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PMSM motor drive for Electric Vehicle applications

Vaishnavi V
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2475
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
To control air pollution in urban areas and to reduce carbon print in the cities, nowadays EV’s are preferred over IC engine vehicles. Earlier Electric vehicles used DC motor and Induction motors. But Brushless Permanent Magnet motors are preferred over Induction motor for EV’s due to their High Torque density, high-power density and highly efficiency. Prevalent Electric vehicles today have Brushless DC motors. Compared to BLDC, PMSM motor have smoother control and negligible torque ripplesThus, PMSM motor is preferred over BLDC for Electric Vehicle, because of its sinusoidal back emf which results in smoother control, and results into smoother and more comfortable driving experience to users. Methodology Sensor based field-oriented control (FOC) is implemented in 48 V 5kW Interior PMSM motor. . To start the Synchronous motor initial position of the rotor magnetic field should be known. After rotor alignment, incremental encoder is used to detect the rotor position or rotor flux position. As incremental encoder gives relative position, rotor is aligned to a known position, and then algorithm moves to closed loop FOC. In…

Analysis and Aerodynamic Stability on Design of Low cost and Economical Monocopter

UG Scholar-Harshil BHANDARI
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2523
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Most recent or all developments in the field of small UAV’s seem to use Quadcopters. It’s a valued commenting that a quadcopter is a smaller amount stable than a similar regular chopper and is additionally less economical. A Quadcopter UAV’s with four propellers is always a major concern to the society when brings to its stability as its major factor. To design and analyze the use of one propeller monocopter is the main objective of this paper. Wacky Whirler technology used here to demonstrate the passage of the monocopter. It is a single propeller powered with a coreless motor which is a modern enhancement in the UAV. It is based on the All Rotating monocopter theory. In the proposed system, controller based on IOT can be used which will be helpful in monitoring and processing the microdrone status. These forms of style have several potential applications in surveillance and agriculture; there are several eventualities wherever it's tempting for the stable UAV to be able to travel safely to long distances and hover for extended periods of time.

Advanced Assembly Solutions for the Airbus RACER Joined-Wing Configuration

University of Nottingham-David Bainbridge, Konstantinos Bacharoudis, Andrea Cini, Alison Turner, Atanas Popov, Svetan Ratchev
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1884
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
The Rapid And Cost Effective Rotorcraft (RACER) is being developed by Airbus Helicopters (ABH) to demonstrate a new Vertical Take-Off and Landing configuration to fill the mobility gap between conventional helicopters and aeroplanes. RACER is a compound rotorcraft featuring wings and multiple rotors. The wing arrangement suggested by ABH is defined as a staggered bi-plane joined configuration with an upper and a lower straight wing, either side of the fuselage, connected at their outboard extent to form a triangular structure. The ASTRAL consortium, consisting of the University of Nottingham and GE Aviation Systems, are responsible for the design, manufacture and assembly of the wings. Producing an optimised strategy to assemble a joined-wing configuration for a passenger carrying rotorcraft is challenging and novel. The objective of this work concerns all aspects of assembling the joined-wing structure. The joined-wing and fuselage structures will be produced independently and mated together during the final RACER assembly. A multi-stage process will deliver the joined-wing assembly and ensure it will fit to the fuselage. Producing the individual wing structures requires a…

Numerical Analysis of a Cycloidal Rotor Under Diverse Operating Conditions and Altitudes

Universidade Da Beira Interior-Mehdi Habibnia Rami, Jose Pascoa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1872
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
The current paper deals with the numerical study of the downwash flowfield characteristics in a cycloidal rotor. In an aircraft equipped with this kind of thruster, the downwash flow plays significant role in different flight modes. The interaction of this downwash jet with ground in effective height levels is studied using CFD simulations. Several operating conditions like pitching oscillation angles, rotation speeds and height levels are all considered in this work. The results declare that close-ground operating states augments the efficiency of cyclorotor. The vertical and horizontal forces of a single blade is also analyzed in a complete cycloid in different operating conditions. A lead and lag in maximum and minimum extremes of force curves of a single blade cycloid is obtained while being subjected to different functional conditions. These results strongly assure that an active control of both pitching oscillation and rotation speed is essential in operating at the optimum desired state.

The Analysis of Brake Squeal Noise Related to the Friction Properties of Brake Friction Materials

Hyundai Motor Company-Sang-mok Lee, Jung Hoon Woo, Dong Won Kim
Hyundai Motor Company & KIA Motors Corporation-Younggu Cho
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2132
To be published on 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
The friction properties related to squeal noise was analyzed with the development histories and simplified computational method. Firstly, the development histories were investigated especially focusing on the case which the friction materials were modified to improve squeal noise occurrence. Based on the histories, the friction properties of selected friction materials were newly measured using dynamometer. The average friction coefficient levels, torque oscillations, the increment of friction coefficient during full-stop, and etc. were compared with the squeal noise occurrence, and the results showed that increase of friction properties cause production of squeal noise. The result suggested that the size of friction energy was important factors related to triggering the squeal noise. Also, the contact conditions between rotor disc and friction materials were significant factors deciding the noise occurrence. We performed simplified computational analysis using MATLAB program to prove the effect of friction energy on the noise occurrence. The friction surfaces were roughly designed and the distribution of contact plateaus was controlled to simulate different contact conditions. The different contact conditions were designed and performed sliding at…

