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Structural Vibration and Acoustic Analysis of a 3-Phase AC Induction Motor

Peyman Poozesh
Kettering Univ-Allan Taylor, Javad Baqersad
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1458
To be published on 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
This paper is aimed at studying the NVH and acoustic performance of a 3-phase AC induction motor in order to find a way to reduce the magnetic component of noise from an electric motor in an electric vehicle (EV). The method suggested here is to reduce the magnetic component of sound from the motor by making modifications to the end bracket of the motor housing. EVs are being considered the future of mobility mainly owing to the fact that they are environment-friendly. With a lot of companies already investing heavily in this technology, electric drives are set to become extremely popular in the years to come. The heart of an EV is its motor. Modern electric vehicles are quiet and with the lack of an IC engine to mask most sounds from other components, the sound from the electric motor and other auxiliary parts become more prominent. This paper lays down a process to analyze the sound radiated from the electric motor in three broad steps. First, to model the motor in an electromagnetic platform,…

Analyzing and Preventing Data Privacy Leakage in Connected Vehicle Services

Ford Motor Co., Ltd.-Yu Seung Kim, Pramita Mitra
University of Michigan-Huaxin Li, Di Ma, Brahim Medjahed
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0478
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The rapid development of connected and automated vehicle technologies together with cloud-based mobility services are revolutionizing the transportation industry. As a result, huge amounts of data are being generated, collected, and utilized, hence providing tremendous business opportunities. However, this big data poses serious challenges mainly in terms of data privacy. The risks of privacy leakage are amplified by the information sharing nature of emerging mobility services and the recent advances in data analytics. In this paper, we provide an overview of the connected vehicle landscape and point out potential privacy threats. We demonstrate two of the risks, namely additional individual information inference and user de-anonymization, through concrete attack designs. We also propose corresponding countermeasures to defend against such privacy attacks. We evaluate the feasibility of such attacks and our defense strategies using real world vehicular data.
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Functional application, regulatory requirements and their future opportunities for Lighting of Automated Driving Systems

Lumileds-Helmut Tiesler-Wittig
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0848
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Automated Driving Systems (ADS) are now at start to initiate a change of the human mobility and usage of vehicles. The safe and non-disruptive integration of automotive vehicles into “normal” traffic will ask for a new way of communication between the vehicles and their environment. Similar to the existing signal lights, ADS signals can play a major role in this communication, in a passive way e.g. as tail light (to be seen) or in an active mode beyond turn indicators or stop lights. Recent publications show high attention on the automation of vehicles – traffic density as well customer comfort is driving the development towards more autonomy and intense usage of human-machine interfaces to increase effectiveness of transportation. Vehicle lighting in this field will take a natural functionality – both to see and to be seen needs to be updated to the future needs of the application. Especially during the decade of a mixed traffic situation, lighting needs to take more communication functionality than before. As most of human sensing is based on visual recognition,…

Industry 4.0 and Automotive 4.0: Challenges and Opportunities for Designing New Vehicle Components for Automated and/or Electric Vehicles

Politecnico di Milano-Gianpiero R M Mastinu, Francesco Cadini, Massimiliano Gobbi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0504
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The paper deals with the “wise sensorization” of vehicle components. In the upcoming full digitalization of mobility, vehicle components are getting more and more sensorized. The problem is why, what, when and where vehicle components can be sensorized. The paper attempts a preliminary problem statement for the sensorization of vehicle components. A theoretical basic investigation is introduced, setting the main concepts on which extended sensorization is advisable or not. The paradigms of Industry 4.0 and Automotive 4.0 are addressed, namely sensors are proposed to be used both for monitoring the manufacturing process and for monitoring the service life of the component. In general, sensors are proposed to be used for multiple purposes. Two examples of sensorized components are briefly presented. One refers to a sensorized electric motor, the other one refers to a sensorized wheel.
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48V Boost Recuperation Systems - Golden Gate into the Future

SEG Automotive North America LLC-Juergen Schneider
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0391
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The transformation of the automotive industry will be shaped mainly by the markets North America, Europe and China, which account for more than two thirds of the yearly global car production. All three markets have challenging fuel consumption, CO2 and emission regulations in place and under discussion, which are forcing the automotive industry to make their power train technology more efficient. But not only governmental regulations are driving the change, increasing urbanization intensifies local environmental pollution from vehicles and strains the acceptance of today’s car centric mobility.Electrification is the highly touted magic solution, but is it fast and comprehensive enough to solve above mentioned problems? Is society - car owners, automotive industry and governments - willing to pay the high cost for electrified car technology and infrastructure within a short timeframe of 10 to 15 years? Or will so called bridge technologies like 48V BRS (Boost Recuperation Systems) be needed, which are less efficient on a single car, but effective on a broad scale and therefore in total more beneficial and affordable overall. In Europe…
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On Collecting High Quality Labeled Data for Automatic Transportation Mode Detection

