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Design of innovative noise sealing grommets used in commercial vehicles and their experimental noise sealing performance characterization

VE Commercial Vehicles Ltd-Pushpendra Gehlot
VE Commercial Vehicles, Ltd.-Saahil Saxena
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0473
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In today’s automobile industry refined NVH performance is a key feature and of high importance governing occupant comfort and overall quality impression of vehicle. One of key challenging elements is the effective sealing of noise against direct infiltration from various locations including the gaps and holes of vehicle routing pipes and cables in the vehicle body. This paper starts with the design of innovative grommet profiles for noise sealing while not affecting the ease of fitment and manufacturing .Various iterations were carried out to arrive at final grommet designs for both single and dual pipes configurations, and the final designs area discussed in details. This is followed by the characterization of grommet noise sealing behavior with respect to frequency spectrum, in Insertion loss chambers and then comparison of same with original designs .Further, the design of proposed grommets are compared and discussed for noise sealing performance. The paper also investigates the effect of pipe protective cover on the grommet noise sealing performance. Experiments are done both -with and without sealing of the pipe protective cover,…
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Material development for low viscosity oil

NOK Corporation-Keita Otani, Kenichi Kunieda, Yuki Sato
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0232
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In recent years, it is a big trend to decrease oil viscosity as regards in the drive-train system in order to progress the fuel efficiency by reducing frictional loss of each mechanical unit. However, we found that the oil-seal performance get worse in cold environment with applying the low viscosity oil, and it leads to oil leakage. The presumed mechanism is that the rubber material used in the oil-seal loses its flexibility at a low temperature to deteriorate the shaft runout followability, while the low viscosity oil can flow even such environment. Concerning rubber material, acrylic rubber (ACM) is widely used as a seal component for automobiles including drive-train system because it has a good balance of heat resistance, cold resistance, and oil resistance. As results of investigation low viscosity oil under development using our lineup ACM which has excellent low temperature property (TR-10:-37℃), we confirmed that the shaft runout limit deteriorates with decrease oil viscosity, and this result shows the need of further enhanced rubber material. In this study, we describe the improvement in…
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Development of Ultra-low-friction and Zero-leakage Mechanical Seal for High-Speed e-Mobility Shaft Sealing Applications

Eagle Industry Co., Ltd-Nobuo Nakahara, Masatoshi Itadani
Eagle Industry Co., Ltd.-Yuichiro Tokunaga
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1090
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
By the year 2020, EU legislation limits CO2 emissions for new passenger cars to a maximum of 95 g/km, and further reductions to 68 g/km are expected. Electric motors with high power density often need shaft cooling in combination with increased rotational speeds to boost efficiency. Especially, the low friction and the durability of the sealing faces is essential to overcome the severe friction condition of the high-speed rotation. This challenge can be solved by using the revolutionary GlideXTM sealing technologies. These seals feature advanced texturing, a new surface technology that enables microscopic flow control in the dynamic sealing faces. Advanced texturing reduces leakage to the level of insignificance and up to 90% less friction, compared to a non-textured mechanical seal. The advanced texturing allows for a thin liquid-sealing film between the sealing faces. The liquid lubrication becomes dominant at low speeds; at high speeds, the gas lubrication becomes dominant by preventing the liquid from flowing into the sliding surfaces. As a result, the seal can keep low friction in both low- and high-speed rotations…
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Experimental and Computational Studies of the No-Load Churning Loss of a Truck Axle

Dana-Steven Wesolowski
Lubrizol Corporation (The)-Farrukh Qureshi PhD
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1415
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper summarizes the work performed in predicting and measuring the contribution of oil churning to the no-load losses of a commercial truck axle at typical running speeds. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of the churning losses was performed. The CFD modeling accounted for design geometry, operating speed, temperature, and lubricant properties. The model computed the torque loss due to oil churning due to the viscous and inertia effects of the fluid. It also displayed the flow pattern generated and computes the oil volume fraction at any location within the volume. CFD predictions of power losses were then compared with no load measurements made on a specially developed dynamometer driven test stand. The same axle that was used in the CFD model was tested in three different configurations: with axle shafts, with axle shafts removed, and with ring gear and carrier removed. This approach to testing was performed to determine the contribution of each source of loss (bearings, seals, and churning) to the total loss. After bearing and seal loss measurements and predictions were…
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Non-Contacting Finger Seal Piston for Oil less Engines

Université de Sherbrooke-Pascal Boudreau, Mathieu Picard
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1096
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The current quest to reduce CO2 emissions combined to new technologies has sparked an interest in revisiting radically different engine configuration concepts, such as adiabatic and split-cycle engines. For both of these concepts to achieve their full potential, the combustion chamber must then be sealed without lubricating oil. A promising approach, that has yet remained elusive, is to lubricate the piston-liner interface with gases. This paper explores the concept of using non-contacting finger seals, a sealing technology developed for gas turbines, to seal piston engines. The finger seals, made of a gas-lubricated pad at the end of a flexible beam, are fixed on a rotating piston that uses the centrifugal force to close the piston-liner gap. A physics-based fluid-structure model is developed to predict the position of the finger elements and sealing performances. The model shows that the radial displacement of the fingers naturally creates a convergent profile with the liner that generates sufficient aerodynamic pressure to prevent the piston to contact the liner. The results also show that the achievable leaking area could be…
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Fretting Damage Analysis and Predicting of Engine Head and Block

