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The benefits of using Composite Bearings in Aircraft Shock Absorbers

Trelleborg Sealing Solutions-Brian Bowen, Torben A. Andersen
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1898
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
This paper will use actual examples from aircraft recently introduced into service, to describe the main advantages of changing from the currently used metallic bearings, to composite bearings. Abstract: The introduction of composite bearing in a recently introduced twin aisle aircraft has resulted in: • Weight saving, by replacing bronze bearings with plastic bearings • Lowering of the particle count in the shock absorber oil, (Reduced contamination with metal particles) leading to reduced wear on seals and bearings. Qualification testing showed that Composite Bearings are able to provide longer service life than bronze bearings.
 

Numerical investigation of Electrostatic Spray Painting Transfer Processes for vehicle Coating

Universidade Da Beira Interior-Mohammad Reza Pendar, Jose Pascoa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1856
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
In this study we examined numerically the electrostatic spray transfer processes in the rotary bell spray applicator, which is this case implemented in a full 3D representation. The algorithm implemented and developed for this simulation includes airflow, spray dynamics, tracking of paint droplets and an electrostatic modularized solver to present atomization and in-flight spray phenomena for the spray forming procedure. The algorithm is implemented using the OpenFOAM package. The shaping airflow is simulated via an unsteady 3D compressible Navier-Stokes method. Solver for particle trajectory was developed to illustrate the process of spray transport and also the interaction of airflow and particle that is solved by momentum coupling. As the numerical results in this paper indicates dominant operating parameter voltage setting, further the charge to mass ratio and air-paint flow rate deeply effect the spray shape and the transfer efficiency (TE). The spin of the bell forced the paint to fall off from the bell edge into the high-velocity airflow. By increasing the shaping airflow more uniform distribution of mass of paint is produced but the…
 

Optimization of CI Engine Performance and Emissions Fueled by Blends of Alternative Fuels Methyl Ester Using Taguchi and Multi Regression Analysis

Dr. D. Y.Patil Unitech Society's-Vijay javanjal
SVPM COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING-Sangram Dashrath Jadhav
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1893
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Today’s frenetic engine manufacturing and transportation sector and its related traces viz; noise and vibration of our modern societies has adverse effect on environment as well as all of us. Modern research affords us the opportunity to understand the subject better and to develop advance technologies. Widely immediate slogan and goal of all industries might be to improve the performance and reduce emission using alternative fuel while, make the quietest and smoothest running Engines. To, reduce the dependency on diesel fuel (Due to rapid worldwide depletion) Biodiesel is one of the immediate, alternative and complimentary solution. In the Present study, to optimize the operating parameters of the Direct Injection Single Cylinder (5.2 kw) CI engine with respect to Brake Thermal Efficiency (BTE), Carbon monoxide (CO), Oxides of Nitrogen, Hydrocarbons (HC) etc.. For this investigation, we used Biodiesel as an alternate fuel for diesel fuel which possesses low cetane number which is not sufficient to operate existing diesel engine. However, this could be combined with the diesel fuel in the form of blends. For this investigation…
 
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A Three-Layer Thermodynamic Model for Ice Crystal Accretion on Warm Surfaces: EMM-C

Rolls-Royce Plc-Geoffrey Jones, Benjamin Collier
University of Oxford-Alexander Bucknell, Matthew McGilvray, David Gillespie
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Ingestion of high altitude atmospheric ice particles can be hazardous to gas turbine engines in flight. Ice accretion may occur in the core compression system, leading to blockage of the core gas path, blade damage and/or flameout. Numerous engine powerloss events since 1990 have been attributed to this mechanism. An expansion in engine certification requirements to incorporate ice crystal conditions has spurred efforts to develop analytical models for phenomenon, as a method of demonstrating safe operation. A necessary component of a complete analytical icing model is a thermodynamic accretion model. Continuity and energy balances are performed using the local flow conditions and the mass fluxes of ice and water that are incident on a surface to predict the accretion growth rate. In this paper, a new thermodynamic model for ice crystal accretion is developed through adaptation of the Extended Messinger Model (EMM) from supercooled water conditions to mixed phase conditions (ice crystal and supercooled water). A novel three-layer accretion structure is proposed and the underlying equations described. The EMM improves upon the original model for…
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Simulation of Ice Particle Breakup and Ingestion into the Honeywell Uncertified Research Engine (HURE)

NASA Glenn Research Center-Ashlie Flegel, Michael King
Vantage Partners Limited-David L. Rigby, William Wright
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Numerical solutions have been generated which simulate flow inside an aircraft engine flying at altitude through an ice crystal cloud. The geometry used for this study is the Honeywell Uncertified Research Engine (HURE) which was recently tested in the NASA Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL) in January 2018. The simulations were carried out at predicted operating points with a potential risk of ice accretion. The extent of the simulation is from upstream of the engine inlet to downstream past the strut in the core and bypass. The flow solution is produced using GlennHT, a NASA in-house code. A mixing plane approximation is used upstream and downstream of the fan. The use of the mixing plane allows for steady state solutions in the relative frame. The flow solution is then passed on to LEWICE3D for particle trajectory, impact and breakup prediction. The LEWICE3D code also uses a mixing plane approximation at the boundaries upstream and downstream of the fan. A distribution of particle sizes is introduced upstream, based on the distribution measured during the test. Predicted collection…
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ICICLE: A Model for Glaciated & Mixed Phase Icing for Application to Aircraft Engines

