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Performance Specifications for a Midsize Male Pedestrian Research Dummy

Human Biomechanics and Simulations Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2782_201911
  • Current
Published 2019-11-26 by SAE International in United States
While it is recognized that collisions involve pedestrians of all sizes, this Information Report addresses performance specifications for a midsize adult male research dummy. This approach stems from the greater knowledge of biomechanics and existing dummy technologies for the midsize male relative to other adult sizes and children. While not the initial objective, it is envisioned that additional performance specifications for other sizes of pedestrian research dummies will be developed in the future based on accepted scaling procedures. The specific requirements for the pedestrian dummy have been based on a collective assessment of pedestrian injury, response, and anthropometry priorities from the experimental, epidemiologic, and computational literature. In general, the objective was to specify performance specifications based on human characteristics and the impact response of post-mortem human subjects rather than to specify the design of a particular physical device. Based on the perceived applications for a research pedestrian dummy, the primary focus of this document centered on biofidelic whole-body kinematics during a vehicle-pedestrian impact. Specific body regions were prioritized (see A.1.5) based on a combination of…
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In-Depth Analysis of Pedestrian-Vehicle Accidents Based on Chi-Square Test and Logistic Regression

CATARC-Xiaowei Lian, Xudong Li
Chang'an University-Jia Deng, Fujun Cui
Published 2019-11-04 by SAE International in United States
Taking the pedestrian-vehicle accidents in the China in-Depth Accident Study (CIDAS) database as a sample case, 13 accidents morphological parameters were selected from three aspects: human, vehicle and environmental factors, and their depth analysis was carried out to obtain their distribution law through the card. The chi-square test and logistic regression method are used to analyze the correlation between the injury severity of pedestrians and other accidental morphological parameters in pedestrian-vehicle accidents. The results show that there is no significant correlation between gender/season and injury severity of pedestrians. The age of pedestrians and the collision speed is the strongest correlation with injury severity of pedestrians. When a pedestrian is over 65 years old, the pedestrian height is in the range of 160-170cm, the collision speed is greater than 60 kilometers per hour, and the pedestrian speed is greater than 8 kilometers per hour, the probability of pedestrian injury is significantly increased.
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Factors Affecting the Severity of Motor Vehicle Traffic Crashes in Tunisia

Najran University, Saudi Arabia-Mounir Belloumi
University of Sousse, Tunisia-Fedy Ouni
  • Journal Article
  • 09-07-01-0006
Published 2019-08-19 by SAE International in United States
We investigate the contribution of several variables concerning the severity of accidents involving vehicle occupant and pedestrian victims in Tunisia. In order to investigate the effect of various explanatory variables, Odds Ratio (OR) effects are considered for both serious injury accidents and fatal accidents. The empirical results are of great variety. The vehicle-occupant severity model indicates that male drivers are associated with higher severity levels as compared to female drivers. Added to that, accidents occurring in rainy conditions increase the likelihood of fatal injuries but have no significant effect on other injury severity levels. Among driver contributory factors, a driver under the influence of alcohol or drug is associated with an increased risk of sustaining fatal injuries compared to other driver contributory factors. The season factor shows that accident severity during the summer season is high. Among time of accident, daytime periods indicate a high likelihood of severe injuries as compared to nighttime periods. Another finding of the study is that the day of accident and region of accident increases the probability of severe injury.…
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Ground Landing Mechanisms in Vehicle-To-Pedestrian Impacts Based on Accident Video Records

Quan Li, Yong Han, Koji Mizuno
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
Accident data have shown that the pedestrian injuries resulting from contact with the ground are serious and may even be worse than the injuries resulting from the primary contact with the vehicle. The landing mechanisms, including the pedestrian trajectory and subsequent sequential body region contacts to the ground, are the basis for understanding the ground impact injuries of pedestrians. However, the landing mechanisms of pedestrian are too complicated to be categorized via investigation of the collision information after an accident has occurred. Nowadays, pedestrian kinematics after vehicle impacts can be observed from the accident videos that have been recorded by road monitoring and driver recorders. This study was aimed at investigating the pedestrian landing mechanisms and analyzing the influencing factors. In the current study, 134 pedestrian cases (involving 136 pedestrians) were selected from the internet, and 13 types of landing mechanisms were classified according to the fall kinematics and landing posture. Our results show that pedestrians who were thrown forward and hit the ground without a clear rotational tendency (ground landing mechanism II) accounted for…
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Stapp Car Crash Journal Vol. 61, 2017

  • Book
  • B-STAPP2017
Published 2017-11-09 by The Stapp Association in United States
This title includes the technical papers developed for the 2017 Stapp Car Crash Conference, the premier forum for the presentation of research in impact biomechanics, human injury tolerance, and related fields, advancing the knowledge of land-vehicle crash injury protection. The conference provides an opportunity to participate in open discussion about the causes and mechanisms of injury, experimental methods and tools for use in impact biomechanics research, and the development of new concepts for reducing injuries and fatalities in automobile crashes. The topics covered this year include: • Biomechanics in Dynamic Compression • Influence of Seating Position • Restraint Design for Occupant Protection • Mitigating Neck Injuries • Anthropomorphic Test Devices • Crash Data Analysis • Injury and effect of directional impacts • Pedestrian and cyclist injury factors and testing
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Active Safety Pedestrian Test Mannequin Recommendation