Great Wall Motor Co. Ltd.-Rong Ye, Yuwei Han, Xiaowei Sun, Jianxiang Shi, Ying Guan, Guodong Zhao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1167
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Today engine downsizing, weight reduction, boosting, etc. are widely used in modern combustion engine designs in order to increase power output, improve fuel economy, and reduce emission. However utilizing of these advanced technologies is making the engine less rigidity and resulting in potential fretting damages on any contact surfaces of engine components due to higher cyclic relative motions. The leakage failure of the cylinder-head sealing system induced by fretting damage on engine head and block deck surfaces is the one of major failure modes in the modern combustion engine. In this paper, the characteristics and failure modes of the MLS head gasket sealing system is introduced first. The fretting mechanism between MLS head gasket and engine head and block is then investigated and a fretting damage parameter and a damage criterion as well are defined and established to evaluate the crack nucleation or wear initiation. Also it is important to identify two types of loads during engine operation in the fretting damage calculation. The developed methodology is successfully verified through a good correlation between CAE…
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Development of a Novel Test System to Determine the Durability of RTV Gasket Material

Fiat Chrysler Automobiles (FCA)-Wensheng Zhang, Erich Gernand, Rohit Paranjpe
Oakland University-Bingxu Wang, Gary Barber, Na Lyu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1069
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes a laboratory-based test system and procedure for determining the durability of RTV sealant with fretting movement. A test machine is described in which shear and tensile stress-generating displacements at room temperature and temperature of 100°C are produced to load an RTV seal. The test system utilizes an air pressurized hollow cylinder with a cap sealed by RTV sealant on a reciprocating test rig. An external air leakage monitoring system detects the health of the tested RTV seal. When air leakage occurs, the seal is determined to have failed. RTV sealant used in the test was fully cured at room temperature and then aged with engine oil. In the experiments, a total of 6 displacements were used to generate cycle/amplitude graphs for both shear and tensile modes. Failures were determined to be caused by the loss of adhesion in tensile mode, and by crack nucleation due to the special step design in shear mode. The results have validated the feasibility of the proposed test system and procedure, which can be used for durability…
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Crevice Corrosion Accelerated Test for Cylinder Head/Gasket/Monoblock Assemblies from Lightweight Engines Exposed to Overheating Cycles

Instituto Politecnico Nacional Esime Zac-Gerardo Rodríguez-Bravo, Roberto Vega-Moron
Instituto Politécnico Nacional ESIQIE-Jesús Godínez-Salcedo
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1067
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Severe crevice corrosion occurring at the joint of cylinder head/gasket/mono-block from lightweight engines causes accelerated dissolution of lightweight material, in particular, in cylinder head producing the linking of the cooling vessels with the combustion chambers or oil vessels. It is conductive to combustion of coolant or oil, and contamination of oil with coolant or vice versa, which is considered as catastrophic engine failure. Since crevice corrosion is dependent of many of the actual assembly characteristics, coolant and engine operation conditions, full-scale tests are the most frequent alternative for this type of evaluations. Nonetheless, they are very long and expensive, and sometimes, unreliable tests. Alternatively, the standard procedure ASTM-G78 is widely used to evaluate crevice corrosion propensity of different metallic materials under certain specified conditions trough immersion tests in a corrosive media in shorter test times. However, the method does not cover the characteristics and conditions existing at the cylinder head/gasket/mono-block joint. Hence, this paper presents an accelerated test consisting on three-electrode cyclic potentiodynamic anodic polarization and polarization resistance standard trials using special assembly samples to…
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Rubber material model development for closure bumpstop

FCA Engineering India Pvt Ltd-Satish Jayant Choudhari, Kameswara Rao Appana, Nilesh Alugade, Roshan N. Mahadule
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1073
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Abstract: In vehicle development process, closures slam durability is one of the important measurement for BIW & closure design. In Closure slam simulation event, the majority of dynamic forces absorbed through rubber seals and rubber bump-stops which are typically mounted in-between the closure system and BIW. These auxiliary components also provide the cushioning to the structure and protect it from the panel interaction during abusive closure slam. In conventional CAE Simulation process, the stiffness of rubber bumpstop oftenly represented with linear stiffness data which does not capture rubber behavior during loading and unloading for both static and dynamic event. Thus, it provides an opportunity to develop the numerical material model for better rubber behavior simulation. This paper details the experimental testing of rubber material coupons under different states of strain rate. The generated hyper-elastic & viscoelastic material coefficient from experimental test data are used to develop CAE material model . This material model aids in simulating the rubber behavior more accurately under varying strain rate for static and dynamic event. This will further help in…
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Multi-scale Structural Analysis on Rubber Seal for Battery Pack

Cybernet System Co Ltd-Takahiro Sasaki, Takao Sato
Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Katsuya Minami
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0498
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Rubber sealing for water-cooled battery packs plays a significant role to prevent water immersion into the inside of the pack. And the optimal design including the adjacent parts contributes to the weight reduction of battery packs by reducing the battery tray thickness and the quantity of bolts used in a whole battery pack. Generally, finite element analysis (FEA) is effective for the design optimization before proto-typing. But this application to the battery pack requires large scale analysis including the complicated contacts and large deformation of the rubber seal, and results in unpractically long computation time and frequent computation errors due to the finite element distortion. Multi-scale structural analysis and the process on rubber seals for battery packs has been developed to solve the above issues. This approach consists of 3 steps, which are single-unit, entire-scale and detailed structural analysis. The cross-section of rubber seal was simplified as rectangular shape by modifying the mechanical property of the seal so that the reaction force of the equivalent model agrees with the original one through Step 1. Using…