An Ice Shedding Model for Rotating Components

ANSYS Inc.-Shezad Nilamdeen, Yue Zhang, Isik Ozcer, Guido S. Baruzzi
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
A CFD simulation methodology is presented to evaluate the ice that sheds from rotating components. The shedding detection is handled by coupling the ice accretion and stress analysis solvers to periodically check for the propagation of crack fronts and possible detachment. A novel approach for crack propagation is highlighted where no change in mesh topology is required. The entire computation from flow to impingement, ice accretion and crack analysis only requires a single mesh. The accretion and stress module are validated individually with published data. The analysis is extended to demonstrate potential shedding scenarios on three complex industrially-relevant 3D cases: a helicopter blade, an engine fan blade and a turboprop propeller. The largest shed fragment will be analyzed in the context of FOD damage to neighboring aircraft/component surfaces.
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Multi-Shot Icing Simulations with Automatic Re-Meshing

ANSYS Inc.-Isik Ozcer, David Switchenko, Guido S. Baruzzi, Jian Chen
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
A full-automated CFD mesh generation technique has been developed and implemented for 3-D aircraft icing simulations to permit robust 45-minute ice accretion simulations in support of icing certification campaigns. The changes in the shape of the aircraft surfaces due to accreting ice and their effects on the air and droplet flow are accounted for in a quasi-steady manner by subdividing the total icing time into sequential steps of shorter duration, updating the computational grid at each step. This “multi-shot” ice accretion approach requires robust and accurate grid re-meshing for it to be embedded in engineering design and analysis workflows. ANSYS FENSAP-ICE has been coupled to Fluent Meshing to take advantage of generic and highly automated surface displacement and mesh wrapping tools. A wide spectrum of geometries is supported, ranging from full-size aircraft to air data probes, turbomachinery components, rotors and propellers. With this technology, obtaining 45-minute ice shapes at holding conditions in support of icing certification campaigns requires no manual input from the user once the calculation is started. The results shown include 45-minute ice…
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CH148 Icing Flight Test Performance Data Correlation

Sikorsky, a Lockheed Martin Company-Daniel Griffiths
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents results of correlation of an empirical code to CH148 Cyclone® icing flight test performance data. Predicted icing main rotor torque penalties, generated using the Sikorsky Generalized Rotor Performance (GRP) model with the integral DELICE icing performance module, are compared to flight test results. DELICE methodology adjustments are shown that lead to CH148 test data correlation and improved correlation to previously-examined S-92A™ icing flight test performance data. Finally, a comparison of results between GRP and Sikorsky-Maryland FreeWake is shown, providing an indication of the influence of rotor wake methodology on icing model correlation.
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Numerical Simulation of Aircraft and Variable-Pitch Propeller Icing with Explicit Coupling

ANSYS Inc.-Isik Ozcer, Guido S. Baruzzi, Miraj Desai, Maged Yassin
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
A 3D CFD methodology is presented to simulate ice build-up on propeller blades exposed to known icing conditions in flight, with automatic blade pitch variation at constant RPM to maintain the desired thrust. One blade of a six-blade propeller and a 70-passenger twin-engine turboprop are analyzed as stand-alone components in a multi-shot quasi-steady icing simulation. The thrust that must be generated by the propellers is obtained from the drag computed on the aircraft. The flight conditions are typical for a 70-passenger twin-engine turboprop in a holding pattern in Appendix C icing conditions: 190 kts at an altitude of 6,000 ft. The rotation rate remains constant at 850 rpm, a typical operating condition for this flight envelope. Two icing conditions are simulated: air static temperature -23 °C, LWC 0.2 g/m3 and MVD 20 microns resulting in rime ice, and air static temperature -16 °C, LWC 0.3 g/m3 and MVD 20 microns resulting in mixed ice with rime to glaze transition in the radial direction. The ice shapes in both conditions are assumed to remain intact and…
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Vibro-Acoustic Analysis for Modeling Propeller Shaft Liner Material

General Motors-Rajith R. Jayaratne, Yu Liu, Mark Gehringer, Jeff Rayce, Wallace Hill
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
In recent truck applications, single-piece large-diameter propshafts, in lieu of two-piece propshafts, have become more prevalent to reduce cost and mass. These large-diameter props, however, amplify driveline radiated noise. The challenge presented is to optimize prop shaft modal tuning to achieve acceptable radiated noise levels. Historically, CAE methods and capabilities have not been able to accurately predict propshaft airborne noise making it impossible to cascade subsystem noise requirements needed to achieve desired vehicle level performance. As a result, late and costly changes can be needed to make a given vehicle commercially acceptable for N&V performance prior to launch.This paper will cover the development of a two-step CAE method to predict modal characteristics and airborne noise sensitivities of large-diameter single piece aluminum propshafts fitted with different liner treatments. The first step is the use of a traditional CAE software to calculate prop surface response. The second step is a boundary element simulation to calculate prop surface radiated noise under the excitation obtained from the first step. Finally, acceleration and acoustic test data are presented to assess…
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