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Correlation of Cylinder Head Gasket Sealing Analysis Results Between Gasket Element and 3D Continuum Element

Cummins Engine Co., Ltd.-Amit Ozarde
Cummins Inc.-Gene McNay
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0049
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
A head gasket is a component that sits between the engine block/liner and cylinder head(s) in an internal combustion engine. Its purpose is to seal high pressure combustion gasses in the cylinders, seal coolant and engine oil transfer ports between the block and head and to ensure no leakage of gasses or fluids out of the block to head joint; as such, it is the most critical sealing application in an engine. In general practice, the load deflection(L/D) characteristic is generated by the gasket manufacturer for edge molded or composite gasket types. In the case of a solid-sheet metallic gasket, where the gasket is expected to undergo local yielding to provide adequate conformance and sealing, supplier is usually not able to provide the required L/D curve due to difficulties experimentally separating the large loads and small displacements from the elastic loads and deflections of the experimental apparatus. In absence of L/D curve the current analysis approach is to model gasket as 3D continuum elements with considering nonlinear material and contacts. The focus of the procedure…
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High Altitude Platform System Airship for telecommunication and border monitoring design and physical model

Henri Coanda Labs LLC-Michele Trancossi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0044
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents an accurate analysis of a high altitude platform with an unconventional ellipsoidal shape during the most critical operation with the support of a large CFD analysis. The airship is designed accordingly to the specifications which have been analysed in terms of the required CONOPS (Concepts of Operations). Concepts of Operation (CONOPS) associated with the proposed High Altitude Pseudo-Satellite (HAPS) technology and special operations and to analyze the operational scenarios which are relevant to HAPS technology. An innovative cruiser feeder system is defined and studied. The CONOPS includes communications relays, support of intelligence, surveillance, target acquisition monitor “mobile targets”, and reconnaissance, including long-range ISTAR missions performed by the feeder, combining satellite vision and HAPS vision for a forest fire, disasters, naval accidents, maritime and ground borders. The paper realizes a multidisciplinary analysis that allows creating the design of the HAPS, referring to both cruiser and feeder according to the in different operative scenarios. Inside the digital twin model simulations will be performed in multiple cases allowing generating the best possible configuration by mean…
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Motorcycle Out-Of-Plane Dynamics Estimation: An Approach Based on Sharp 71 Model

University of Applied Sciences Upper Austria-Alexander Winkler, Sandra Haas, Gernot Grabmair
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0578
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
This paper presents a study on the state estimation of out-of-plane dynamics of motorcycles based on the Sharp 71 model. The Sharp 71 model is a linear time-variant system that describes the out-of-plane dynamics of a motorcycle. Comparisons with multi-body simulations and measurement data show that this relatively simple model is capable of principally representing the lateral dynamics of the motorcycle. Two relevant variables of out-of-plane dynamics are the roll angle and the tire lateral forces. The structure of the Sharp 71 model offers the possibility of estimating these two variables model-based with the aid of corresponding measured output variables. The input variable is the steering torque, which obviously cannot be measured with reasonable effort. Therefore, an unknown-input observer is used to estimate the states. This state estimator allows a systematic consideration of the unknown input variable. The unknown-input observer is designed for different sets of outputs and the corresponding effects on the results are considered. The sensors used include gyroscope, acceleration sensor and steering angle sensor. The longitudinal velocity as time-variant parameter considers the…
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Prediction of Air Temperature Distribution around Rider on Idling Motorcycle by CFD Using DES Model

Honda Motor Co., Ltd.-Yuzo Fujita, Hiroshi Tatsumi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0567
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
In this study, we investigated how to calculate and predict the air temperature distribution around the rider of a stationary motorcycle with the engine at idle. To analyze the air temperature distribution of an idling motorcycle, we needed to accurately predict the mixing of the forced convection air from the radiator fan and the natural convection air caused by the air temperature difference. For the calculation, we used two types of turbulent flow models: realizable k-ε (RKE) and detached eddy simulation (DES). First, in view of the mixing of the radiator exhaust with outside air, we made three-dimensional measurements of the air temperature distribution around the vehicle body to evaluate the accuracy of calculations made by the two models. We then used the models to predict the air temperature distribution around the rider for different air outlet duct configurations as well as for two motorcycles with different displacement values. The results showed that, although the RKE model effectively reproduced the qualitative trend of the air temperature distribution, it showed poorer prediction accuracy than the DES…
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Three-dimensional dynamics of a three-axle vehicle considering the suspension geometry according to the kinematic transformers method

Instituto Militar de Engenharia-Gustavo Simão Rodrigues, Marcelo Andrés Acuña, Rafael Vitor Guerra Queiroz, Ricardo Teixeira da Costa Neto
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0237
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The purpose of this work is to model the dynamics of a three-dimensional three-axle vehicle subjected to certain excitations from the ground and considering the geometry and inertia of the suspension elements according to the “kinematic transformers” method.The chassis is considered a rigid body with six degrees of freedom (three positions and rotations).The tire is a compliant element, which receives vibration from the ground and transmits to the wheel.Unlike simpler computational models, which make a direct connection between the wheel and the chassis by means of a spring and damper, the influence of the suspension geometry and inertia of its elements are considered. In this case of study, the suspension studied is the independent MacPherson in each wheel, although the methodology would be applied to other kind of suspensions, once its geometry is known.The kinematic transformers method is applied to study the cinematics of the suspension. It uses the minimum number of kinematic equations, allowing an efficient solution to describe the movement of the mechanism when implemented computationally.Combining the kinematic transformers method with the d'Alembert…
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Development and analysis of a rotary wall crane design using CAD and CAE Tools

