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Head and Neck Loading Conditions over a Decade of IIHS Rear Impact Seat Testing

Exponent Inc.-John M. Scanlon, Jessica Isaacs, Christina Garman
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Rear-end impacts are the most common crash scenario in the United States. Although automated vehicle (AV) technologies, such as frontal crash warning (FCW) and automatic emergency braking (AEB), are mitigating and preventing rear-end impacts, the technology is only gradually being introduced and currently has only limited effectiveness. Accordingly, there is a need to evaluate the current state of passive safety technologies, including the performance of seatbacks and head restraints. The objective of this study was to examine trends in head and neck loading during rear impact testing in new vehicle models over the prior decade. Data from 601 simulated rear impact sled tests (model years 2004 to 2018) conducted as a part of the Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS) Vehicle Seat/Head Restraint Evaluation Protocol were obtained. This dynamic evaluation involves a simulated rear-end crash using a Biofidelic Rear Impact (BioRID IIg) ATD positioned in the seat attached to a crash simulation sled and accelerated to represent a rear crash with a delta-V of approximately 15.6 kph (15.6 ± 0.26 kph). Head and neck injury…
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Low Speed Override of Passenger Vehicles with Heavy Trucks

Kineticorp LLC-David Danaher, William Neale, Sean McDonough, Drew Donaldson
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In low speed collisions (under 15 mph) that involve a heavy truck impacting the rear of a passenger vehicle, it is likely that the front bumper of the heavy truck will override the rear bumper beam of the passenger vehicle, creating an override/underride impact configuration. There is limited data available for study when attempting to quantify vehicle damage and crash dynamics in low-speed override/underride impacts. Low speed impact tests were conducted to provide new data for passenger vehicle dynamics and damage assessment for low speed override/underride rear impacts to passenger vehicles. Three tests were conducted, with a tractor-trailer impacting three different passenger vehicles at 5 mph and 10 mph. This paper presents data from these three tests in order to expand the available data set for low speed override/underride collisions.
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Relating Experimental Drive Distraction and Driving Performance Metrics to Crash Involvement - Definitions of Terms and Concepts

Driver Metrics, Performance, Behaviors and States Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J3151_201810
  • Current
Published 2018-10-18 by SAE International in United States
This Information Report provides functional definitions and discussions of key terms and concepts for relating the experimental evaluation of driver distraction to real-world crash involvement. Examples of driver distraction and driving performance metrics include those related to vehicle control, object and event detection and response (OEDR), physiological indicators, subjective assessments, or combinations thereof. Examples of real-world crash involvement metrics include the epidemiological effect size measures of risk ratio, rate ratio, and odds ratio. The terms and concepts defined in this document are not intended to contribute to methodologies for assessing the individual metrics within a domain; these are covered in other SAE documents (e.g., SAE J2944) and SAE technical reports. For any measure chosen in one domain or the other, the goal is to give general definitions of key terms and concepts that relate metrics in one domain to those in the other. Issues of repeatability and validity are discussed in relation to these methods and metrics for relating the two domains. However, the actual specification of a particular methodology for predicting crash involvement from…
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Driver Risk Perception Model under Critical Cut-In Scenarios

Tongji University-Xuehan Ma, Zhiwei Feng, Xichan Zhu, Zhixiong Ma
Published 2018-08-07 by SAE International in United States
In China Cut-in scenarios are quite common on both highway and urban road with heavy traffic. They have a potential risk of rear-end collision. When facing a cutting in vehicle, driver tends to brake in most case to reduce collision risk. The timing and dynamic characteristics of brake maneuver are indicators of driver subjective risk perception. Time to collision (TTC) and Time Headway (THW) demonstrate objective risk. This paper aims at building a model quantitatively revealing the relationship between drivers’ subjective risk perception and objective risk. A total of 66 valid critical Cut-in cases was extracted from China-FOT, which has a travel distance of about 130 thousand miles. It is found that under Cut-in scenarios, driver tended to brake when the cutting in vehicle right crossing line. This time point was defined as initial brake time. Brake strength and brake speed were taken to describe brake maneuver. Average brake pressure (ABP) and acceleration at initial brake time indicated brake strength. Brake pressure change rate (BPCR) and longitudinal jerk (derivative of acceleration) at initial brake time…
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The Effect of the Head-to-Head Restraint Distance on Occupant Kinematics during Low-Speed Rear-End Crashes

Biodynamic Research Corp.-William R. Scott, Rawson Wood, Lars Reinhart, Herbert Guzman
University of Texas-Alejandra Barraza
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
The longitudinal motion of the head, thorax and lumbar spine of two test subjects was measured in low-speed rear-end collisions in order to understand the effect of the head-to-head restraint distance (backset) on the occupant kinematics. The two test subjects were exposed to three rear-end impacts at two crash severities, nominal changes in velocity (ΔV) of 1.11 (low ΔV) and 2.22 m/s (high ΔV). The backset was hypothesized to be an independent variable that would affect the head and neck motion and was set at 0, 5 or 10 cm. The x and z-axis accelerations of the impacted vehicle and the anatomical x and z-axis accelerations of each test subjects’ upper thorax and L5-S1 region were measured and then transformed to an earth-based coordinate system. Head accelerations were measured at the mouth and these accelerations were transformed to an earth-based coordinate system at the head center of gravity (CG). Along the earth x-axis the vehicle accelerations increased first, followed by the accelerations of the lumbar region, the thoracic region, and then the head CG. In the high…
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Performance of DSRC during Safety Pilot Model Deployment

