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Aerodynamic analysis of race car using active wing concept.

ARAI Academy-Prakash P Bhanushali
Automotive Research Association of India-Mohammad Rafiq Agrewale, Kamalkishore Vora
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2395
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
In high speed race cars, aerodynamics is an important aspect for determining performance and stability of vehicle. It is mainly influenced by front and rear wings. Active aerodynamics consist of any type of movable wing element that change their position based on operating conditions of the vehicle to have better performance and handling. In this work, front and rear wings are designed for race car prototype of race car. The high down force aerofoil profiles have been used for design of front and rear wing. The first aerodynamic analysis has been performed on baseline model without wings using CFD tool. For investigation, parameters considered are angle of attack in the range of 0-18˚ for front as well as rear wing at different test speeds of 60, 80, 100 and 120 kmph. The simulation is carried out by using ANSYS Fluent. The simulation results show significant improvement in vehicle performance and handling parameters. To validate the results, a scaled model prototype is manufactured and tested in wind tunnel. Keywords: Active aerodynamics, wing, angle of attack, racecar.
 

Transient Response Analysis and Synthesis of an FSAE Vehicle using Cornering Compliance

SRM Institute Of Science And Technology-Vasanthkumar CH, Shubham Subhnil, Pranav Suresh, K Kamalakkannan
SRM Institute of Science & Technology-Nanthakumar Ajd
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2400
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
OBJECTIVE Race vehicles are designed to achieve higher lateral acceleration arising at cornering conditions. A focused study on the steady state handling of the car is essential for the analysis of such conditions. The transient response analysis of the car is also equally important to achieve best driver-car relationship and to quantify handling in the range suitable for a racing car. This research aims to investigate the design parameters responsible for the transient characteristics and optimize those design parameters. This research work examines the time-based analysis of the problem to truly capture the non-linear dynamics. Apart from tires, chassis can be tuned to optimize vehicle handling and hence the response times. METHODOLOGY To start with, the system is modelled with governing parameters and simulation is carried out to set baseline configurations. Steady state and transient handling simulations run independent of each other with independent logic, coded on MATLAB. The static testing of the chassis is carried over using a Kinematic & Compliance (K & C) testing rig to get Compliance Budget and hence the calculated…
 

Design of a novel Electro-Pneumatic gear shift system for a Sequential gearbox

Vellore Institute of Technology-Jeevesh Jain, Vaibhav Mittal, Dore Ranganath Srinivasa Raghuraman, Shivam Singh Rathore, Sumit Nilesh Vadodaria
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0011
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes the design of a novel pneumatic gear shifting system to replace the existing gear stick manual shifting system for ease of the driver while shifting gears. The aim of this work is to have a semi-automatic shifting(pneumatic shifting) removing the need for the driver clutch operation. The system consists of a solenoid valve, CO2 gas pressurized cylinder, double acting cylinder, and single acting cylinder. On basis of the signal received the gear needs to be changed, the shifter opens or closes a magnetic valve assembly. The solenoid valve allows the compressed air into the piston that comes from a pressurized cylinder, in order to create the effect of shifting gears. Pedal shifter and buttons are used to shift the gears. The pedal shifter was designed by using a 3-D printing technique using PLA material. The microcontroller used is ATMEGA-328 in this system. There are three switches, one for upshift, downshift, and clutch respectively. An algorithm has been created in a microcontroller for a sequential gearbox of CBR 600RR. The system has been…
 

Design and Fabrication of CFRP wheel centre for FSAE Race-car

VIT-Sangeet Aggarwal, Renold Elsen
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0117
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The work focuses on the design of a Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) Wheel Centre targeting key parameters such as reduced un-sprung mass and lower rotational inertia in the (PRV 2017) Formula-style single seater race car developed for Formula Student Germany. The main issue that was reported by the vehicle dynamics team was to get a customised wheel-offset for our FSAE race-car. To address the issue with an added advantage of reduced un-sprung mass and lower rotational inertia, CFRP wheel centres were introduced. Previously the team used the Keizer Wheel Centre made of Aluminium (1.8 kilograms) which didn’t provide the required wheel-offset as per the geometry designed by the Vehicle Dynamics (VD) team. So, the composite department worked on the development of CFRP 24-layered wheel centre.Designing of CFRP Wheel Centre was based on the design constraints such as distance between hub and wheel assembly to ensure the same geometry of the car as per the design of VD within the set of Formula Student rules. To develop the CFRP Wheel Centre and CAE routine were…
 

Design and Testing of Custom Brake Caliper of a Formula Student Race Car

Vellore Institute of Technology-Mosam Ugemuge, Sreethul Das
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0007
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
A formula student race car is a car designed and manufactured for speed, performance, and competition. Effective braking is a critical factor for this high performance car. This paper focuses on creating an optimal design of a brake caliper for a formula student race car, selecting a material having high strength to weight ratio considering the ease of manufacturing and low cost and testing it on the race car simulating the actual conditions. The computer-aided design model is created in SolidWorks and is analyzed in ANSYS. The manufactured part is tested by mounting the caliper on the formula student race car to observe the braking performance. The pressure data is logged using a Race Capture Data Logger for a particular run by brake pressure sensor and analysed by GEMS software. The results from the deceleration vs pressure data deviate from the expected results by just 9%, thus validating the design.
 
