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Effects of Helical Carbon Nanotubes on Mechanical Performance of the Composite Bonded Joints

Wichita State University-Ramanan Sritharan, Davood Askari
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0029
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Most composite assemblies and structures generally fail due to the poor performance of their bonded joints that are assembled together with an adhesive layer. Adhesive failure and cohesive failure are among the most commonly observed failure modes in composite bonded joint assemblies. These failure modes occur due to the lack of reinforcement within the adhesive layer in transverse direction. The overall performance of any composite assembly largely depends on the performance of its bonded joints. Various techniques and processes were developed in recent years to improve mechanical performance of the composite bonded joints, one of which includes the use of nanoscale reinforcements within the adhesive layer in between the adherends. However, most prior research have been focused on use of straight carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and other nanomaterials in particle forms. The goal was to improve the properties of the adhesive film and their interfacial bonding effectiveness. Because CNTs are inert in nature, they should be covalently functionalized, before incorporating them into adhesive resins. CNTs can be functionalized using different chemicals to improve their interactions with…
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A cutting-edge technology to increase the friction coefficient in bolted joints in a simple way

3M do Brasil-Vanessa de Souza Valério, Rosana Emi Tamagawa, Kellen Cristina Busiol, Petrus Lencioni Filho
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0236
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Lightweight vehicles are one of the most efficient solutions to reduce the fuel consumption and the emission of polluting gases, which leads the automotive industry to the constant need to manufacture ever lighter vehicles. Due to these current requirements, there is a general move toward compact and lightweight powertrain system designs. Although more compact, these systems must be able to transmit the same or even higher forces and torques. Dealing with these contradictory requirements adding to the constant request to minimize production and assembly costs is a huge challenge to engineers. One approach is to enhance the coefficient of static friction in friction joints. When friction joints are designed, physical parameters such as overall size and surface pressure usually can only be varied in a tight window. Load transmission capability in friction joints is thus limited by the friction coefficient of the mating materials. An efficient solution for these limitations is to apply a nickel diamond coating either to the actual parts of the joints or to friction shims for installation in the joint. In…
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Effect of Shot Peening Conditions on the Fatigue Life of Additively Manufactured A357.0 Parts

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Italy-Andrea Gatto, Antonella Sola
Università degli Studi di Modena e Reggio Emilia, Italy Maserati S.p.A., Italy-Emanuele Tognoli
  • Journal Article
  • 05-13-02-0009
Published 2020-01-09 by SAE International in United States
Fatigue performance can be a critical attribute for the production of structural parts or components via additive manufacturing (AM). In comparison to the static tensile behavior of AM components, there is a lack of knowledge regarding the fatigue performance. The growing market demand for AM implies the need for more accurate fatigue investigations to account for dynamically loaded applications. A357.0 parts are processed by laser-based powder bed fusion (L-PBF) in order to evaluate the effect of surface finishing on fatigue behavior. The specimens are surface finished by shot peening using ϕ = 0.2 and ϕ = 0.4 mm steel particles and ϕ = 0.21-0.3 mm zirconia-based ceramic particles. The investigation proves that all the considered post-processing surface treatments increase the fatigue resistance of as-built parts, but the effect of peening with ϕ = 0.4 mm steel particles or with ceramic particles is more pronounced than that of peening with ϕ = 0.2 mm steel particles, although this treatment has the same Almen A value as the ceramic one. The surface morphology and the crack surface…
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A Modeling Study of an Advanced Ultra-low NOx Aftertreatment System

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Michigan Technological University, USA-Venkata Rajesh Chundru, John H. Johnson, Gordon G. Parker
  • Journal Article
  • 04-13-01-0003
Published 2020-01-09 by SAE International in United States
The 2010 Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Emission Standard for heavy-duty engines required 0.2 g/bhp-hr over certification cycles (cold and hot Federal Test Procedure [FTP]), and the California Air Resources Board (CARB) standards require 0.02 g/bhp-hr for the same cycles leading to a 90% reduction of overall oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions. Similar reductions may be considered by the EPA through its Cleaner Trucks Initiative program. In this article, aftertreatment system components consisting of a diesel oxidation catalyst (DOC); a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst on a diesel particulate filter (DPF), or SCR-F; a second DOC (DOC2); and a SCR along with two urea injectors have been analyzed, which could be part of an aftertreatment system that can achieve the 0.02 g/bhp-hr standard. The system performance was evaluated using validated one-dimensional (1D) DOC, two-dimensional (2D) SCR-F, and 1D SCR models at various combinations of inlet ammonia (NH3)-to-NOx ratio (ANR) values for the SCR-F and the SCR to determine the injection rates required to achieve an optimum nitrogen dioxide (NO2)/NOx ratio at the inlets of both the…
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Influence to the PN Emissions in Calibration Procedure for Portable and Stationary Solid Particle Number Measurement Systems

HORIBA Europe GmbH-Yoshinori Otsuki
HORIBA, Ltd.-Kenji Kondo, Kentaro Kojima, Takeshi Kusaka
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2196
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
The Real Diving Emissions (RDE) regulation has been introduced since September, 2017 by utilizing the Portable Emissions Measurement System (PEMS). For the PEMS for the solid Particle Number (PN) measurement (PN-PEMS), the validation tests are required by comparing to the stationary PN measurement system on a chassis dynamometer prior to the on-road emissions testing. However, there are some cases that the emission results of PN-PEMS have big difference for that of the PMP system as the PN-PEMS does not have the same system configuration and calibration procedures as a PMP system. In this paper, the influence of the calibration procedure to the PN emissions results was observed by applying the calibration procedure of the PN-PEMS to the PMP system. The current systems configurations for PMP system and PN-PEMS, and the differences of them were described. And, the calibration procedure of the PN-PEMS was applied to the PMP system to adjust the system detection efficiency at 23 nm. Finally, the influence of the calibration protocol was investigated by compared the PN emissions of PMP system and…
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Ignition of Individual Droplets in a Reactive Fuel/Air Mixture behind Reflected Shock Waves

