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Design of High-Lift Airfoil for Formula Student Race Car

Ain Shams University, Egypt-Abdelrahman Ibrahim Mahgoub, Hashim El-Zaabalawy, Walid Aboelsoud, Mohamed Abdelaziz
  • Journal Article
  • 02-12-01-0002
Published 2018-12-05 by SAE International in United States
A two-dimensional model of three elements, high-lift airfoil, was designed at a Reynolds number of ?????? using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) to generate downforce with good lift-to-drag efficiency for a formula student open-wheel race car basing on the nominal track speeds. The numerical solver uses the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equation model coupled with the Langtry-Menter four-equation transition shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model. Such model adds two further equations to the ?? − ?? SST model resulting in an accurate prediction for the amount of flow separation due to adverse pressure gradient in low Reynolds number flow. The ?? − ?? SST model includes the transport effects into the eddy-viscosity formulation, whereas the two equations of transition momentum thickness Reynolds number and intermittency should further consider transition effects at low Reynolds number. Starting with a baseline design using the understanding of high-lift airfoils, all elements were arranged using an Eppler E421 profile. The lift coefficient was improved by varying the flaps’ overlaps, gaps, and deflection angles sequentially, thus testing 31 rigging combinations. Finally, these data…

Methodical Selection of Sustainable Fuels for High Performance Racing Engines

Audi AG-Stefan Dreyer, Ulrich Baretzky, Wolfgang Kotauschek, Sebastian Wohlgemuth, Florian Bach
Universitat Stuttgart-Michael Bargende
Published 2018-09-10 by SAE International in United States
As the importance of sustainability increases and dominates the powertrain development within the automotive sector, this issue has to be addressed in motorsports as well. The development of sustainable high-performance fuels defined for the use in motorsports offers technical and environmental potential with the possibility to increase the sustainability of motorsports at the same or even a better performance level. At the moment race cars are predominantly powered by fossil fuels. However due to the emerging shift regarding the focus of the regulations towards high efficient powertrains during the last years the further development of the used fuels gained in importance. Moreover during the last decades a huge variety of sustainable fuels emerged that offer a range of different characteristics and that are produced based on waste materials or carbon dioxide. This study investigates the question of which sustainable fuels offer the characteristics suitable for high-performance race engines. Equivalents to gasoline, diesel and natural gas are examined separately in order to present the options with various engine concepts. The requirements for a high-performance fuel are…
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Aerodynamic Optimization of a Front Wheel Wake-Related Bodywork on a Novel Electric Formula Car Using Metaheuristic Approach

Oxford Brookes University-Miklos Diosy, Daniel Bell
Published 2018-08-20 by SAE International in United States
Aerodynamic drag reduction is a critical part in the design of a novel electric, entry-level, formula car due to the modest energy density provided by the contemporary Lithium-ion battery cells. In order to improve track performance, aerodynamic development must focus on components which do not generate a considerable amount of downforce. Rotating front wheels are identified as the least aerodynamic part of the race car, since it is responsible for the third of the overall drag forces and producing moderate amounts of lift. In the present study, a parameterized wheel pod geometry is used to improve the overall aerodynamic performance of an open-wheel race car. The model is driven by seven parameters, which entails huge flexibility of the bodywork design. First, an unsteady Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation was developed and validated to visualize the oscillating flow behavior and obtain averaged surface force measurements. In expectation of a highly turbulent and complex wheel wake structure, the traditional iterative optimization method had to be excluded. The exploration of the optimal bodywork was executed by a single-objective…
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Automotive Engineering: May 2018

  • Magazine Issue
  • 18AUTP05
Published 2018-05-03 by SAE International in United States
Testing for cold-climate comfort AE goes way north to the Arctic Circle for an inside look at Hyundai's winter testing of the new Nexo FCV and Kona EV and their unique and critical HVAC systems.Innovation more than skin deep A new wave of engineered plastics are delivering structural, mass-reducing, and aesthetic benefits for new vehicle applications.A secret weapon for roof-crush testing Before you crush that bus or racecar chassis, find out how engineers at CAPE are optimizing test-rig performance.Editorial: Tesla's Model 3 is two very different carsSAE Standards News A hive of activitySupplier Eye Why aren't there more unibody pickups?The Navigator We can't trust humans to supervise machinesAcura and ArcelorMittal debut world-first hot-stamped door ring system on 2019 RDXPowertrain analyst: Light-vehicle fleet needs big gains to meet tightening emissions regsToyota unveils more gasoline ICEs with 40% efficiencyIAV using 3D-printed pistons for engine testing2018 Kona debuts Hyundai's new B-SUV platformNissan variable-compression engine gets first shot at volume with new 2019 AltimaQ&A Honeywell's Geoff Duff talks turbos

Aerodynamic Behavior of Formula Student Open-Wheel Race Car Model with Regard to Head Restraint/Rear Wing Interaction

FaSTTUBe Formula Student Team TU Berlin-Steffen Feldhus
Technische Universität Berlin-Ben Steinfurth, Arne Berthold, Frank Haucke
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
A realistic open-wheel race car model is investigated experimentally by means of surface flow visualization using UV active tufts, wall pressure as well as force measurements. The head restraint size is varied and crosswind conditions are reproduced inside a closed test section with a non-moving ground. An assessment of the aerodynamic components determines the contributions of front wing, rear wing and side wings with respect to the performance of the race car. Maximum downforce of the order of cL ≈  −0.35 (front wing only), cL ≈  −1.4 (front wing and rear wing combined) and cL ≈  −1.5 (complete aero package) are found at a neutral yaw angle. By means of flow visualization and image subtraction techniques, regions of highly turbulent flow on the rear wing are identified. They are shown to grow in size when the largest head restraint is installed. As a result, the pressure distribution for this configuration exhibits a consistent decrease in magnitude. In the case of the smaller investigated head restraints, only marginal deviations are detected. The disadvantage of the largest head restraint, however, becomes less pronounced…
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Development of an Autonomous Vehicle Control Strategy Using a Single Camera and Deep Neural Networks

