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Simulation of SACI Autoignition Phasing Sensitivity for Production Controls Strategies

Clemson University-Dennis Robertson, Robert Prucka
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1145
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Spark-assisted compression ignition (SACI) is a combustion strategy that leverages flame propagation to trigger autoignition. The autoignition event is highly sensitive to several parameters, and thus, achieving SACI in production demands a robust response to variations in conditions. However, limited research is available to quantify the combustion response of SACI to these variations. A simulation study is performed to identify the sensitivity in autoignition timing as ethanol content, fuel RON, air-fuel ratio, EGR level, and the phasing of flame propagation are swept. An experimentally-validated one-dimensional simulation model provides the composition, state, and flow metrics at BDC. The results are applied to the Leeds diagram to ensure the conditions are viable for flame propagation. The conditions at BDC are then transferred to a chemical kinetics solver, where autoignition is modeled using a detailed chemical kinetics mechanism. These results are used to explore the SACI combustion controls space. The range of CA50 control authority is particularly important as combustion phasing is used to perform rapid torque changes. The steady-state combustion control authority is evaluated, and potential controls…
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Impact of plasma length on flame kernel development under flow condition

Univ of Windsor-Qingyuan Tan, Xiao Yu, Zhenyi Yang, Li Liang, Ming Zheng, Graham Reader
Univ. of Windsor-Hua Zhu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1114
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Advanced ignition systems with enhanced discharge current level have been extensively investigated in research, since they are highly regarded to have potentials to overcome challenges arisen when spark-ignition engines are running under lean or EGR diluted conditions. Local flow field is also of particularly importance to improve the ignitability of the ignition system as spark plasma channel is stretched under flow conditions, leading to more thermal spark energy distribution to the air-fuel mixture in the vicinity of the spark plug. Research results have shown that a constantly high discharge current is considered to be effective to maintain stable discharge with less restrikes and longer plasma holding period. However, with the further increase of the discharge current, plasma channel becomes thicker, and the stretched plasma length becomes shorter under certain flow speed, which may suppress the advantages of the presence of air flow. In this work, the interaction between discharge current level and plasma length under flow conditions is investigated. Whether a thick but short plasma or a thin but stretched long plasma are more effective…
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Starting process control of a 2-cylinder PFI gasoline engine for range extender

Tongji Univ-Minglong Li, Ran Zhang, Xingyu Zeng, Weiqi Ding, Weiang Mao, Shaoye JIN, Rufeng Xu, Dengke Yuan, Zongjie Hu, Zaimin Zhong, Liguang Li
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0315
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
With the increasing worldwide concern on environmental pollution, blade electrical vehicles (BEV) have attracted a lot attention. However, it still couldn’t satisfy the market requirements because of the low battery power density, high cost and long charging time. The range-extended electrical vehicle (REEV) got more attention because it could avoid the mileage anxiety of the BEVs with lower cost and potentially higher efficiency. When internal combustion engine (ICE) works as the power source of range extender (RE) for REEV, its NVH, emissions in starting process need to be optimized. In this paper, a 2-cylinder PFI gasoline engine and a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) are coaxially connected. Meanwhile, batteries and load systems were equipped. The RE co-control system was developed based on Compact RIO, Labview and motor control unit (MCU). Focused on the starting process, the effects of first firing speeds, throttle control strategies and coolant temperatures were tested. The results show that the higher first firing speed is preferred without obvious torque fluctuation, and longer throttle switching duration to high load results in lower…
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Smart Plug for Combustion Control in Gasoline Engines and Misfiring and Knock Detection

Detroit Engineered Products (DEP) Inc-Kamal Assaad
Wayne State Univ.-Naeim A. Henein
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0790
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A new generation of spark plugs has been developed to produce an ion current signal needed for the control of the combustion process and achieve the production goals of reduced emissions, and improved engine performance and fuel economy. A unique feature of the smart plug is its ability to develop a complete ion current signal and accurately identify the start of combustion. This is not the case for the conventional spark plug where the start of combustion cannot be determined from the ion current signal because its early part is completely overshadowed by the strong electromagnetic field produced by the spark ignition system. The paper describes the construction of the smart plug and compares between its ion current signal and that produced by the conventional spark plug. In addition, a comparison is made between the smart plug and the pressure transducer in the detection of misfire and engine knock.  
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Microstructure-Fatigue Property Relationships for Cast Irons

National Research Council-Xijia Wu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0187
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Cast irons are widely used for combustion engine/exhaust system applications, not only because they are less expensive but also because they offer some attractive properties such as good thermal conductivity, relatively high specific yield strength, and good oxidation resistance. Cast irons can be made with a wide variety of microstructures containing either flake-like graphite (FG), nodular graphite (NG) or vermicular graphite (VG), or mixing of the above, which control their mechanical and fatigue properties. In this paper, a microstructure-fatigue property relationship model is developed, combining the Tanaka-Mura-Wu’s fatigue crack nucleation model with Eshelby’s solution for materials containing ellipsoidal inclusions. This applies to cast irons considering its microstructural graphite characters (shape, size, elastic modulus and Poisson’s ratio). This model is used to analyse ductile cast iron (DCI) with nodular graphite (NG) microstructure, grey cast iron (GCI) with flake-like graphite (FG) microstructure, and compacted graphite iron (CGI) with vermicular graphite (VG) microstructure. Excellent agreement is found between the model prediction and the experimental data or the Coffin-Manson-Basquin correlations at room temperature. Further development will be to incorporate…
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An Iterative Histogram-based Optimization of Calibration Tables in a Powertrain Controller

