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Design and Simulation of a Multi Fuel Gas Mixture System of a Rotary Engine

University of Applied Sciences Zwickau-Tobias Dost, Joern Getzlaff
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0548
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The paper first includes the main objective and boundary conditions for design and simulation of a multi fuel gas mixture system of a rotary engine. New regenerative fuels are more and more important for use in automotive propulsion and stationary applications of combustion engines. Due the special design and operation of rotary engines there are opportunities for running these engines in future electric and hybrid applications with new designed liquids and gaseous fuels based on regenerative energy sources. The focus is on basic research and analyses of main physical and thermodynamic properties of separate lean burn gases (lower calorific value, mixed calorific value, AFR) and their effects on fuel mixing and combustion behavior. The work is focused on the development of simulation models capable to simulate the entire engine process and to map all factors influencing mixture formation and combustion of unconventional gaseous fuels. Moreover, analytical methods and modellation of the power estimation and fuel mixing are compared with 1d simulations of the fuel mixing and rotary engine thermodynamic performance. Analytical modells and calculations estimate…
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Initial Investigations into the Benefits and Challenges of Eliminating Port Overlap in Wankel Rotary Engines

University of Bath-James Turner, Matthew Turner, Giovanni Vorraro, Toby Thomas
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0280
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The Wankel rotary engine has historically found limited success in part due to poor combustion efficiency and challenges around hydrocarbon emissions. This is despite its significant advantages in terms of power density, compactness, vibrationless operation, and reduced parts count in relation to the now-dominant 4-stroke reciprocating engine. A large part of the reason for the poor fuel economy and high hydrocarbon emissions of the Wankel engine is the very significant amount of overlap that the use of ports opened and closed by the rotor edges creates. This paper investigates the feasibility operating a Wankel internal combustion engine with zero port overlap in order to mitigate this effect. As discussed in the paper, arranging this condition unfortunately significantly reduces the compression and/or expansion ratio of the engine, so compounding (using turbomachinery) is applied here in order to recover any expansion energy sacrificed in configuring the engine to have no overlap. In order to conduct this investigation a baseline 1-D model was implemented and correlated to the in-production Advanced Innovative Engineering (UK) Ltd 225CS peripherally-ported single-rotor Wankel…
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Control-Oriented Modelling of a Wankel Rotary Engine: A Synthesis Approach of State Space and Neural Networks

Advanced Innovative Engineering (UK) Ltd.-Nathan Bailey
University of Bath-Giovanni Vorraro, Matthew Turner, Reza Islam, Chris Brace, James Turner
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0253
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The use of Wankel rotary engines as a range extender has been recognised as an appealing method to enhance the performance of Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV). They are effective alternatives to conventional reciprocating piston engines due to their considerable merits such as lightness, compactness, and higher power-to-weight ratio. However, further improvements on Wankel engines in terms of fuel economy and emissions are still needed. The objective of this work is to provide an engine modelling methodology that is particularly suitable for the theoretical studies on Wankel engine dynamics and new control development. In this paper, a control-oriented model is developed for a 225CS Wankel rotary engine produced by Advanced Innovative Engineering (UK) Ltd. Through a synthesis grey-box approach that combines State Space (SS) and artificial Neural Networks (NN), a model is derived by leveraging both first-principle knowledge and engine test data. We first re-investigate the classical physics-based Mean Value Engine Model (MVEM). It contains differential equations mixed with empirical equations, which are inherently nonlinear and coupled. Moreover, the rotary configuration of Wankel engine implies distinctive…
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The Szorenyi Three-Chamber Rotary Engine Concept

Partner Rotary Engine Development Agency-Peter King
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Currently automotive engines are reciprocating or Wankel rotary engine types. Reciprocating engines are bulky, heavy and complex, mainly due to the intake and exhaust valves and their associated cam-train. Wankel engines have a low rotor rev limit, and have inefficient sealing of the apex seals leading to poor economy and undesirable emission gases. The Rotary Engine Development Agency (REDA) has designed a new three-chamber rotary internal combustion engine concept using an adaptation of the patented Szorenyi Curve. The new design is an evolution of the design which was the subject of SAE Technical Paper 2017-01-2413 and SAE publication ‘So You Want to Design Engines: UAV Propulsion Systems’. This paper describes the features of the new three-chamber engine concept and includes an analysis of the major shortcomings of the Wankel engine. The Wankel engine’s geometry results in excessive crankshaft deflection at high engine revs due to the centrifugal force of the rotor which is eccentric to the crankshaft. This results in a low rotational speed limit. Analysis of the Wankel design reveals that the rotational speed…
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Misfire Generator Functional Requirements

Vehicle E E System Diagnostic Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2901_201904
  • Current
Published 2019-04-11 by SAE International in United States
The intent of the specification is to present a functional set of requirements which define the user and hardware interfaces while providing sufficient capability to meet the misfire patterns for compliance demonstration and engineering development. Throughout this requirement, any reference to “ignition or injector control signal” is used interchangeably to infer that the effected spark ignition engine’s ignition control signal or the compression ignition engine’s injector control signal is interrupted, timing phased, or directly passed by the misfire generator. For spark ignition engines, the misfire generator behaves as a spark-defeat device which induces misfires by inhibiting normal ignition coil discharge. It does so by monitoring the vehicle’s ignition timing signals and suspends ignition coil saturation for selected cylinder firing events. The misfire generator will thereby induce engine misfire in spark ignited gasoline internal combustion engines; including rotary engines. For compression ignition engines, the misfire generator behaves as a fuel injection-defeat device which induces misfire by inhibiting the normal fuel injection pulses. It does so by monitoring the injection pulses signal and suspending the injection pulses…
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Testing of a Modern Wankel Rotary Engine - Part I: Experimental Plan, Development of the Software Tools and Measurement Systems

