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Impact of different types of glazing on Air- Conditioning system performance of vehicle

Maruti Suzuki India, Ltd.-Akshay Bhateja
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1249
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Due to intense peak summer temperatures and sunny summers in tropical countries like India, achieving the required cabin temperature in vehicle without compromising on fuel efficiency is becoming increasingly challenging. The major source of heat load on vehicle is solar load. Therefore, a study has been conducted to evaluate the heat load on vehicle cabin due to solar radiations and its impact on vehicle Air-Conditioning system performance with various combinations of door glasses and windscreen. The glasses used for this study are classified as Green, Dark Green, Dark Gray, Standard PVB (Polyvinyl Butyral) Windscreen and PVB Windscreen having Infrared Cut particles. For each glass, part level evaluation was done to find out the percentage transmittance of light of different wavelengths and percentage transmittance of heat flux through each glass. To verify the effectiveness of each glass, vehicle level Air-Conditioning system performance test was done in All Weather Chassis Dyno Facility for each retrofitted vehicle. Retrofitted vehicle configurations were decided as per regional visible light transmittance regulations. To eliminate the effect of manufacturing variance while evaluating…
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Bicycle Braking Performance Testing and Analysis

Momentum Engineering Corp.-Nicholas Famiglietti, Benjamin Nguyen, Edward Fatzinger, Jon Landerville
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0876
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The goal of this study was to determine the braking capabilities of different bicycle types, with different brake setups and applications. A variety of bicycles, including a mountain bike, beach cruiser, BMX bike, road bike, and commuter bike were used to perform brake-to-stop tests. Prior to brake testing, the bicycles were fully inspected, prepped, and documented. Details of the bicycles’ make, model, tires, wheels, brake setup, suspension setup, and preexisting damage were photographed and recorded. The standardized brake testing procedure consisted of rear only brake application and both front and rear brake application. In order to maintain brake application consistency, a single rider performed all series of the skid/brake tests at the same location, on dry asphalt. The tests were performed at an initial velocity of 9 – 20 mph. For each test, the rider accelerated to the test speed and applied maximum braking effort while maintaining a natural upright position to reduce lean. The tests were performed on a painted grid for visibility purposed in measuring skid lengths and post-test video analysis. The bicycle…
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Off-Road Fuel Cell Vehicle Analysis and Development with a Model-Based Design Approach

AVL Powertrain UK-Tom Kigezi, Bill Insup Kim, Tommi Jokela, Bo Gao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1170
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Fuel cell and battery electric powertrains are maturing zero-emission technologies expected to complement each other in the future. At present, battery electric powertrains have emerged competitive for urban light-duty transportation while fuel cell powertrains have emerged competitive in heavy-duty commercial transportation, alongside conventional internal combustion engine propulsion. This paper assesses the benefit for fuel cell powertrains in off-road vehicles, taking into account current and target industry data for the various powertrain components. Specific emphasis is placed on three important aspects, namely driving range, vehicle weight, and vehicle cost. Additionally, owing to the increased performance demands of off-road vehicles such as high gradeability and payload capacity, the paper evaluates the merits of a two-speed transmission in comparison to a single speed transmission under drive cycle and performance testing scenarios. A detailed fuel cell model is adopted and validated with real vehicle test data, also from which a highly scalable energy management system is systematically developed. This work adds to a growing industry effort towards zero-emission electrification of off-road vehicles.
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Comparison of Stimuli for Nonlinear System Response Classification

SAE International Journal of Vehicle Dynamics, Stability, and NVH

Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden-Thomas Abrahamsson
Sweden-Niclas Andersson
  • Journal Article
  • 10-04-03-0014
Published 2020-02-13 by SAE International in United States
As part of the development of an automated virtual design classification approach for nonlinear structural dynamics, alternative excitation functions are evaluated with respect to their overall performance and efficiency in feature-based response analysis. Robust design of nonlinear structures requires analysis of extensive parameter variations. Both the character of the stimulus and feature metrics used are central to the performance of a response classification approach. The main purpose of this study is to compare stimulus candidates with respect to their efficiency in response classification. A deterministic multilevel, multifrequency stepped-sine periodic test function is used as a baseline. Order-wise differences between generalized and linearized system frequency response functions are evaluated by a selected feature metric to allow categorization into primary, sub and super harmonic responses, as well as odd and even order response distortions. An alternative excitation function type is the pseudorandom phase multi-sine. Its robust variant estimates the best linear approximation of the generalized frequency response function and related nonlinear and noise variances, which can be used for response classification. The fast variant of this method…
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Performance Requirements for Determining Tow-Vehicle Gross Combination Weight Rating and Trailer Weight Rating

Tow Vehicle Trailer Rating Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2807_202002
  • Current
Published 2020-02-13 by SAE International in United States

This document establishes minimum performance criteria at GCWR and calculation methodology to determine tow-vehicle TWR for passenger cars, multipurpose passenger vehicles, and trucks. This includes all vehicles up to 14000 pounds GVWR.