Ford Motor Co., Ltd.-Prashant Rao, David Melcher, Pramita Mitra, Sriram Rao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0921
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
With the recent advancements in sensing and processing capabilities of consumer mobile devices (e.g., smartphone, tablet, etc.), they are becoming attractive choices for pervasive computing applications. Always-on monitoring of human movement patterns is one of those applications that has gained a lot of importance in the field of mobility and transportation research. Automatic detection of the current transportation mode (e.g., walking, biking, riding a shuttle, etc.) of a consumer using data from their smartphone sensors enables delivering of a number of customized services for multi-modal journey planning. Most accurate models for automatic mode detection are trained with supervised learning algorithms. In order to achieve high accuracy, the training datasets need to be sufficiently large, diverse, and correctly labeled. Specifically, the training data requires each type of mode data to be collected for a minimum duration that is necessary and sufficient for building high accuracy models. Collecting such data in an efficient manner is challenging because of the variability in the test subjects’ multi-modal journey patterns, e.g., using mostly private vehicles for commute, not sufficiently using…

Evaluating Location Privacy in Autonomous Vehicular Communications and Applications

Oakland Univerity-Abdulrahman Alzahrani
Oakland University-Abdelnasser Banihani, Huirong Fu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0487
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Vehicular ad hoc networks may one day prevent injuries and reduce transportation costs by enabling new safety and traffic management applications, but these networks raise privacy concerns because they could enable applications to perform unwanted surveillance. Researchers have proposed privacy protocols, measuring privacy performance based on metrics such as k-anonymity. Because of the frequency and precision of location of queries in vehicular applications, privacy measurement may be improved by considering additional factors. This paper defines continuous network location privacy; presents KDT-anonymity, which is a composite metric including average anonymity set size, i.e., K, average distance deviation, i.e., D, and anonymity duration, i.e., T; derives formulas to calculate theoretical values of K, D, and T; evaluates five privacy protocols under realistic vehicle mobility patterns using KDT-anonymity; and compares KDT-anonymity with prior metrics.

Use of Hardware in the Loop (HIL) Simulation for Developing Connected Autonomous Vehicle (CAV) Applications

Ohio State University-Mustafa Ridvan Cantas, Ozgenur Kavas, Santhosh Tamilarasan, Sukru Yaren Gelbal, Levent Guvenc
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1063
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Many smart cities and car manufacturers have been investing in Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I) applications by integrating the Dedicated Short Range Communication (DSRC) technology to improve the fuel economy, safety, and ride comfort for the end users. For example, Columbus, OH, USA is placing DSRC Road Side Units (RSU) to the traffic lights which will publish traffic light Signal Phase and Timing (SPaT) information. With DSRC On Board Unit (OBU) equipped vehicles, people will start benefiting from this technology. In this paper, a Hardware in the Loop (HIL) simulator with DSRC RSU and OBU to accelerate the V2I application development for Connected and Autonomous Vehicles (CAV) is presented. The developed HIL simulator environment is employed to implement, develop and evaluate V2I connected vehicle applications in a fast, safe and cost-effective manner. The prepared simulator allows realistic, real-time evaluation of mobility and fuel economy benefits over simulated actual routes in a safe lab setting before actual deployment in an experimental vehicle. To show the capabilities of the designed HIL simulator, a well-known eco-approach and eco-departure algorithm…

A Unified, Scalable and Replicable Approach to Development, Implementation and HIL Evaluation of Autonomous Shuttles for Use in a Smart City

Ohio State University-Xinchen Li, Sheng Zhu, Sukru Yaren Gelbal, Mustafa Ridvan Cantas, Bilin Aksun Guvenc, Levent Guvenc
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0493
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
As the technology in autonomous vehicle and smart city infrastructure is developing fast, the idea of smart city and automated driving has become a present and near future reality. Both Highway Chauffeur and low speed shuttle applications are tested recently in different research to test the feasibility of autonomous vehicles and automated driving. Based on examples available in the literature and the past experience of the authors, this paper proposes the use of a unified computing, sensing, communication and actuation architecture for connected and automated driving. It is postulated that this unified architecture will also lead to a scalable and replicable approach. Two vehicles representing a passenger car and a small electric shuttle for smart mobility in a smart city are chosen as the two examples for demonstrating scalability and replicability. For this purpose, the architecture in the passenger car is transferred to the small electric vehicle and used in its automation for demonstrating both scalability and replicability. High Level control and low level lateral control are presented in this paper. The parameter space based…
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High Performance Processor Architecture for Automotive Large Scaled Integrated Systems within the European Processor Initiative Research Project

BMW AG-Dominik Reinhardt, Matthias Traub
Infineon Technologies AG-Udo Dannebaum, Michael Scheffer
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0118
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Autonomous driving systems and connected mobility are the next big developments for the car manufacturers and their suppliers during the next decade. To achieve the high computing power needs and fulfill new upcoming requirements due to functional safety and security, heterogeneous processor architectures with a mixture of different core architectures and hardware accelerators are necessary.To tackle this new type of hardware complexity and nevertheless stay within monetary constraints, high performance computers, inspired by state of the art data center hardware, could be adapted in order to fulfill automotive quality requirements. The European Processor Initiative (EPI) research project tries to come along with that challenge for next generation semiconductors.To be as close as possible to series development needs for the next upcoming car generations, we present a hybrid semiconductor system-on-chip architecture for automotive. This microprocessor is inspired and derived from HPC architecture of the European Processor Initiative research project.Furthermore we suggest a possible future architecture for high performance automotive microprocessors integrated on an automotive computing platform. We describe our architectural hardware approach for a generic high…
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