Unesp – Faculdade de Engenharia de Guaratinguetá-Jessé de Jesus Silva, Fernando de Azevedo Silva
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0220
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Cranes and rigging equipment are important machines in industrial activities, construction, port operations and in many sectors that demand the lifting of high loads in a safe, controlled and efficient way. And the design of these equipment, in turn, requires the use of machine elements, mechanisms, and structures that are widely used in engineering, such as wire ropes, gears, pulleys, bolted connections, structural profiles, etc. In this work, a rotary wall crane was built in a virtual environment. The design was based mainly on the ABNT NBR 8400 standard. The software used for 3D modeling was Autodesk Inventor® and the main structure of the equipment was analyzed, according to its functionality, using numerical simulations based on the finite element method. Firstly, the structure of the crane, consisting of L and U structural profiles, bolted joints, structural reinforcements and other connections, was analyzed separately. Static structural simulations were conducted in this subassembly. Concomitantly, structural calculations were performed using statics and vector mechanics methods and by the finite element analysis. In this case, the Direct Stiffness Method…
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Nonlinear IMM-SUKF Algorithm for Maneuvering Target Tracking with Bearings-Only Measurement

Universite 8 Mai 1945 Guelma-Abdennour Sebbagh, Sihem Kechida
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-6005
Published 2019-12-30 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, we present an efficient filtering algorithm to perform accurate estimation in jump Markov nonlinear systems, which we aim to contribute in solving the problem of model-based body motion estimation using bearings-only measurement, the Interacting Multiple Model (IMM) algorithm is specially designed to track accurately maneuvering targets whose state and/or measurement (assumed to be linear) models change during motion transition. However, when these models are nonlinear, the IMM algorithm must be modified in order to guarantee an accurate track. In this paper we propose to avoid the Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) because of its limitations and substitute it with the Scaled Unscented Kalman Filter (SUKF) which seems to be more efficient especially according to the simulation results obtained with the Interacting Multiple Model Scaled Unscented Kalman Filter (IMM-SUKF).
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Two-Degree-of-Freedom Controller Design for Diesel Engine Airpath System Considering Dynamics of Turbocharger and Manifolds

University of Tokyo-Motoki Takahashi, Yudai Yamazaki, Shigehiko Kaneko
Utsunomiya University-Mitsuo Hirata, Tomofumi Hayashi, Teruhiko Asahi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2321
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
We developed a two-degree-of-freedom (2-DOF) control system for a diesel engine airpath system. First, a physical airpath model of the diesel engine was developed, followed by a nonlinear feedforward controller developed based on the inverse characteristics of the developed physical model. The dynamics of turbocharger and manifolds were considered in the feedforward controller to improve the transient response. The feedback controller was designed by H∞ control theory considering plant nonlinearities as uncertainties. The feedforward and feedback controllers were implemented as a 2-DOF freedom control scheme. The effectiveness of the proposed method was evaluated by conducting simulation and experiment.
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Hybrid plant modelling of diesel engine and After treatment systems using Artificial Neural Networks

Mercedes-Benz Research and Development India-Sandeep Kumar, Sudip Gope, Aishwarya Vijapur
Mitsubishi Fuso Truck and Bus Corporation (Japan)-Shinji Nakayama
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2292
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
(a)Motivation:For Euro VI & JOBD-II emission compliance, emission control software and fault monitors are complex. In order to test such complex functionalities on a Hardware-In-Loop (HIL) environment, a realistic plant model is necessary. A realistic plant model can replicate real life scenarios accurately and help create scenarios difficult to test on a vehicle. A realistic plant model can increase the scope of emission software controls and OBD fault monitor testing on a HIL system.(b)Problem statement:Emission control software interacts with emission control devices based on complex chemical and physical interactions. Although physical and empirical approaches of modeling the complex emission plant models have been explored earlier, there is a tradeoff between plant model complexity and real time performance on HIL system, also there is a large effort and equipment infrastructure spent on parametrization of the complex physical and empirical models using techniques of Design of Experiments (DOE) and data analysis.(c)Approach:One promising avenue is to introduce machine learning and sophisticated control techniques inspired by artificial intelligence into plant modelling.Within machine learning and artificial intelligence, neural networks are…
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Usage of Telematics Data in Advance Powertrain Development

Honda Cars India Pvt Ltd.-Shubham Garg, Anurag Anurag, Mohit Singhal, Isao Chiba, Kouji Okayasu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2438
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
To achieve accuracy in model development with large-scale actual customer data in low cost and limited time usage of telematics system was adopted. Honda’s OBD II diagnostic connecting device Honda Connect was used as transceiver for this telematics system, which was used as an accessory in Honda vehicles. Data collected with this device with large sample size and regional diversity across India was used in product development for Honda System. Control system development for BSVI vehicles, Idle start stop hardware specification selection and Battery electric vehicle target range study was done with Honda Connect Data.
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