Active Safety Systems Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J3116_201706
  • Current
Published 2017-06-01 by SAE International in United States
The goal of the Pedestrian Test Mannequin Task Force is to develop standard specifications/requirements for pedestrian test mannequins (1 adult and 1 child) that are representative of real pedestrians to the sensors used in Pedestrian Detection systems and can be used for performance assessment of such in-vehicle systems (including warning and/or braking) in real world test scenarios/conditions. This version of the document only includes the pedestrian mannequin for vision, Lidar, and/or 76 to 78 GHz radar based Pedestrian Pre-collision systems.
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Vulnerable Road User Safety Message Minimum Performance Requirements

V2X Vehicular Applications Technical Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2945/9_201703
  • Current
Published 2017-03-21 by SAE International in United States
This document provides recommendations of safety message minimum performance requirements between a Vulnerable Road User (VRU) and a vehicle. It addresses the transmission of Personal Safety Messages (PSM) from road user devices carried by pedestrians, bicycle riders and public safety personnel, to provide driver and vehicle system awareness and potentially offer safety alerts to VRUs. This document includes the recommendation of standards profiles, function descriptions and minimum performance requirements for transmitting the SAE J2735-defined PSM [1] over a Dedicated Short Range Communications (DSRC) Wireless communication link as defined in the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) 1609 and the IEEE 802.11 Standards [[1]]-[5]]. While other wireless media may be used to deliver the PSM, DSRC is explicitly assumed in this document, because of anticipated regulatory ruling in the United States and other countries requiring vehicles to be equipped with a DSRC-based safety system using V2V communication. This recommended practice is limited at this time to communications between the VRU device carried by walking pedestrians and DSRC equipped vehicles. Later versions may incorporate improvements based…
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Association of Impact Velocity with Risks of Serious Injuries and Fatalities to Pedestrians in Commercial Truck-Pedestrian Accidents

Isuzu Advanced Engineering Center, Ltd.-Kazuhiro Sorimachi, Akira Imanishi, Takeshi Fujimura
National Traffic Safety and Environment Laboratory-Yasuhiro Matsui, Shoko Oikawa
Published 2016-11-07 by The Stapp Association in United States
This study aimed to clarify the relationship between truck-pedestrian crash impact velocity and the risks of serious injury and fatality to pedestrians. We used micro and macro truck-pedestrian accident data from the Japanese Institute for Traffic Accident Research and Data Analysis (ITARDA) database. We classified vehicle type into five categories: heavy-duty trucks (gross vehicle weight [GVW] ≥11 × 103 kg [11 tons (t)], medium-duty trucks (5 × 103 kg [5 t] ≤ GVW < 11 × 103 kg [11 t]), light-duty trucks (GVW <5 × 103 kg [5 t]), box vans, and sedans. The fatality risk was ≤5% for light-duty trucks, box vans, and sedans at impact velocities ≤ 30 km/h and for medium-duty trucks at impact velocities ≤20 km/h. The fatality risk was ≤10% for heavy-duty trucks at impact velocities ≤10 km/h. Thus, fatality risk appears strongly associated with vehicle class. The results also revealed that a 10 km/h reduction in impact velocities could mitigate the severity of pedestrian injuries at impact velocities ≥30 km/h for all five analyzed vehicle types. Therefore, serious injuries…
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Model Based Design for Automobile External Lighting Systems

Universidade Federal Tecnológica do Parana-João Henrique Neme, Max Mauro Dias Santos
Universidade de Brasilia-Evandro Leonardo Silva Teixeira
Published 2015-09-22 by SAE International in United States
Model-Based Design (MBD) has been widely used for automotive embedded software design. Automobile manufacturers and suppliers have often underlined the importance of an unified approach for electrical and electronic (E/E) system design. In this scenario, MBD can provide a mutual benefit for stakeholders due to the share of information, workflow, and tool-chain.In this paper, we highlight MBD application for automotive Exterior Lighting System (ELS) design. In fact, ELS is an event-driven control system typically needed for car lighting and signalization, in particular at night. Furthermore, this system is mandatory for every road vehicle according to current Brazilian laws and legislation. Also, it provides safety drive preventing car accidents and pedestrian injury. In this context, we present how to boost ELS design using MBD concepts.ELS was developed in three MBD workflow (Model-In-the-Loop, Software-In-the-Loop, and Processor-In-the-Loop), from supplier’s viewpoint. The results highlight how MBD can provide better system design leading to significant automotive embedded software quality improvement. Function’s integration and software architecture is an ongoing research project and it will be considered in future work.The paper is…
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Observation of the Lab-Scale Windeshield Impact Test and Simulation using the Time Dependent Dynamic Failure Criterion

Jaeyoung Lim
Korea Univ-Sung Wook Moon, Byunghyun Kang, Byoung-Ho Choi
Published 2015-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In a car accident which is involving pedestrians, head injuries occur very frequently as the head of the pedestrian hits the windshield. The head injury criterion (HIC) obtained through the windshield impact test is used to evaluate the pedestrian injury, and car manufacturers are trying to meet the criterion by changing the design and/or materials.. However, there are some difficulties in the windshield impact test, e.g. a large scatter of the test data or windshield shape-dependent property of the test. These problems make it very difficult to obtain the meaningful results from single test and thus, tests should be executed several times. In this study, a lab-scale windshield impact test was performed using a modified instrumented dart impact (IDI) tester. Tests were carried out by switching test conditions such as the impact speed, the size of the head form and the specimen thickness. The key results such as acceleration and displacement curves of a head form, peak values from the acceleration curve, cracking modes, etc. were compared for various test conditions. In addition, the numerical…
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