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Formula SAE Data Acquisition and Detailed Analysis of a Lap

Georgia Southern University-Connor M. Ashford, Aniruddha Mitra
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0544
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Formula Society of Automotive Engineers (FSAE) International is a student design competition organized by SAE. The student design involves engineering and manufacturing a formula style racecar and evaluating its performance. Testing and validation of the vehicle is an integral part of the design and performance during the competition. At the collegiate level the drivers are at the amateur level. As a result, the human factor plays a significant role in the outcome of the dynamic events. In order to reduce the uncertainty factor and improve the general performance, driver training is necessary. Instead of overall performance of the driver based on individual lap, our current research focuses on the more detailed components of the driver’s actions throughout different sections of the lap. A complete lap consists of several components, such as, straight line acceleration and braking, max and min radius cornering, slalom or “S” movements, and bus stops or quick braking and turning. In order to evaluate the performance of each driver in each of these components, an AiM data acquisition system is mounted in…
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Investigation of the Effect of Tire Deformation on Open-Wheel Aerodynamics

Graz University of Technology-Philipp Eder, Cornelia Lex
U.A.S. Graz-Thomas Gerstorfer, Thomas Amhofer
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0546
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper introduces a finite element (FE) approach to determine tire deformation and its effect on open-wheeled racecar aerodynamics. In recent literature the tire deformation was measured optically using cameras during wind tunnel testing. Combined loads like accelerat-ing at corner exit are difficult to reproduce in wind tunnels and would require several camer-as to measure the tire deformation. In contrast, an FE approach is capable of determining the tire deformation in combined load states accurately and additionally provides the possibility to vary further parameters, for example, the coefficient of friction. The FE tire model was validated using stiffness measurements, contact patch measurements and steady-state cornering measurements on a flat belt tire test rig. The deformed shape of the FE model was used in a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation. A sensitivity study was created to determine the effect of the tire deformation on aerodynamics for un-loaded, purely vertically loaded and combined vertical, lateral and longitudinal forces. In addition, the influence of these three tire deformations was investigated in a CFD study using a full vehicle…
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Design and Fabrication of Carbon Fibre/Epoxy-Aluminum Hybrid Suspension Control Arms for Formula SAE Race Cars

ARAI FID PUNE-Pramod Hande
Vellore Institute of Technology-Mayank Gupta, Akash Porwal, Harshvardhan Rao Budi, Padmanabhan Krishnan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0230
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Suspension system of a vehicle plays an important role to carefully control motion of the wheel throughout the travel. The vertical and the lateral dynamics (ride and handling) is affected by the unsprung-to-sprung mass ratio. Lower value of this mass ratio leads to enhanced performance of the car. To optimize the unsprung mass of the car, design of control arm plate is optimized with Aluminum material and Carbon fibre reinforced composite control arms framework are used to achieve high stiffness to weight ratio. These leads to increase in overall power to weight ratio of the car which helps to deliver maximum performance to the wheels. Through analysis of real-life working conditions of the entire steering knuckle assembly in ACP pre- post ANSYS 18.1 with the defined boundary conditions, equivalent stress and total deformations are obtained. Based on the results, geometrical topology of the control arms plates is further optimized. After several tensile tests on different bond length and bond gap, the outer surface of control arm tube was bonded to the inner surface of control…
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Experimentation for design improvements for coil spring in the independent suspension

Automann Inc.-Viraj Dave
Kettering University-Yaomin Dong
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0503
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The objective of this project is to analyze potential design changes that can improve the performance of helical spring in an independent suspension. The performance of the helical spring was based upon the result measure of maximum value of stress acting on it and the amount displacement caused when the spring undergoes loading. The design changes in the spring were limited to coil cross section, spring diameter (constant & variable), pitch and length of the spring. Using all the possible combinations of these design parameters linear stress analysis was performed on different spring designs and their Stress and displacement results were evaluated. Based on the results, the spring designs were classified as over designed or under designed springs. Next in this process, it was checked if the under designed springs can be optimized and classified according to a relevant application of the vehicles (racing cars or luxurious cars) and can they satisfy the requirements of fatigue life and vibration that helical spring suspension should under normal working conditions. The driving factor for this project was…
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Optimizing Gear Ratio Selection for Lap Performance

Univ. of Alabama-Robert Frederick
University of Alabama-Brandon Dixon
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0543
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The goal of this paper is to select the optimal gear ratios to determine the best overall lap time for a racing vehicle. Given a discrete set of individual gear ratio and final drive ratio options, the simulation chooses the set of gears and final drive that produce the minimum overall lap time. For example, one vehicle studied in this paper, an F2000 formula car, has 32 ratio choices for four forward gears and a final drive that has three different options. The simulation will iterate through the gear options to find the optimal gear selection for the best lap performance, accounting for various factors that could cause improper selection of gears. The simulation accounts for aerodynamic factors, gear shift time, rolling resistance and tire scrub. All values have been estimated from logged vehicle data, but experimental data can be easily used to help improve the vehicle model. Two vehicles were used in this simulation to compare the different types of racing and how that affects the gear selection. The first vehicle is the F2000…
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CAD-Based Optimization of a Race Car Front Wing