University of Bath-Giovanni Vorraro, Matthew Turner, James W. G. Turner
Published 2019-01-15 by SAE International in United States
Wankel rotary engines are becoming an increasingly popular area of research with regard to their use as a range extender in the next generation of Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV). Due to their simple design, lightness, compactness and very favourable power-to-weight ratio, they represent one of the best alternative solutions to classic reciprocating piston engines. On the other hand, current Wankel engines still need improvements in terms of specific fuel consumption and emissions.This paper describes an innovative approach for the assessment of the performance of a modern rotary engine. All the experimental activities will be carried out within the Innovate UK funded ADAPT Intelligent Powertrain project led by Westfield Sportscars Limited. The engine under test is a 225cm3 rotary engine produced by Advanced Innovative Engineering (AIE UK) Ltd. equipped with the patented Compact SPARCS (Self-Pressurising-Air Rotor Cooling System) technology that uses the blow-by gases of the combustion process to improve the heat rejection from the rotor to the liquid coolant.The descriptions of the experimental activities and of the test rig are provided, including the instrumentation, the…
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Mazda details electrification strategy, confirms rotary engine's return

Automotive Engineering: November 2018

Bill Visnic
  • Magazine Article
  • 18AUTP11_06
Published 2018-11-01 by SAE International in United States

In an announcement from Japan in October, Mazda-one of the few established automakers to articulate a comprehensive longterm commitment to hybridization or all-electric vehicle propulsion-said it intends to incorporate some type of electrification in all its vehicles by 2030. Yet in nearly the same virtual breath, the company affirmed its connection to “soulful” forms of internal combustion, including a confirmation that it will renew its longstanding enthusiasm for the rotary engine.

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Description of a Novel Concentric Rotary Engine

Aristotle University of Thessaloniki-Vasilis Gkoutzamanis, Zissis Samaras
theSARMproject-Savvas Savvakis
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
The present work presents the concept of a new rotary engine, and provides first investigations for its implementation in the energy sector. The main focus of this work is to provide a theoretical description of the engine and its differences from the state-of-the-art technologies. Its innovative principle consists of concentric operation, with two pistons of different rotation radius and the addition of a third intermediate chamber between the compression and combustion chamber. A description of the engine’s physical model is provided, followed by an analysis of the selected specific geometrical features. Additionally, a thermodynamic analysis clarifies the operational advantage compared to the existing cycles and, finally, a numerical investigation on the engine’s bulk performance is provided to quantify the anticipated results of the theoretical analysis. The theoretical description concludes that the new rotary engine is characterized by simple design with the minimum possible moving parts that can be easily integrated into hybrid systems or small sized applications. Its anticipated volume and weight is five to six times smaller than that of conventional engines owing to…
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Performance of a Low-Blowby Sealing System for a High Efficiency Rotary Engine

LiquidPiston Inc.-Mark Nickerson, Kyle Becker, Alexander Kopache, Nikolay Shkolnik, Alexander Shkolnik
Université de Sherbrooke-Maxime Leboeuf, Jean-François Dufault, Mathieu Picard
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
The X engine is a non-Wankel rotary engine that allies high power density and high efficiency by running a high-pressure Atkinson cycle at high speeds. The X engine overcomes the gas leakage issue of the Wankel engine by using two axially-loaded face seals that directly interface with three stationary radially-loaded apex seals per rotor. The direct-interfacing of the apex and face seals eliminates the need for corner seals of the typical Wankel engine, significantly reducing rotary engine blowby. This paper demonstrates the sealing performance that can be achieved by this new type of seal configuration for a rotary engine based on dynamics models and experiments. The dynamics models calculate the displacement and deformation of the face and apex seals for every crank angle using a time implicit solver. The gas leakage is then calculated from the position of the seals and pressure in the chambers and integrated over a rotor revolution. An “effective leakage orifice” area can be determined, to compare blowby between different engine types. Model results show that the X engine equivalent leakage area…
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Comparison of 1-D Modelling Approaches for Wankel Engine Performance Simulation and Initial Study of the Direct Injection Limitations

Advanced Innovative Engineering UK Ltd-Nathan Bailey
University Of Bath-Michael Peden, Matthew Turner, James W G Turner
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Recent interest in the possible use of Wankel engines as range extenders for electric vehicles has prompted renewed investigations into the concept. While not presently used in the automotive industry, the type is well established in the unmanned aerial vehicles industry, and several innovative approaches to sealing and cooling have recently been developed which may result in improved performance for ground vehicle applications.One such UAV engine is the 225CS, a 225 cc/chamber single-rotor engine manufactured by Advanced Innovative Engineering (UK) Ltd. To be able to analyse the parameters, opportunities and limitations of this type of engine a model was created in the new dedicated Wankel modelling environment of AVL BOOST. For comparison a second model was created using the established method of modelling Wankel engines by specifying an ‘equivalent’ 3-cylinder 4-stroke reciprocating engine. The output from both of these models was evaluated using engine test data supplied by Advanced Innovative Engineering (UK) Ltd. The model created in the dedicated Wankel environment was found to fit the experimental data more closely.The model was then used to…
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