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Suppression of Eddy Current Loss in Rectangular Winding of High Power-Density IPMSM Using Concentrated Winding Stator for More Electric Aircraft

Hokkaido University-Sho Manabe, Masatsugu TAKEMOTO
IHI Corporation-Yosuke AKAMATSU, Takehiro JIKUMARU, Fuminori Suzuki, Hitoshi Oyori
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1910
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
In order to respond to worldwide environmental problems such as global warming and demands for saving fuel cost of aircrafts from the aviation industry, researches on More Electric Aircraft (MEA) are actively conducted. Conventional hydraulic, pneumatic, and mechanical power sources from aero engines for flight actuators or auxiliary systems are replaced by electric motors in MEA. Interior permanent magnet synchronous motors (IPMSMs) are widely used in various applications for high power density and high efficiency. It is considered that rectangular windings can greatly improve the slot factor, thereby making it possible to increase the power density of IPMSMs. Additionally, in the concentrated winding stator, the coil end can be made shorter than that of the distributed winding stator, which is possible to downsize the stator in the axial direction. In this paper, a high power density concentrated winding IPMSMs which employs rectangular windings for MEA is simulated by 2D-FEA. However, this simulation result reveals that considerable amount of eddy current loss generated in the windings of the motor. Excessive eddy current loss in the windings…

Overcoming Challenges in Connected Autonomous Vehicles Development: Open Source Vehicular Data Analytics Platform

CUCEK under CUSAT Kochi Kerala, INDIA-Shreya KRISHNA
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1914
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Data Science and Machine Learning are buzzwords in our everyday lives, as is evident from its applications, such as voice recognition features in vehicles and on cell phones, automatic facial and traffic sign recognition, etc. Analyzing big data on the basis of internet searches, pattern recognition, and learning algorithms, provides deep understanding of the behaviour of processes, systems, nature, and ultimately the people. The already implementable idea of autonomous driving is nearly a reality for many drivers today with the aid of “lane keeping assistance” and “adaptive cruise control systems” in the vehicle. The drift towards connected, autonomous, and artificially intelligent systems that constantly learns from big data and is able to make best-suited decisions, is progressing in ways that is fundamental to the growth of automotive industry. The paper envisages the future of connected and- autonomous-vehicles (CAVs) as computers-on-wheels. These are pictured as sophisticated systems with sensors on board as data sources and a lot of other functions and running services to support autonomous-driving. These services are considered to be computationally expensive. The unit…

Self-affinity of an Aircraft Pilot's Gaze Direction as a Marker of Visual Tunneling

Bordeaux University - IMB UMR CNRS 5251-Pierrick Legrand
Bordeaux University - INP Bordeaux - IMS-Jean-Marc André, Éric Grivel
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1852
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
For the last few years, a great deal of interest has been paid to crew monitoring systems in order to address potential safety problems during a flight. They aim at detecting any degraded physiological and/or cognitive state of an aircraft pilot or crew, such as visual tunneling, also called inattentional blindness. Indeed, they might have a negative impact on the performance to pursue the mission with adequate flight safety levels. One of the usual approaches consists in using sensors to collect physiological signals which are then analyzed. Two main families exist to process the signals. The first one combines feature extraction and machine learning whereas the second is based on deep-learning approaches which require a large amount of labeled data. In this work, we focused on the first family. In this case, various features can be deduced from the data by different approaches: spectrum analysis, a priori modeling and nonlinear dynamical system analysis techniques including the estimation of the self-affinity of the signals. In this paper, our purpose was to uncover whether the self-affinity of…

Laser surface treatment machine for Ariane 6 Cryogenic Tanks

Electroimpact-Jeremy FERRER
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1897
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Surface treatment of cryogenic tanks (liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen) for the Ariane 6 Space Launcher is a critical step for the adhesion of insulation materials. This operation is currently performed by the help of chemical products which are for some of them carcinogenic, mutagenic and repro-toxic. The large tank dimensions require using an important quantity of those products which generate massive recurring costs and health and environment problems. ArianeGroup has previously qualified and patented the Laser Surface Treatment as a replacement solution to chemical process. The aim is to use energy provided by infrared laser beam to modify the top layer of the tank surface. The chosen technology is Nd-YAG pulsed laser. Electroimpact has been chosen to carry out the industrial application. The main components of the laser system are a laser source, to generate the laser beam, an optic fiber to transport the beam and an optic with galvo mirrors to focus and move the laser on the part. The optic scan field is about 50 x 50mm, so it needs to be…

Innovative Sensor for the Detection of the Needle Lift

The University of Birmingham, UK-C Coratella, L. Parry, A. Sahu, H. Xu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0193
To be published on 2019-08-15 by SAE International in United States
The displacement of the control piston within a Common Rail injector is a key area that requires more focus to suitably characterise the behavior of an injector, it is a key element to discuss when investigating in-nozzle phenomena, the needle displacement is typically measured with a eddy current sensor. Apart from its high cost, scientific literature highlights its drawbacks, such as the introduction of mechanical weakness on the control piston as well as an electromagnetic disturbance affecting the data acquisition. Other solutions have been developed which provide an improved quality of signal. Nonetheless, such solutions require a high number of components which leads to an increased layout complexity. This layout can create a packing issue when trying to mount the sensor on the test rig. A novel sensor (UK Patent Application No.1819731.9) has been designed and built to overcome the limitations typically associated to the needle displacement transducers. Variation in light intensity detected by a receiver underlies the working principle of the sensor and is in a direct relationship with the needle displacement. This paper…