Phoenix Integration-Ilya Tolchinsky
Pointwise, Inc.-Travis Carrigan, Joshua Dawson
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0624
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The aerodynamics of the front wing of modern race cars are critical to the performance of the vehicle. The Formula 1 line up represents the state of the art in this field as there are some very complex aerodynamic designs on display. It is strange, however, that there is no agreement on twist direction for the multiple wing sections of the front wing. This paper addresses this question by posing it as an optimization problem. The geometry of the wings has been simplified so that the twist of the upper sections could be studied in isolation. The whole assembly consisted of only two high lift surfaces. The forward wing remained fixed for the study, and twist of the secondary wing became the primary focus. Its geometry was generated by lofting a set of cross-sections at specified angles to create the surface. The resulting geometry was automatically meshed and then evaluated using CFD. This fully automated process was then used to find an ideal twist distribution of the secondary wing. The results show that a higher…
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Fluid-Structure Interaction of a Spring-Mounted Symmetrical Rigid Wing for Drag Reduction of Cars at Higher Wind Velocities

Kingston University-George Haritos
University of Duisburg-Essen-Simon Fels
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-5037
Published 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
This paper details an aeroelastic concept for an adaptive and passive wing, which is primarily aimed for use within the automotive sector to reduce drag and fuel emissions. The work will also be of interest in the motorsport sector to improve performance and also some applications within the aerospace and renewable energy sectors. The wind tunnel testing of a spring-mounted symmetrical NACA 0012 wing in freestream is studied over 0° to 40° angles of incidence. General operation of the concept is verified at low angles in the pre-stall region with that of a theoretical estimation using finite and infinite wings. Three distinct regions are identified, pre-stall, near-stall, and post-stall. The transient limitations associated in the near-stall region with variations in spring loading and flow velocities are discovered. It is identified as a periodic self-sustained oscillation with nondimensional reduced frequencies in the range from 0.14 to 0.22. Furthermore, performance in the post-stall region along with pre-stall is reported, and methods for the adjustment of the elastic element for a desired response are introduced. Evaluation is conducted…
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Rework of an in-line two-cylinder engine for the application in Formula Student

FH JOANNEUM Graz, Department of Automotive Engineering-Michael Feigl B.Sc, Dominik Rößmann B.Sc, FH-Prof. DI Michael Trzesniowski
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0532
Published 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Formula Student is an international design competition, where students all over the world develop, design and build their own race car and afterwards compete with each other at different disciplines at events worldwide. The development process includes every module of the race car and the team of joanneum racing graz has focused on the powertrain since the beginning.The following paper contains an overview of the reworking process of an in-line two-cylinder engine for the application in Formula Student. The intention was to increase the BMEP and at the same time reach a desired power/weight ratio of the engine. The process of selecting the most appropriate turbocharger by means of experimental testing on an engine dynamometer, as well as its optimization by means of numerical simulation, is outlined. Subsequently, the paper discusses the challenges regarding valve timing and finding the best trade-off between power and residual gas with the help of 1D-simulations. The necessary implementation of an intercooler and its efficiency optimization is also addressed. Finally, the calibration and optimization of the setup on the engine…
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Engine calibration and driveability evaluation of a racecar

Federal University of Santa Maria-Aleff Goulart, Alexandre Piccini, Alice Müller, Felipe Balbom, Mario Martins, Pedro Carvalho
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0126
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The passenger car automakers are always competing to excel in vehicle characteristics related to passenger comfort and driveability aspects. The engine calibration is a theoretical and experimental procedure with the intention to extract maximum efficiency from the engine and guarantee satisfactory levels of driving for both conventional and racing cars. This paper describes the calibration procedure of a Formula SAE race car engine. The engine was a four cylinder 600 cm3 four-strokes with modified intake and exhaust systems, controlled by an engine control unit (Motec M800 ECU). These engines present optimized characteristics for high speed, in exchange for some combustion degradation in some specific operating conditions at low speed that may impair vehicle driveability. Therefore, good tip-in reaction and the progression of the torque delivery are fundamental criteria to increase the vehicle performance, specially, to those submitted to short acceleration distances. The related criteria to the vehicle dynamic comfort has objective values to measure the abrupt engine speed transactions, jerks and acceleration variability related to torque variation. Improvement on such parameters can be obtained by…
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Optimization of Race Car Front Splitter Placement Using CFD

Delhi Technological University-Sourajit Bhattacharjee, B.B. Arora, Vishesh Kashyap
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-5097
Published 2019-12-30 by SAE International in United States
The behavior of flow over an automobile’s body has a large effect on vehicle performance, and automobile manufacturers pay close attention to the minimal of the details that affect the performance of the vehicle. An imbalance of downforce between the front and rear portion of the vehicle can lead to significant performance hindrances. Worldwide efforts have been made by leading automobile manufacturers to achieve maximum balanced downforce using aerodynamic elements of vehicle. One such element is the front splitter. This study aims to analyze the aerodynamic performance of automobile at various splitter overhang lengths using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). For the purpose of analysis, a three-dimensional (3D) CFD study was undertaken in ANSYS Fluent using the realizable k-ε turbulence model, based on the 3D compressible Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) equations. The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) 4412 was taken as profile for the fixed-length splitter attached to a NASCAR 2019 model body. Vehicle speeds of 200, 250, and 300 km/h were considered in order to simulate the velocity of a race car. Drag coefficient, lift…
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