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Development of Ultra-low-friction and Zero-leakage Mechanical Seal for High-Speed e-Mobility Shaft Sealing Applications

Eagle Industry Co., Ltd.-Yuichiro Tokunaga, Nobuo Nakahara, Masatoshi Itadani
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1090
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
By the year 2020, EU legislation limits CO2 emissions for new passenger cars to a maximum of 95 g/km, and further reductions to 68 g/km are expected. Electric motors with high power density often need shaft cooling in combination with increased rotational speeds to boost efficiency. Especially, the low friction and the durability of the sealing faces is essential to overcome the severe friction condition of the high-speed rotation. This challenge can be solved by using the revolutionary GlideXTM sealing technologies. These seals feature advanced texturing, a new surface technology that enables microscopic flow control in the dynamic sealing faces. Advanced texturing reduces leakage to the level of insignificance and up to 90% less friction, compared to a non-textured mechanical seal. The advanced texturing allows for a thin liquid-sealing film between the sealing faces. The liquid lubrication becomes dominant at low speeds; at high speeds, the gas lubrication becomes dominant by preventing the liquid from flowing into the sliding surfaces. As a result, the seal can keep low friction in both low- and high-speed rotations…
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Experimental and Computational Studies of the No-Load Churning Loss of a Truck Axle

Dana Incorporated-Steven Wesolowski
Lubrizol-Farrukh Qureshi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1415
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes the work performed in predicting and measuring the contribution of oil churning to the no-load losses of a commercial truck axle at typical running speeds. A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of the churning losses was conducted. The CFD model accounts for design geometry, operating speed, temperature, and lubricant properties. The model calculates the oil volume fraction and the torque loss caused by oil churning due to the viscous and inertia effects of the fluid. CFD predictions of power losses were then compared with no-load measurements made on a specially developed, dynamometer-driven test stand. The same axle used in the CFD model was tested in three different configurations: with axle shafts, with axle shafts removed, and with ring gear and carrier removed. This approach to testing was followed to determine the contribution of each source of loss (bearings, seals, and churning) to the total loss. After bearing and seal loss measurements and predictions were factored in, the churning loss measurement and prediction comparisons were made. Experimental and computational results compared favorably. This…
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Fretting Damage Analysis and Predicting of Engine Head and Block

Great Wall Motor Co., Ltd.-Rong Ye, Yuwei Han, Xiaowei Sun, Jianxiang Shi, Ying Guan, Guodong Zhao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1167
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Today engine downsizing, weight reduction, boosting, etc. are widely used in modern combustion engine designs in order to increase power output, improve fuel economy, and reduce emission. However utilizing of these advanced technologies is making the engine less rigidity and resulting in potential fretting damages on any contact surfaces of engine components due to higher cyclic relative motions. The leakage failure of the cylinder-head sealing system induced by fretting damage on engine head and block deck surfaces is the one of major failure modes in the modern combustion engine. In this paper, the characteristics and failure modes of the MLS head gasket sealing system is introduced first. The fretting mechanism between MLS head gasket and engine head and block is then investigated and a fretting damage parameter and a damage criterion as well are defined and established to evaluate the crack nucleation or wear initiation. Also it is important to identify two types of loads during engine operation in the fretting damage calculation. The developed methodology is successfully verified through a good correlation between CAE…
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Development of a Novel Test System to Determine the Durability of RTV Gasket Material

FCA US LLC-Wensheng Zhang, Erich Gernand
Oakland University-Bingxu Wang, Gary Barber, Na Lyu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1069
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes a laboratory-based test system and procedure for determining the durability of RTV sealant with fretting movement. A test machine is described in which shear and tensile stress-generating displacements at room temperature and temperature of 100°C are produced to load an RTV seal. The test system utilizes an air pressurized hollow cylinder with a cap sealed by RTV sealant on a reciprocating test rig. An external air leakage monitoring system detects the health of the tested RTV seal. When air leakage occurs, the seal is determined to have failed. RTV sealant used in the test was fully cured at room temperature and then aged with engine oil. In the experiments, a total of 6 displacements were used to generate cycle/amplitude graphs for both shear and tensile modes. Failures were determined to be caused by the loss of adhesion in tensile mode, and by crack nucleation due to the special step design in shear mode. The results have validated the feasibility of the proposed test system and procedure, which can be used for durability…
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Crevice Corrosion Accelerated Test for Cylinder Head/Gasket/Monoblock Assemblies from Lightweight Engines Exposed to Overheating Cycles