Rolls-Royce Plc-Geoffrey Jones, Benjamin Collier
University of Oxford-Alexander Bucknell, Matthew McGilvray, David Gillespie, Xin Yang
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
High altitude ice crystals can pose a threat to aircraft engine compression and combustion systems. Cases of engine damage, surge and rollback have been recorded in recent years, believed due to ice crystals partially melting and accreting on static surfaces (stators, endwalls and ducting). The increased awareness and understanding of this phenomenon has resulted in the extension of icing certification requirements to include glaciated and mixed phase conditions. Developing semi-empirical models is a cost effective way of enabling certification, and providing simple design rules for next generation engines. A comprehensive ice crystal icing model is presented in this paper, the Ice Crystal Icing ComputationaL Environment (ICICLE). It is modular in design, comprising a baseline code consisting of an axisymmetric or 2D planar flowfield solution, Lagrangian particle tracking, air-particle heat transfer and phase change, and surface interactions (bouncing, fragmentation, sticking). In addition, an efficient particle tracking method has been developed into the code, which employs the representative particle size distribution at each injection location and a deterministic particle sticking method by using an in-situ particle based…
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Validation and Instrumentation of a Small Modular Multi-Stage Axial Compressor for Ice Crystal Icing Research

Thomas Currie
National Research Council Canada-Martin Neuteboom, Jennifer Chalmers
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
The National Research Council of Canada (NRC) has undergone the development of a Small Axial Compressor Rig for modelling altitude ice accretion in aircraft engines. The rig consists of two axial compressor stages measuring approximately 150mm in diameter, an extension duct to allow residence time for partial melting of ice crystals and a test piece. The axial compressor stages are intended to provide realistic engine conditioning such as fracture, pressure rise, temperature rise and centrifuging of glaciated ice crystals entering the rig. The rig was designed for use in altitude icing wind tunnels such as the NRC’s altitude icing wind tunnel (AIWT), research altitude test facility (RATFac.), and those of other organization such as NASA Glenn and Technical University of Braunshweig. Previous development work [1] provided partial validation of the aerodynamic performance of just the first compressor stage at 90% power. Recent development work has concluded the aerodynamic validation of both the first and the second stages and performance was found to be satisfactory for purpose. A prediction of the ice accretion behavior of the…
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Motivation, Development and Verification of a Rapid 3D Lagrangian Impingement Code - Trajectory and Catch 3D+ (TAC3D+)

AeroTex UK-Ian Roberts
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
This paper details the motivation, development and validation of a rapid 3D Lagrangian impingement code, Trajectory and Catch 3D+ (TAC3D+). AeroTex’s motivation to develop a 3D Lagrangian method was primarily driven by the inherent mesh dependent dissipation effect found in their 3D Eulerian Water Catch code (EWC) [1]. Studies performed by AeroTex have shown that for geometries where there are aft impingement regions that are partly shadowed by a more forward impingement region, the level of water flux dissipation can be significant, particularly if the mesh is coarse and the impingement region is far aft. Examples of issues where this may be a particular issue would be impingement on a centerline aft mounted engine or the calculation of impingement on the wing root/belly fairing. The code has been developed around a modified version of the OpenFOAM Lagrangian solver. The analysis process consists of three main phases; a coarse droplet trajectory calculation to identify the region of interest, a refined trajectory calculation that is sufficiently fine to calculate local water collection and a surface water collection…
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Wind Tunnel Measurements of Simulated Glaciated Cloud Conditions to Evaluate Newly Developed 2D Imaging Probes

Artium Technologies Inc.-William D. Bachalo
CIRA, Italian Aerospace Research Centre-Biagio M. Esposito
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Instrumentation that has been used for characterization of mixed-phase and glaciated conditions in the past, like the OAP probes, are subject to errors caused by variations in diffraction on the images away from the object plane and by the discrete nature of their particle detection and sizing. Correction methods are necessary to consider their measurements adequate for high ice water content (IWC) environments judged to represent a significant safety hazard to propellers and turbofan engine operability and performance. For this reason, within the frame of EU FP7 HAIC project, instrumentation characterization and validation is considered a major element need for successful execution of flight tests campaigns. Clearly, instrumentation must be sufficiently reliable to assess the reproducibility of artificial clouds with high ice water content generated in icing tunnels. Instruments are required to measure these conditions with a sufficient level of accuracy for the purposes of the testing. Currently, there is an anticipated basic uncertainty of a factor of 2-5 when measuring clouds in-situ. This may be worse for thunderstorm core regions, because of the poorly…
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Uncertainty of the Ice Particles Median Mass Diameters Retrieved from the HAIC-HIWC Dataset: A Study of the Influence of the Mass Retrieval Method

Delphine Leroy
Airbus-Alice Grandin, Fabien Dezitter
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
In response to the ice crystal icing hazard identified twenty years ago, aviation industry, regulation authorities, and research centers joined forces into the HAIC-HIWC international collaboration launched in 2012. Two flight campaigns were conducted in the high ice water content areas of tropical mesoscale convective systems in order to characterize this environment conducive to ice crystal icing. Statistics on cloud microphysical properties, such as Ice Water Content (IWC) or Mass Median Diameter (MMD), derived from the dataset of in situ measurements are now being used to support icing certification rulemaking and anti-icing systems design (engine and air data probe) activities. This technical paper focuses on methodological aspects of the derivation of MMD. MMD are estimated from PSD and IWC using a multistep process in which the mass retrieval method is a critical step. Complementary to previous studies reporting on MMD values calculated from the HAIC-HIWC dataset, this paper deals with the uncertainty in MMD by comparing two different approaches for the retrieval of the mass-size (m-D) relationship. The analysis encompasses the data collected in the…
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