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Electronic and Electrical Systems

FAW Group Corporation - China-Jun Li, Shaobo Qiu, Bin Liu
University of Michigan - Ann Arbor-Scott E. Bogard, Shan Bao, David LeBlanc
  • Journal Article
  • 2017-01-0077
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
This paper provides an analysis of how communication performance between vehicles using Dedicated Short-range Communication (DSRC) devices varies by antenna mounting, vehicle relative positions and orientations, and between receiving devices. DSRC is a wireless technology developed especially for vehicle-to-vehicle (V2V) and vehicle-to-infrastructure (V2I) communications. A frequency band near 5.9 GHz has been set aside in the US and other countries for exploring safety and other uses for road vehicles. DSRC devices installed onboard vehicles broadcast their location using global navigation space systems (GNSS), speed, heading, and other information. This can be used to study communication performance in many scenarios including: car-following situations, rear-end crash avoidance, oncoming traffic situations, left turn advisory, head-on crash avoidance and do-not-pass warnings. Message Capture Fraction and Packet Loss Duration highlight how these measures change with distance and orientation of the vehicles. Data used in this study address four years of real-world use with over 2500 vehicles, with antennas primarily in an aftermarket-style installation.
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Vehicle Rear Impacts and Spinal Disc Herniations in Occupants: Is there a Basis for Causation?

Tack Lam
Biomechanics Scientific LLC-B. Johan Ivarsson
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States
Disc herniations in the spine are commonly associated with degenerative changes, and the prevalence increases with increasing age. With increasing number of older people on U.S. roads, we can expect an increase in clinical findings of disc herniations in occupants involved in rear impacts. Whether these findings suggest a causal relationship is the subject of this study. We examined the reported occurrence of all spine injuries in the National Automotive Sampling System - Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS) database from 1993 to 2014. There were over 4,000 occupants that fit the inclusion criteria. The findings in this study showed that, in the weighted data of 2.9 million occupants, the most common spine injury is an acute muscle strain of the neck, followed by strain of the low back. The delta-V of a rear impact is a reliable indicator of the rate of acute cervical strain in occupants exposed to such impacts. The number of disc herniations was small in all three segments of the spine: five in the neck, none in the thoracic spine, and two…
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The Trailer Hitch Influence on Rear Crash for Small Hatchback Vehicle

General Motors of Brazil-Ivan R. Begosso, Alex F. Lima, Bruno S. Silva, Danilo M. Lessio, Gilvan P. Rossi, Klemer Santiago
Published 2016-10-25 by SAE International in United States
The trailer hitch is an accessory which has been widely applied to vehicles as a protection device for low speed rear impact, aiming the integrity of the rear fascia. Its installation is commonly made at accessories shops without the orientation of the OEM’s and its project normally does not pursue the integration with vehicle structure. Using Finite Element Method, this work has as objective to study the influence of the trailer hitch in the body structure of small hatchback passenger vehicle during rear impact.
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AUTONOMOUS DRIVING MEETS REGULATION: Hands off, eyes off, brain off

Automotive Engineering: May 5, 2016

Stuart Birch
  • Magazine Feature Article
  • 16AUTP05_03
Published 2016-05-01 by SAE International in United States

Euro NCAP'S president warns that without coherent policies, the growing availability of automated technologies may result in piecemeal technology development-and unintentional consequences.

Auto industry legend Lee Iacocca once famously said, “Safety doesn't sell.” Later, he was big enough to modify his stance and candidly admitted in an advertisement extolling the benefits of airbags, “Who says you can't teach an old dog new tricks?”


Driver Behavior in Forward Collision and Lane Departure Scenarios

National Advanced Driving Simulator-John Gaspar, Timothy Brown, Chris Schwarz
TEMA-Pujitha Gunaratne
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States
In 2010, 32,855 fatalities and over 2.2 million injuries occurred in automobile crashes, not to mention the immense economic impact on our society. Two of the four most frequent types of crashes are rear-end and lane departure crashes. In 2011, rear-end crashes accounted for approximately 28% of all crashes while lane departure crashes accounted for approximately 9%. This paper documents a study on the NADS-1 driving simulator to support the development of driver behavior modeling. Good models of driver behavior will support the development of algorithms that can detect normal and abnormal behavior, as well as warning systems that can issue useful alerts to the driver. Several scenario events were designed to fill gaps in previous crash research. For example, previous studies at NADS focused on crash events in which the driver was severely distracted immediately before the event. The events in this study included a sample of undistracted drivers. Additionally, this study included data collection on an unforced lane departure event, in addition to the forward collision scenarios. This paper summarizes the experimental design…
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