Imaging and vibro-acoustic diagnostic techniques comparison for a GDI fuel injector

Istituto Motori CNR-Luigi Allocca, Daniela Siano, Alessandro Montanaro, Maria Antonietta Panza
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0058
To be published on 2019-08-15 by SAE International in United States
This work presents the results of an experimental investigation on a GDI injector, in order to analyze fuel injection process and atomization phenomenon, correlating imaging and vibro-acoustic diagnostic techniques. A single-hole, axially-disposed, 0.200 mm diameter GDI injector was used to spray commercial gasoline in a test chamber at room temperature and atmospheric backpressure. The explored injection pressures were ranged from 5.0 to 20.0 MPa. Cycle-resolved acquisitions of the spray evolution were acquired by a high-speed camera. Contemporarily, the vibro-acoustic response of the injector was evaluated. More in detail, noise data acquired by a microphone sensor were analyzed for characterizing the acoustic emission of the injection, while a spherical loudspeaker was used to excite the spray injection at a proper distance detecting possible fuel spray resonance phenomena. In order to monitor vibration throughout the injection event, the injector was also equipped with an accelerometer sensor, adhesively mounted on the holder. Tests in both dry and fuel injection conditions allowed to distinct the pure mechanical operation of the injector related to the needle opening and closing, and…

Efficient test bench operation with early damage detection systems

BEA Testing GmbH-Matthias Pouch, Carsten Küpper
RWTH Aachen University-Thomas Laible, Stefan Pischinger
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0192
To be published on 2019-08-15 by SAE International in United States
The efficient operation of test benches within the framework of research and development projects directly correlates with the "health" of the examinee to be investigated. The use of so-called Early Damage Detection Systems (EDDS) is becoming increasingly popular for reasons of Unit Under Test (UUT) monitoring. In the context of this publication the expectations of an EDDS and its structure are discussed as well as its advantages and disadvantages in test bench operation analyzed and compared with the results of measurements. The used EDDS should primarily prevent the damage, up to the loss of the test object by a total loss, in order to ensure a finding possibility of the damaged part at the examined test object. A deviation of the test object behavior from the undamaged condition must be recognized in an early status and must lead to a shutdown of the test bench operation after reaching a defined limit value. With the sensors mounted on the test object it must be able to isolate the cause of the damage in the event of…

Electromechanical Actuators Specification Guide

A-6B3 Electro-Mechanical Actuation Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP5754
  • Current
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides general characteristics, requirements, and design data to be recommended for inclusion in a procurement technical specification of an electromechanical actuator (EMA), including its control and monitoring.

An Experimental Study on the Effects of the Layout of DBD Plasma Actuators on Its Anti-/De-Icing Performance for Aircraft Icing Mitigation

Iowa State University-Cem Kolbakir, Yang Liu, Haiyang Hu, Hui Hu
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Recently developed dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) plasma-based anti-icing systems have shown great potential for aircraft icing mitigation. In the present study, the ice accretion experiments were performed on to evaluate the effects of different layouts of DBD plasma actuators on their anti-/de-icing performances for aircraft icing mitigations. An array of DBD plasma actuators were designed and embedded on the surface of a NACA0012 airfoil/wing model in different layout configurations (i.e., different alignment directions of the plasm actuators (e.g., spanwise vs. streamwise), width of the exposed electrodes and the gap between the electrodes) for the experimental study. The experimental study was carried out in the Icing Research Tunnel available at Iowa State University (i.e., ISUIRT). While the dynamic anti-icing operation is recorded by using a high-resolution imaging system, a high-speed Infrared (IR) thermal imaging camera is used to quantitatively map the temperature distributions over the surface of the airfoil model during the anti-/deicing processes. Results show that, heat dissipation mechanism of the plasma actuator array in either streamwise and spanwise configurations differ one from another noticeably.…
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Design and Experiment on Aircraft Electromechanical Actuator Fan at Different Altitudes and Rotational Speeds

Air Force Research Laboratory, USA-Q.H. Leland
North Carolina A&T State University, USA-E. Gyasi, J.P. Kizito
  • Journal Article
  • 01-12-01-0003
Published 2019-06-07 by SAE International in United States
For electromechanical actuators (EMAs) and electronic devices cooling on aircraft, there is a need to study cooling fan performance at various altitudes from sea level to 12,000 m where the ambient pressure varies from 1 to 0.2 atm. As fan static pressure head is proportional to air density, the fan’s rotational speed has to be increased significantly to compensate for the low ambient pressure of 0.2 atm at the altitude of 12,000 m. To evaluate fan performance for EMA cooling, a high-rotational-speed, commercially available fan made by Ametek with a diameter of ~82 mm and ~3 m3/min zero-load open cooling flow rate when operating at 20,000 rpm was chosen as the baseline. According to fan scaling laws, this fan was expected to meet the cooling needs for an EMA when operating at 0.2 atm. Using a closed flow loop, the performance of the fan operating in the above ambient pressure range and at a rotational speed between 15,000 and 30,000 rpm was evaluated. Unexpectedly, at 0.2 atm, the Ametek fan was able to produce only…