Instituto Politecnico Nacional Esime Zac-Gerardo Rodríguez-Bravo, Roberto Vega-Moron
Instituto Politécnico Nacional ESIQIE-Jesús Godínez-Salcedo
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1067
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Severe crevice corrosion occurring at the joint of cylinder head/gasket/mono-block from lightweight engines causes accelerated dissolution of lightweight material, in particular, in cylinder head producing the linking of the cooling vessels with the combustion chambers or oil vessels. It is conductive to combustion of coolant or oil, and contamination of oil with coolant or vice versa, which is considered as catastrophic engine failure. Since crevice corrosion is dependent of many of the actual assembly characteristics, coolant and engine operation conditions, full-scale tests are the most frequent alternative for this type of evaluations. Nonetheless, they are very long and expensive, and sometimes, unreliable tests. Alternatively, the standard procedure ASTM-G78 is widely used to evaluate crevice corrosion propensity of different metallic materials under certain specified conditions trough immersion tests in a corrosive media in shorter test times. However, the method does not cover the characteristics and conditions existing at the cylinder head/gasket/mono-block joint. Hence, this paper presents an accelerated test consisting on three-electrode cyclic potentiodynamic anodic polarization and polarization resistance standard trials using special assembly samples to…
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Rubber material model development for closure bumpstop

FCA Engineering India Pvt., Ltd.-Satish Jayant Choudhari, Kameswara Rao Appana, Nilesh Alugade, Roshan N. Mahadule
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1073
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Abstract: In vehicle development process, closures slam durability is one of the important measurement for BIW & closure design. In Closure slam simulation event, the majority of dynamic forces absorbed through rubber seals and rubber bump-stops which are typically mounted in-between the closure system and BIW. These auxiliary components also provide the cushioning to the structure and protect it from the panel interaction during abusive closure slam. In conventional CAE Simulation process, the stiffness of rubber bumpstop oftenly represented with linear stiffness data which does not capture rubber behavior during loading and unloading for both static and dynamic event. Thus, it provides an opportunity to develop the numerical material model for better rubber behavior simulation. This paper details the experimental testing of rubber material coupons under different states of strain rate. The generated hyper-elastic & viscoelastic material coefficient from experimental test data are used to develop CAE material model . This material model aids in simulating the rubber behavior more accurately under varying strain rate for static and dynamic event. This will further help in…
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Characterization and Modeling of Wet Clutch Actuator for High-Fidelity Propulsion System Simulations

FCC Co., Ltd.-Takahiro Tsuchiya, Masatoshi Miyagawa, Shinji Nakamura, Matthew Wendel
Ford Motor Company-Hiral Haria, James McCallum, Yuji Fujii
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1414
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Innovations in mobility are built upon a management of complex interactions between sub-systems and components. A need for CAE tools that are capable of system simulations is well recognized, as evidenced by a growing number of commercial packages. However impressive they are, the predictability of such simulations still rests on the representation of the base components. Among them, a wet clutch actuator continues to play a critical role in the next generation propulsion systems. It converts hydraulic pressure to mechanical force to control torque transmitted through a clutch pack. The actuator is typically modeled as a hydraulic piston opposed by a mechanical spring. Because the piston slides over a seal, some models have a framework to account for seal friction. However, there are few contributions to the literature that describe the effects of seals on clutch actuator behaviors. In a routine simulation, a spring constant is commonly tuned to match vehicle data, assuming that it captures the effects of seal friction. The validity of this approach is not well established. This article describes the characterization…
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Fittings, 37 Degree Internal Flare, Fluid Connection, Procurement Specification

G-3, Aerospace Couplings, Fittings, Hose, Tubing Assemblies
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS4841C
  • Current
Published 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Standard (AS) establishes the requirements for 37 degree flared tube fittings or machined internal cone fluid connection fittings for use with 37 degree external cone, spherical nose, and seal ring fittings in all types of aerospace fluid systems (see Section 6).
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Annotation ability available
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Correlation of Cylinder Head Gasket Sealing Analysis Results Between Gasket Element and 3D Continuum Element

Cummins Engine Co., Ltd.-Amit Ozarde
Cummins Inc.-Gene McNay
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0049
Published 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
A head gasket is a component that sits between the engine block/liner and cylinder head(s) in an internal combustion engine. Its purpose is to seal high pressure combustion gasses in the cylinders, seal coolant and engine oil transfer ports between the block and head and to ensure no leakage of gasses or fluids out of the block to head joint; as such, it is the most critical sealing application in an engine. In general practice, the load deflection(L/D) characteristic is generated by the gasket manufacturer for edge molded or composite gasket types. In the case of a solid-sheet metallic gasket, where the gasket is expected to undergo local yielding to provide adequate conformance and sealing, supplier is usually not able to provide the required L/D curve due to difficulties experimentally separating the large loads and small displacements from the elastic loads and deflections of the experimental apparatus. In absence of L/D curve the current analysis approach is to model gasket as 3D continuum elements with considering nonlinear material and contacts. The focus of the procedure…
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BEARING, BALL, AIRFRAME, ANTI-FRICTION, HEAVY DUTY

ACBG Rolling Element Bearing Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS27640E
  • Current
Published 2020-03-04 by SAE International in United States
No Abstract Available.
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Annotation ability available