat rejection to the coolant to the stock head. Higher combustion temperatures and advanced combustion phasing resulted from use with the bimetallic head. The implication is that with optimization of the valve timing, an efficiency benefit may be realized with the bimetallic head.
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A Novel Design of Engine Misfire Detection System Suitable for Small Capacity S.I. Engine for Two Wheeled Vehicle

TVS Motor Co., Ltd.-Monika Jayprakash Bagade, Himadri Bhushan Das, Arjun Raveendranath Sr, S Jabez Dhinagar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0267
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
As per the OBD II regulations, it is essential to detect and monitor the misfire event in an I.C. engine. Misfiring of an I.C. engine affects the quality of combustion and degrades the performance of catalyst convertor which can lead to an increase of emissions. Misfire event can be categorized as partial or complete, based on amount of combustion occurred during that particular engine cycle. Most of the production engine for non-two wheeler vehicle identifies misfire by monitoring angular acceleration of the engine crank-shaft. However, single cylinder engine with lower capacity (less than 300 cubic centimeter) provides challenges to identify misfire due to low mechanical inertia of the I.C. engine using the same approach. The problem of misfire identification for this category of I.C. engine turn out to be more challenging due to presence of various load disturbances on the powertrain. Ion current sensing is one of the alternate method to detect misfire, which received good attention during the last decade of the previous century. When the air-fuel mixture ignites inside the I.C. engine cylinder,…
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Evaluation of Trajectory Based Combustion Control for Electrical Free Piston Engine

University of Minnesota-Minal Nahin, Abhinav Tripathi, Zongxuan Sun
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1149
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Previously, the authors have proposed a novel strategy called trajectory based combustion control for the free piston engine (FPE) where the shape of the piston trajectory between top and bottom dead centers is used as a control input to modulate the chemical kinetics of the fuel-air mixture inside the combustion chamber. It has been shown that in case of a hydraulic free piston engine (HFPE), using active motion control, the piston inside the combustion chamber can be forced to track any desired trajectory, despite the absence of a crankshaft, providing reliable starting and stable operation. This allows the use of optimized piston trajectory for every operating point which minimizes fuel consumption and emissions. In this work, this concept is extended to an electrical free piston engine (EFPE) as a modular power source. A dynamic model of a linear electrical free piston engine unit has been developed which consists of a single phase linear generator driven by a single cylinder engine. The linear generator unit not only provides the required electromagnetic force to ensure precise trajectory…
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Impact of Multiple Injection Strategies on Performance and Emissions of Methanol PPC under Low Load Operation

ISAE-ENSMA-Clarisse Pinto Dos Santos
Lund University-Amir Aziz, Martin Tuner
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0556
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
There is growing global interest in using renewable alcohols to reduce the greenhouse gases and the reliance on conventional fossil fuels. Recent studies show that methanol combined with partially premixed combustion provide clear performance and emission benefits compared to conventional diesel diffusion combustion. Nonetheless, high unburned hydrocarbon (HC) and carbon monoxide (CO) emissions can be stated as the main PPC drawback in light load condition when using high octane fuel such as Methanol with single injection strategy. Thus, the present experimental study has been carried out to investigate the influence of multiple injection strategies on the performance and emissions with methanol fuel in partially premixed combustion. Specifically, the main objective is to reduce HC, CO and simultaneously increase the gross indicated efficiency compared to single injection strategy. The work was performed with a single cylinder heavy duty engine, operated at 4 bar gross indicated mean effective pressure, and an engine speed of 1200 rpm. Double and triple injections were implemented with varying dwells, injection timings and fuel mass proportions. The experimental results were analyzed with…
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Virtual Development of Injector Spray Targeting by Coupling 3D-CFD Simulations with Optical Investigations

FKFS-Marco Chiodi
University of Stuttgart-Antonino Vacca, Simon Hummel, Karsten Müller, Marc Reichenbacher, Michael Bargende
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1157
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Further improvements of internal combustion engines to reduce fuel consumption and to face future legislation constraints are strictly related to the study of mixture formation. The reason for that is the desire to supply the engine with homogeneous charge, towards the direction of a global stoichiometric blend in the combustion chamber. Fuel evaporation and thus mixture quality mostly depend on injector atomization features and charge motion within the cylinder. 3D-CFD simulations offer great potential to study not only injector atomization quality but also the evaporation behavior. Nevertheless coupling optical measurements and simulations for injector analysis is an open discussion because of the large number of influencing parameters and interactions affecting the fuel injection’s reproducibility. For this purpose, detailed numerical investigations are used to describe the injection phenomena. These intensive calculations are not advisable considering CFD virtual engine development. It is rather reasonable to find a methodology for a numerical characterization of the fuel injection process that takes into account both macroscopic and microscopic spray properties and to integrate these models into the complete engine simulations.…