Akka Technologies-Jendrik Joerdening
Colorado State University-Zachary Asher
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Autonomous vehicle development has benefited from sanctioned competitions dating back to the original 2004 DARPA Grand Challenge. Since these competitions, fully autonomous vehicles have become much closer to significant real-world use with the majority of research focused on reliability, safety and cost reduction. Our research details the recent challenges experienced at the 2017 Self Racing Cars event where a team of international Udacity students worked together over a 6 week period, from team selection to race day. The team’s goal was to provide real-time vehicle control of steering, braking, and throttle through an end-to-end deep neural network. Multiple architectures were tested and used including convolutional neural networks (CNN) and recurrent neural networks (RNN). We began our work by modifying a Udacity driving simulator to collect data and develop training models which we implemented and trained on a laptop GPU. Then, in the two days between car delivery and the start of the competition, a customized neural network using Keras and Tensorflow was developed. The deep learning network algorithm predicted car steering angles using a single front-facing…
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Virtual Optimization of Race Engines Through an Extended Quasi Steady State Lap Time Simulation Approach

AUDI AG-Ulrich Baretzky, Hartmut Diel, Sebastian Wohlgemuth
FKFS-Michael Grill
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Minimizing the lap time for a given race track is the main target in racecar development. In order to achieve the highest possible performance of the vehicle configuration the mutual interaction at the level of assemblies and components requires a balance between the advantages and disadvantages for each design decision. Especially the major shift in the focus of racecar powerunit development to high efficiency powertrains is driving a development of lean boosted and rightsized engines. In terms of dynamic engine behavior the time delay from requested to provided torque could influence the lap time performance. Therefore, solely maximizing the full load behavior objective is insufficient to achieve minimal lap time.By means of continuous predictive virtual methods throughout the whole development process, the influence on lap time by dynamic power lags, e.g. caused by the boost system, can be recognized efficiently even in the early concept phase. As a first step, this paper presents a novel method that combines detailed 1D (one dimensional) gas dynamic engine models with the quasi steady state (QSS) lap time method.…
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The Effect of Inlet Turbulence Specifications on the RANS CFD Predictions of a NASCAR Gen-6 Racecar

UNC Charlotte Motorsports Engineering-Chen Fu, Mesbah Uddin, Christian Selent
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Turbulence modeling and the specific boundary conditions are among the two major simulation physics setup variables that affect the prediction veracity of a CFD simulation. The existing literature is rich with studies investigating the effect of the inlet boundary conditions on the predictability of a CFD simulation, and it is recognized that the turbulence characteristics of the freestream flow, viz. the turbulence intensity and length scale, can impact the simulation results significantly, even with the same turbulence model. However, none of these studies encompasses the significance of these two boundary specifications on the CFD analysis of a realistic racecar model. Against this backdrop, the purpose of this study is to systematically investigate the effect of different freestream turbulence specifications on the CFD predictions of the aerodynamic characteristics of a latest generation NASCAR Cup racecar model. Finite volume CFD simulations are carried out with: (a) five turbulence intensities of 0.1%, 0.5%, 1%, 5%, and 10% with a fixed turbulence length scale of 1 mm to examine the effect of the inlet turbulence intensity variability, and (b) five…
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Design and Development of Cooling System for a Formula SAE Race Car

VIT University-Rishabh Bahuguna, Tanmay Prasad, Rishabh Khanna, Akshyt Bimal Kumar, K Nantha gopal, Sushant Srivastava, Aagosh Mishra, Ashok B
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
In Formula Student, the vehicle working parameters are quite disparate from that of a commercially designed vehicle. The inability of teams to incorporate the atypical running conditions in their design causes multiple unforeseen issues. One such condition where the teams fail to improvise upon is the cooling system. Due to the high performance requirement of the competition, multiple teams participating face recurring heating problems. Maximum efficiency from a combustion vehicle can only be achieved when the cooling system is designed to handle the increasing power demand.This paper brings forth a detailed study on the intricate design of the cooling system. The problem has been approached using both theoretical and simulation models. Firstly, NTU-ℇ method was used to calculate the overall heat transfer coefficient and the temperature drop through the radiator core. Various parameters like core size, mass flow rate of water and air, fan configurations etc., were taken into consideration. Star CCM+ software was used to perform full body analysis to study the positioning of the radiator on the race car. Following this, the theoretical…
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FSAE Race Car Dynamics and Trajectory Optimization Considering Aerodynamic Effects

Huazhong University of Science and Technology-Ji Ma, Xiaoyu Chen, Yupeng Duan, Yunqing Zhang
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
The aerodynamic effects not only directly affect the acceleration and the fuel economy of the race car, but also have a great influence on the handling of the race car. In this paper, the vehicle multibody dynamic model with “double-wishbone suspension” and “rack and pinion steering” is established, in order to obtain aerodynamic parameters, the aerodynamic model of the vehicle is established, and the aerodynamic parameters were calculated by using CFD. In order to obtain the optimal travel track, the track model is established, according to weights allocation of the smallest curvature of each curve and the shortest curve to optimize the optimal route for racing. The influence of aerodynamic effects on the stability of vehicle control is analyzed through simulation of Endurance Racing to evaluate the maximum lateral acceleration、roll angle and other performance. According to the racing speed characteristics and distribution of longitudinal acceleration and lateral acceleration, the racing performance limit is evaluated, Comparing the racing model with the aerodynamic device and the racing model without the aerodynamic device, the aerodynamic device is greatly…
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