University of Duisburg-Essen-P. Niegemann, M. Fikri, S. A. Kaiser, C. Schulz
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2162
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Multiphase-induced ignition is frequently discussed as a trigger for early ignition in internal combustion engines. In this context, we investigated the ignition process of single lubricant-oil droplets and their interaction with the bulk air/fuel mixture in a high-pressure shock tube, mimicking oil-fuel interaction in turbocharged internal combustion engines at the end of the compression stroke. A fast micro-dispensing injector released single fuel or lubricant oil droplets with a diameter of 200±50 µm into shock-heated fuel/air mixtures consisting of PRF95 and synthetic air. The injector was flush-mounted in the sidewall of the shock tube. The droplets were released into the gas after the passage of the reflected shock waves at post-shock conditions of 2 MPa and 750-950 K. With a high-frame-rate color camera, the entire evolution of droplet injection and ignition was traced in space and time through a large sapphire window in the endwall of the shock tube. A high-repetition-rate laser at 532 nm was used to illuminate the droplets. The light scattered by the droplets was detected in the green channel of the camera,…
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Modelling Pressure Losses in Gasoline Particulate Filters in High Flow Regimes and Temperatures

Coventry University-M. Prantoni, S. Aleksandrova, H. Medina, J. Saul, S. Benjamin
Jaguar Land Rover-O. Garcia Afonso
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2330
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
This study presents a one-dimensional model for the prediction of the pressure loss across a wall-flow gasoline particulate filter (GPF). The model is an extension of the earlier models of Bissett [1] and Konstandopoulos and Johnson [2] to the turbulent flow regime, which may occur at high flow rates and temperatures characteristic of gasoline engine exhaust. A strength of the proposed model is that only one parameter (wall permeability) needs to be calibrated. An experimental study of flow losses for cold and hot flow is presented, and a good agreement is demonstrated. Unlike zero-dimensional models, this model provides information about the flow along the channels and thus can be extended for studies of soot and ash accumulation, heat transfer and reaction kinetics.
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Development of a new method to measure the rotational force acting on the piston rings of a gasoline engine

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo City University,-Kenta Tomizawa, Akemi Ito
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2366
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Oil consumption of an engine causes particulate matter, poisoning catalysts and sometimes abnormal combustion like pre-ignition. One of the factors of oil consumption is oil transport via a piston ring-gap. Coincident of ring-gaps at a same position may cause an increase in oil consumption. It was assumed that the rotation of a ring in the circumferential direction is affected by cylinder bore shape, piston motion, distribution of ring tension and so on. The force which caused ring rotation was measured by a newly developed cantilever type of load cell which is set in the ring gap. The force was assumed to be closely related to the piston motion.
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Influence of Combustion Chamber Shape and In-Cylinder Density on Soot Formation in Diesel Combustion

Hino Motors, Ltd.-Yoshihiro Funayama, Kazunori Yoshitomi, Mori Ishii, Hiroshi Nakajima
Toyota Central R&D Labs., Inc.-Takayuki Fuyuto
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2271
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
The change in the smoke emissions from a diesel engine with the shapes of the combustion chamber and the in-cylinder density was investigated with focuses on the mixing and the soot formation in a spray flame. First, the mixing of the fuel and air between the nozzle exit and the set-off length was used as an indicator for the formation of soot. Although this indicator can explain the influence of the density, it cannot explain the changes in the smoke emissions with a change in the shape of the combustion chamber. Next, by focusing on the soot distribution in a quasi-steady-state spray flame, the soot formed in the high-density condition of an optically accessible engine was investigated by applying two-color method. These results showed that the positional relationship between the maximum soot amount position and the flame impinging position can be a major influence on the smoke emissions.
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Suppression of Soot Formation in Quasi-steady Diesel Spray Flame Produced by High-pressure Fuel Injection with Multi-orifice Nozzle

DENSO CORPORATION-Makoto Mashida
Toyota Central R&D Labs., Inc.-Takayuki Fuyuto, Yoshiyuki Mandokoro, Yoshiaki Hattori
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2270
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
The set-off length (also referred to as the “lift-off length”) is reduced by the re-entrainment of the burned gas by the backward flow surrounding a diesel spray jet produced by a multi-hole nozzle. In the present study, to estimate the equivalence ratio at the set-off length, a means of estimating the amount of burned gas that is re-entrained into the near-nozzle region of the diesel spray jet was established. The results revealed that the suppression of soot formation in quasi-steady diesel spray flames produced by a multi-hole nozzle and a high injection pressure is not attained by reducing the equivalence ratio at the set-off length. Analysis of the amount of soot along the spray axis using a two-color method revealed that the maximum soot amount position appears in a quasi-steady spray flame, after the collapse of the head vortex in which a dense soot cloud is formed. The maximum soot amount position does not change even if the injection pressure varies. The suppression of soot formation by the application of a high injection pressure in…
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