Fiat Chrysler Automobiles-Omkar Rane, Krishna Madireddy, Bryon Wasacz
McMaster University-Lucas Bruck, Saeed Amirfarhangi Bonab, Adam Lempert, Atriya Biswas, Joel Roeleveld, Ali Emadi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0266
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
To comply with the stringent fuel consumption requirements, many automobile manufacturers have launched vehicle electrification programs which are representing a paradigm shift in vehicle design. Looking specifically at powertrain calibration, optimization approaches were developed to help the decision-making process in the powertrain control. Due to computational power limitations the most common approach is still the use of powertrain calibration tables in a rule-based controller. This is true despite the fact that the most common manual tuning can be quite long and exhausting, and with the optimal consumption behavior rarely being achieved. The present work proposes a simulation tool that has the objective to automate the process of tuning a calibration table in a powertrain model. To achieve that, it is first necessary to define the optimal reference performance, here provided by the measurements of a supervisory controller during vehicle testing. The calibration table then has its values optimized (using Genetic Algorithm method) to a single value that better matches the. reference performance A novel Iterative Histogram procedure is then used to identify which cells from…
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Research on Control Strategy Optimization for Shifting Process of Pure Electric Vehicle Based on Multi-objective Genetic Algorithm

Yulong Lei, Jingxu zhang, Yao Fu, fuchun jia, Binyu Wang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0971
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
With more and more countries proposing timetables for stopping selling of fuel vehicles, China has also issued a “dual-slope” policy. As electric vehicles are the most promising new energy vehicle, which is worth researching. The integration and control of the motor and gearbox have gradually become a hot research topic due to low cost with better performance. This paper takes an electric vehicle equipped with permanent magnet synchronous motor and two-gear automatic transmission without synchronizer and clutch as the research object. Through the action of the motor, gearbox and shift actuator in the shifting process, the whole vehicle dynamics is modeled in each stage of shifting, a method for determining a short-term driving style intensity factor for decision shifting is proposed, three evaluation indexes of the shift quality of electric vehicle are put forward, the control parameters affecting the shift quality are analyzed, and the mathematical relationship between the shift control parameters, the shifting time and the shifting impact are obtain. Besides, the NSGA-II algorithm is used to carry out multi-objective global optimization of the…
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Effects of Ultra-High Injection Pressures up to 100 MPa on Gasoline Spray Morphology

Istituto Motori CNR-Alessandro Montanaro, Luigi Allocca, Giovanni Meccariello
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0320
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Very high pressures for injecting gasoline in i.c. engines are recently explored to improve the air/fuel mixing process in order to control UBHC and particulate matter emissions such as for investigating new combustion concepts. The challenge remains the improvement of the spray parameters in terms of atomization, smaller droplets and their spread in the combustion chamber in order to enhance the combustion efficiency. In this framework, the raise of the injection pressure plays a key role in GDI engines for the trade-off of CO2 vs other pollutant emissions. This study aims contributing to the knowledge of the physical phenomena and mechanisms occurring when fuel is injected at ultra-high pressures for mapping and controlling the mixture formation for the combustion processes. Liquid and vapor phases of the fuel, injected by a GDI multi-hole device, were investigated to highlight the pressure role (up to 100 MPa) on the spray morphology under different ambient conditions. Commercial gasoline was injected in a constant volume vessel by a prototypal 5-hole, L/D: 2.6, solenoid activated GDI injector. Nitrogen gas was pressurized…
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Effect of Fuel and Lubricant on Engine Vibration.

Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais-Jose Mautone, Juan Gutierrez PhD, Hélder Almeida Junior
Universidade Federal de Ouro Preto-Claudio Marcio Santana
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1015
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Vibration problems in internal combustion engines produce premature wear on the internal components of the engine, which contributes both to reduce the lifespan of the engine itself as well as cause discomfort to the occupants of the vehicle. Thus, since it is impossible to totally eliminate vibrations from engines, it is important to understand the sources of vibration production and control them to acceptable levels. The general objective of this paper is to measure the vibration in the areas that undergo greater efforts due to the processes of combustion and mechanical forces. These areas are the fixed bearings located to the extremes of the crankshaft. The specified objective of this study is to correlate these levels of crankshaft engine vibration relative to the fuel used, ethanol and gasoline, and assess the influence of lubricant oils on the vibration levels as a function of the viscosity of the lubricant. The results demonstrated that the vibration intensity of the engine increases with increasing engine speed and load. In all operating conditions, the ethanol-run engine has higher vibration…
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Optimal Control Strategy for a Next Generation Range Extended Electric Bus

Queen's University Belfast-Yuanjian Zhang, Martin Murtagh, Juliana Early, Geoff Cunningham
Wrightbus Ltd-David Steele, Robert Best
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0844
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Electrically driven buses have become one of the main vehicle platforms for demonstrating the advantages and capabilities of electric vehicles. This type of vehicle can be powered from several different sources that each have several unique operating characteristics and performance requirements that necessitate novel solutions. In this paper, a novel optimal control strategy based on the next generation range-extended electric bus has been developed. Control strategies play an essential role in extracting the full potential of electric buses and increase their effectiveness at displacing conventional internal-combustion powered buses and thus, reducing global fuel consumption and emissions. Initially, a control-oriented powertrain model was developed in Matlab/Simulink. The series-hybrid powertrain model configuration was then used as the basis to study various control strategies. A new control strategy was devised based on an equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS) to govern the powertrain when operating in different modes. Due to the high impact the drive cycle has on the equivalent factor (EF) in an ECMS, an offline optimization process is performed to further increase the effect of the ECMS…