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A Development and Evaluation of Optimal Fingerprint Authentication Algorithm in Vehicle Use Environment

Hyundai Motor Co & KIA Motors Corp.-Dae Sung Jin, Jungduck Son, Sangwoo Jeon
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0723
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Hyundai Motor Company mass-produced the world's first fingerprint entry and start system. This paper is a study on the evaluation method to develop and verify the optimal fingerprint authentication algorithm for vehicle usage conditions. Currently, fingerprint sensors and algorithms in the IT industry have been developed for the electronic devices, and are not suitable for the harsh environment of the vehicle and the vehicle life cycle for more than 10 years. In order to optimize the fingerprint sensor and algorithm for the vehicle, this study consisted of 3way test methods. As a result, the fingerprint system could be optimized for the vehicle and the recognition rate and security could be optimized according to the sensor authentication level. Through this study, the fingerprint entry and start system achieved the recognition rate development goal (door handle sensor recognition rate: 85% or more, start button sensor recognition rate: 90% or more) and achieved security that meets European immobilizer regulation
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Bearing Fault Diagnosis of the gearbox using blind source separation

Nanjing University of Science & Technology-Hong Zhong, Jingxing Liu, Liangmo Wang, Yang Ding, Yahui Qian
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0436
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Gearbox fault diagnosis is one of the core research areas in the field of rotating machinery condition monitoring. The signal processing-based bearing fault diagnosis in the gearbox is considered as challenging as the vibration signals collected from acceleration transducers are, in general, a mixture of signals originating from an unknown number of sources, i.e. an underdetermined blind source separation (UBSS) problem. In this study, an effective UBSS-based algorithm solution, that combines empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and kernel independent component analysis (KICA) method, is proposed to address the technical challenge. Firstly, the nonlinear mixture signals are decomposed into a set of intrinsic mode function components (IMFs) by the EMD method, which can be combined with the original observed signals to reconstruct new observed signals. Thus, the original problem can be effectively transformed into an over-determined BSS problem. Then, the whitening process is carried out to convert the over-determined BSS into determined BSS, which can be solved by the KICA method. Finally, the ant lion optimization (ALO) is adopted to further enhance the performance of the EMD-KICA…
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Acoustic characteristics prediction and optimization of wheel resonators with arbitrary section

SAIC Motor Corporation Limited-Yimin Sun, Junlei Mao
Tongji University-Rong Guo, Tiantian Mi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0917
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Tire cavity noise of pure electric vehicles is particularly prominent due to the absence of engine noise, which are usually eliminated by adding Helmholtz resonators with arbitrary transversal section to the wheel rims. This paper provides theoretical basis for accurately predicting and effectively improving acoustic performance of wheel resonators. A hybrid finite element method is developed to extract the transversal wavenumbers and eigenvectors, and the mode-matching scheme is employed to determine the transmission loss of the Helmholtz resonator. Based on the accuracy validation of this method, the matching design of the wheel resonators and the optimization method of tire cavity noise are studied. The identification method of the tire cavity resonance frequency is developed through the acoustic modal simulation and test. A scientific transmission loss target curve and fitness function are defined according to the noise characteristics. Combing the transmission loss prediction theory and particle swarm algorithm, the structure parameters of the wheel resonator are optimized. A remarkable attenuation of tire cavity resonance can be observed through test results.
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Parameter Optimization of Anti-roll Bar Based on Stiffness

Suizhou-WUT Industry Research Institute-Gangfeng Tan
Wuhan University of Technology-Zhenyu Wang, Donghua Guo, Haoyu Wang, Yifeng Jiang, Ming Li, Xiaoge Hou
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0921
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Anti-rolling bar is an important structural part of the automobile, which can effectively prevent the automobile from rolling and improve the safety of the vehicle during bending. In the design of the current anti-rolling bar, the stiffness of anti-rolling is determined based on experience or oversimplified mathematic model. In this paper, an anti-rolling bar is determined by 7 parameters, and forces in different directions and perpendicular to the bar are applied at both ends. The mathematical model of stiffness of anti-rolling bar is established by combining the Deformation Energy Theorem and Castigliano Theorem. Nonlinear programming and genetic algorithm are used to acquire the optimal solution and corresponding values of parameters of the mathematical model. Then, by means of partial least-squares regression method, the correlation of different parameters to the stiffness of anti-rolling bar is analyzed. Besides, the stiffness of the anti-rolling bar is calculated by finite element method. On the experimental bench, the tensile and compressive tests were carried out on the equal-scale shrinking model of the bar, which verified the correctness of the influence…
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Shape Optimization of Engine Block for Reducing Noise Radiation

ESI North America-Wenlong Yang, Ricardo de Alba Alvarez
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0404
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Reducing the noise radiated from engines has become important. Optimizing the shape of the engine block is one promising approach to achieve this goal. The objective of this paper is to perform the shape optimization of an engine block to reduce its radiated noise in a certain frequency range. Specifically investigated is a six-cylinder engine made of aluminum and steel. The investigation is performed by numerical models, which compose the finite elements for simulating the structure and boundary elements for simulating the exterior airspace. For optimization, a series of ribs are added on the surface of the engine block. The optimization variables are set up to represent the shapes of the ribs. The limits of the shape changes are defined by the optimization constraints. The radiated power and the sound pressure at certain locations are chosen as the optimization objectives. The Genetical Algorithm is taken to perform the optimization. It is found that the optimization calculation successfully converges and gives the best design. The radiated noise is reduced by certain amount. A Pareto plot with…
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Dynamic-static Optimization Design of Parking Robot Lifting Arm with Uncertain Parameters