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Performance Specification for Cable-to-Terminal Electrical Crimps

USCAR
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • USCAR21-4
  • Current
Published 2020-01-22 by SAE International in United States

This specification defines test methods and requirements for validation of solderless crimped connections. The purpose of this test is to simulate in the lab the stress seen in a typical life (15 years and 150000 miles) for a crimp connection and assure the crimp is mechanically strong and electrically stable. This specification was developed for use with stranded automotive copper wire. Only where specifically mentioned are other constructions or other core materials (aluminum, clad, steel core, etc.) applicable. This specification does not apply to wire types not mentioned, such as coaxial cable crimps, unless a USCAR-21 test is specifically referenced in the test specification for that wire type.

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Accelerated Exposure of Automotive Interior Trim Materials Using Outdoor Under-Glass Controlled Sun-Tracking Temperature and Humidity Apparatus

Textile and Flexible Plastics Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2230_202001
  • Current
Published 2020-01-15 by SAE International in United States
This SAE standard specifies operating procedure for the exposure of automotive interior trim materials in an outdoor behind-glass apparatus in which the temperature is controlled in a 24 hour cycle. The humidity is controlled during the dark (night) portion of the cycle.
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O-Ring Machined from AMS3617 Material

A-6C2 Seals Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS9772A
  • Current
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
This standard establishes the dimensional and visual quality requirements, lot requirements, and packaging and labeling requirements for O-rings machined from AMS3617 polyamide material. It shall be used for procurement purposes.
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TAIZAC -TAndem Injectors Zapping ACtivation- for Thermal Efficiency Improvement of Diesel Engine

SAE International Journal of Advances and Current Practices in Mobility

Meiji University-Tetsuya Aizawa, Shinobu Akiyama, Taizo Shimada, Yoshiaki Toyama, Yuya Nishikawa, Soshu Saruwatari, Yoshiro Noguchi
  • Journal Article
  • 2019-01-2179
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
In order to explore the potential of thermal efficiency improvement of diesel engines with injection rate shaping, TAIZAC (TAndem Injectors Zapping ACtivation) injector consisting of commercially available two common-rail injectors was developed in-house. A simple architecture adopted for TAIZAC injector consists of an upper injector connected to a high pressure source, a lower injector injecting into the cylinder and sealing parts between the two injectors. A fast response piezo-actuated injector (G3P) was employed as the upper one with an additionally drilled large axial orifice for faster fuel supply. A solenoid-actuated injector (G4S) was employed as the lower one for its applicability to inner volume reduction by body cut. Control of injection timing and duration of the upper injector realized not only the originally targeted inversed-delta injection rate shaping, but also sharper rise of initial injection rate and modulation of injection pressure among and during multi-injection pulses. Single cylinder diesel engine performance tests were conducted to demonstrate the effects of a combination of 100MPa low pressure pre and pilot injections, sharper rise of initial injection rate…
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Experimental Investigation of Electric Vehicle Performance and Energy Consumption on Chassis Dynamometer Using Drive Cycle Analysis

SAE International Journal of Sustainable Transportation, Energy, Environment, & Policy

CSIR-Indian Institute of Petroleum, India-Gananath Doulat Thakre
Indian Institute of Petroleum CSIR, India-Robindro Lairenlakpam
  • Journal Article
  • 13-01-01-0002
Published 2019-12-02 by SAE International in United States
This article reports an experimental study carried out to investigate the vehicle performance and energy consumption (EC) of an electric vehicle (EV) on three different driving cycles using drive cycle analysis. The driving cycles are the Indian Driving Cycle (IDC), Modified Indian Driving Cycle (MIDC) and Worldwide harmonized Light vehicles Test Cycle (WLTC). A new prototype electric powertrain was developed using an indigenous three-phase induction motor (3PIM), Li-ion battery (LiB) pack, vector motor controller, and newly developed mechanical parts. In this research work, a pollution-causing gasoline car (Maruti Zen) was converted into an EV by using the new powertrain. The EV conversion vehicle was used as the test vehicle. After the removal of the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) the new powertrain was integrated with the vehicle’s gearbox (GB) system which was configured on a single motor, fixed gear configuration having a gear ratio of 1.28:1. The EV performance tests were carried out on the chassis dynamometer that followed the driving cycles. The maximum speed test showed a top speed of 64 km/h for the EV.…
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