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A New Approach for Development of a High-Performance Intake Manifold for a Single-Cylinder Engine Used in Formula SAE Application

SAE International Journal of Engines

VIT University, India-Venugopal Thangavel, Anubhav Routray
  • Journal Article
  • 03-12-04-0027
Published 2019-07-26 by SAE International in United States
The Formula SAE (FSAE) is an international engineering competition where a Formula style race car is designed and built by students from worldwide universities. According to FSAE regulation, an air restrictor with circular cross section of 20 mm for gasoline-fuelled and 19 mm for E-85-fuelled vehicles is to be incorporated between the throttle valve and engine inlet. The sole purpose of this regulation is to limit the airflow to the engine used. The only sequence allowed is throttle valve, restrictor and engine inlet. A new approach of combining ram theory and acoustic theory methods are investigated to increase the performance of the engine by designing an optimized intake runner for a particular engine speed range and an optimized plenum volume in this range. Engine performance characteristics such as brake power, brake torque and volumetric efficiency are taken into considerations. Ricardo Wave simulation software is used to evaluate the impacts of plenum volume and runner length on engine performance based on the afore-mentioned performance characteristics. Various intake manifold designs are iterated in accordance with the surface…
 

F1 STREAMLINES FOR CLOSER RACING

Automotive Engineering: May 2019

Dan Carney
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AUTP05_05
Published 2019-05-01 by SAE International in United States

In the downforce vs. turbulence battle, Formula 1 enacts technical changes to rev up the on-track spectacle.

Ongoing aerodynamic development of Formula 1 racecars has the most obvious goals of increasing the cars' downforce and reducing their drag to produce the fastest speeds and quickest lap times.

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Developing a Track Simulation Tool for Formula Student Race Cars Using Python

Ain Shams University-Sherif Khedr, Hashim Elzaabalawy, Mohamed Abdelaziz
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Formula Student is a competition held on yearly basis in multiple countries around the world. Students from different universities participate in this competition implementing some of the most sophisticated techniques in design and analysis of Formula Student car performance. In this research a track simulation tool is developed using Python to analyze the effect of different systems on the car performance, and to test the performance of the car on the Autocross track. For simplicity, the car is modeled as point mass in straight roads and corners. Intensive studies were carried out leading to a conclusion that, in some cases, point mass modeling leads to some inaccuracy and in others it provides the solution. Therefore, to achieve simulation accuracy, the point mass model was replaced with four degrees of freedom, or “bicycle”, model counterpart when it couldn’t provide an accurate solution, and the difference between both models results are discussed. The brake bias ratio selected for the brake system versus human force applied on the brake pedal was optimized and the optimization technique is discussed…
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Evaluation of Ecosystem for Design Assessment and Verification by BAJA Dynamometer Capstone Team at the University of Nebraska

Imagars LLC; Portland State University-Baldur Steingrimsson
Portland State University-Bao Phan, Sung Yi
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This paper summarizes the outcome of an evaluation by capstone design teams from the Department of Mechanical and Materials Engineering at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, of the Ecosystem for Design Assessment and Verification. The Ecosystem is a design decision support tool whose main goal is to identify design oversights, defined in terms of deviations from the design process or unfulfilled design requirements, early in the design process, guide designers through the design process, and teach proper design techniques. It is capable of automatically assessing students’ design work against ABET compliant learning outcomes. The Ecosystem offers many additional features found useful by capstone design teams, such as automatic generation of formatted project reports as well as interfaces to tools for team communications (Google Drive, Dropbox or OneDrive) or development (e.g., SolidWorks, CATIA, NX Unigraphics or AutoCAD).The Ecosystem was recently evaluated by a capstone team working on an automated straw flattening machine and again during a following semester by a team designing a dynamometer used for measuring the engine power of a BAJA race car.The paper draws…
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Increasing the Aerodynamic Performance of a Formula Student Race Car by Means of Active Flow Control

FaSTTUBe - Formula Student Team TU Berlin-Steffen Feldhus
TU Berlin (Technical University)-Ben Steinfurth, Arne Berthold, Frank Haucke, Julien Weiss
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This article involves an experimental study regarding the capability of fluidic actuators to increase the aerodynamic performance of a four-element race car rear wing. Sweeping jet actuators are integrated in the upper flap, of which the angle of attack is increased by up to ΔαF3 = 40° with reference to a passively optimized setup. Different velocities of the emitted sweeping jets are applied to study the influence of momentum coefficients cμ = 0.04 … 0.98%. To prove the feasibility of the approach, flow control is first applied to a stand-alone rear wing tested in a small wind tunnel. Subsequently, a realistic race car model featuring the controlled rear wing is investigated in a larger-scale wind tunnel. Employing particle image velocimetry, flow visualization techniques as well as pressure and force measurements, we show that the velocity field on the suction side of the upper flap is characterized by flow separation of different degrees when the angle of attack is increased beyond ΔαF3 = 20° (rear wing only) and ΔαF3 = 30° (complete race car). Generally, the…
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