Tongji University-Xiang Xu, Xinbo Chen, Zhe Liu, Yanan Xu, Yan Li, Yunkai Gao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0511
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
There are many uncertainties in engineering design, and the accumulated uncertainties will enlarge the overall failure probability of the structure system. Therefore, the structural design considering uncertainties is of high significance for improving its reliability. To address this issue, a dynamic-static structural topology optimization model is established and a reliability-based topology optimization (RBTO) with decoupling format is conducted in this study. At First, the design point which satisfies the constraint of target reliability indicator is obtained according to the reliability indictors of the first-order reliability method. Then, according to the sensitivity information of the random variable, the random variable is modified into a deterministic variable. Finally, the reliability-based deterministic topology optimization is performed by dividing the problem into two independent sub-problems of reliability analysis and equivalent deterministic topology optimization (DTO), and the feasibility of the structure optimization method is verified with the parking robot lifting arm. To meet the mechanical performances and lightweight requirements of the parking robot lifting arm, the mathematical model of dynamic-static multi-objective topology optimization for the lifting arm is established by…
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Ramped Versus Square Injection Rate Experiments in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

DAF Trucks NV-Bogdan Albrecht
Delphi Technologies-Tony Simpson
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0300
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
CO2 regulations on heavy-duty transport are introduced in essentially all markets within the next decade, in most cases in several phases of increasing stringency. To cope with these mandates, developers of engines and related equipment are aiming to break new ground in the fields of combustion, fuel and hardware technologies. In this work, a novel diesel fuel injector, Delphi’s DFI7, is utilized to experimentally investigate and compare the performance of ramped injection rates versus traditional square fueling profiles. The aim is specifically to shift the efficiency and NOx tradeoff to a more favorable position. The design of experiments methodology is used in the tests, along with statistical techniques to analyze the data. Results show that ramped and square rates - after optimization of fueling parameters - produce comparable gross indicated efficiencies. For the highest engine speed tested, ramped profiles attain these efficiency values at considerably lower NOx levels. Particulate matter emissions, on the other hand, are generally lower with the use of square profiles. Heat release analysis further reveals that ignition delays in ramped rate…
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Computational analysis of spray pre-treatment in automotive applications

ESS Engineering Software Steyr-Muraleekrishnan Menon, Samiullah Baig, Kevin Verma
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0479
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The automotive coating industry consists of several processes targeting the reliability and longevity of the manufactured Body-In-White (BIW) with process optimization playing a key role. Pre-treatment of BIW is one of the important aspects and this involves processes in the paint shop and body-in-white shop. The relevance of cleaning every part of the BIW is well known in the industry, and we will focus on the spray wash processes. While the industry currently relies on experiences from previous designs and experimental observations from model studies, this drastically slows down process optimization for new car models. Recent developments in Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) industry has shown capability to perform reliable studies using computer models that speeds up processes. The current study focuses on the Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) evaluation of spray washing of a BIW using a meshless method known as Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH). The study specifically discusses simulation of a washing process, where a car BIW is moving through pre-treatment line where, specifically arranged set of nozzles are spraying water at a constant flow…
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CAE method Development for the Seat latch effort calculation in 2nd row Bench seats and optimization

Ford Motor Co., Ltd.-Ravi Purnoo Munuswamy
Ford Motor Co., Pvt., Ltd.-Arunachalam Muthupandian
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1103
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
There are factors that can make installation of LATCH-equipped seats difficult or, in some cases, impossible. Customers are raising complaints on latching issues to automotive industry and in turn warranty issue cost more to the company. Therefore, automotive industries are spending lot of money on physical test and method development. At present, there is no such proven virtual test available for testing seat latch effort (passenger apply effort to do the latching). Since many industries concentrating more on developing new method using CAE approach for evaluate seat latching effort with less cost. So in this paper, authors are elaborating research on new method using CAE method LS dyna solver with Hypermesh preprocessor. Further deep dive on physical test data correlation with CAE method(virtual test) to verify the design verification efficiency. Also, from this test can able to estimate the effort easily and optimize seat latching performance.
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Effects of a Probability-Based Green Light Optimized Speed Advisory on Dilemma Zone Exposure

Indiana Department of Transportation-James Sturdevant
Purdue University-Enrique Saldivar-Carranza, Howell Li, Woosung Kim, Jijo Mathew, Darcy Bullock
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0116
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Green Light Optimized Speed Advisory (GLOSA) systems have the objective of providing a recommended speed to arrive at a traffic signal during the green phase of the cycle. GLOSA has been shown to decrease travel time, fuel consumption, and carbon emissions; simultaneously, it has been demonstrated to increase driver and passenger comfort. Few studies have been conducted using historical cycle-by-cycle phase probabilities to assess the performance of a speed advisory capable of recommending a speed for various traffic signal operating modes (fixed-time, semi-actuated, and fully-actuated). In this study, a GLOSA system based on phase probability is proposed. The probability is calculated prior to each trip from a previous week’s, same time-of-day (TOD) and day-of-week (DOW) period, traffic signal controller high-resolution event data. By utilizing this advisory method, real-time communications from the vehicle to infrastructure (V2I) become unnecessary, eliminating data-loss related issues. The effects of three different advice approaches (conservative, balanced, and aggressive) on dilemma zone exposure are analyzed. Proof of concept is carried out by virtually driving through a test-route composed of an arterial that…