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User Defined FE Based Connector Joints for Plastics

CAEfatigue Ltd-Neil Bishop, Paresh Murthy
Hella GmbH & Co. KGaA-Thomas Thesing, Odo Karger
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0186
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Spot Welds are a category of welds used extensively in automotive structures, normally for metals. The fatigue analysis of such spot welds can be evaluated using (a) the Point 2 Point (P2P) method where a beam or bar is used to connect the 2 surfaces being joined, (b) a more modern approach where the 1D element is replaced with an “equivalent” brick element, or (c) a third approach that falls somewhere between where a “spider” and circular ring of elements, is used to represent the spot weld. In all 3 cases there is an assumption that the cross section is circular. For some specialist cases such as plastic connectors, the cross section is not circular so a new user defined weld is proposed. This paper will describe the approach that is based on the concept that a user generated tensor line can be used (equivalent to the theoretical Force/Moment to stress algorithms built into the P2P approach) along with special S-N curves create for different joint shapes.
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Development of a New High Orientation Paint System to Achieve Outstanding Real Metallic Designs

Toyota Motor Corporation-Takao Tsukimori
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0899
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Silver metallic colors with thin and smooth aluminum flake pigments have been introduced for luxury brand OEMs. Regarding the paint formulation for these types of colors, low non-volatile(NV) and high aluminum flake pigment contents are known as technology for high metallic appearance designs. However, there are two technical concerns. First is mottling which is caused by uneven distribution of the aluminum flake pigments in paint film and second is poor film property due to high aluminum pigment concentration in paint film. Therefore, current paint systems have limitation of paint design. As a countermeasure for those two concerns, we had investigated cellulose nanofiber (CNF) dispersion liquid as both the coating binder and rheology control agent in a new type of waterborne paint system. CNF is an effective rheology control agent because it has strong hydrogen bonds with other fiber surfaces in waterborne paint. The CNF shows similar viscosity result with conventional water borne paint though CNF contents is less than 1wt% and NV is less than 5wt%. Furthermore, CNF's surface bonds with isocyanate resin makes strong…
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Application of Laminated Steels for Stamped Bumpers

FCA US LLC-Eric Edwin Herz
Material Sciences Corp.-Justin Putti, Matt Murphy
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1055
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Light-weight solutions for stamped steel components that exhibit the same or similar appearance properties for purposes of authentic feel and perception to customers will play a critical role as the goal of reaching maximum fuel efficiency for large vehicles continues. This paper outlines the potential uses for laminated steel or “MSC Smart Steel®” in large stamped steel bumpers that would normally be stamped with thick sheet metal in order to meet vehicle level functional objectives. The paper presents the investigation of the one for one drop in capabilities of MSC Smart Steel® material to existing stamping dies, special processing considerations while manufacturing, vehicle level performance comparisons, and class “A” coating options and process needs. Most of all, it will highlight the significant vehicle weight saving benefits and opportunities as compared to current production stamped steel bumpers.
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Tracking Panel Movement during Stamping Process Using Advanced Optical Technology

Oakland University-Bicheng Guo, Xiaowan Zheng, Boyang Zhang, Rong Wang, Lianxiang Yang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0541
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Metal panels are comprehensively applied in the automotive industry. A significant issue with metal panels is the deflection when moving in the press line of the stamping process. Unpredictable deflection could result in the cut off of the press line. To control the deflection in a safe zone, finite element tools are used to simulate the panel transform process. However, the simulation requires experimental validation where conventional displacement measurement techniques could not satisfy the requirement of vast filed displacement and accuracy point tracking. In this study, multi-camera digital image correlation (DIC) systems have been developed to track the movement of panels during the press line of the stamping process. There are some advantages of applying the DIC system, including non-contact, full-field, high accuracy, and direct measurement techniques that provide the evaluation displacement of the metal panel and press line. Nevertheless, the traditional stereo DIC system (with two cameras) has a limited field of vision, and the multi-camera DIC system expands the field of vision and enables the measurement of panel deflection during the stamping process.…
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Analysis of Sheet Metal Joining with Self-Piercing Riveting

Oakland University-Srecko Zdravkovic, Sergey Golovashchenko
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0223
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Self-piercing riveting (SPR) has been in production in automotive industry since early 1990s. A substantial amount of experimental work was traditionally required in order to find an appropriate combination of rivet and anvil design to satisfy the required joint parameters. Presented study is describing the methodology of numerical simulation of SPR process and its experimental validation for Aluminum alloys and steels. Among material properties, the required information for numerical simulation includes stress-strain curves validated for the range of strains taking place in SPR process (up to 2.0 of true strain for sheets and up to 0.4 of true strain for the rivet) and parameters of fracture model for all involved materials: all sheets in the stack and the rivet material. Experimental data on stress-strain curves for extended range of strains was obtained based upon multistep rolling tensile testing procedure for the sheet metals. Parameters of the fracture model for sheets were defined by custom hole expansion test, and the parameter of the fracture model for the rivet was defined via expanding the tubular portion of…
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Development of JASO GLV-1 0W-8 Low Viscosity Engine Oil for Improving Fuel Efficiency considering Oil Consumption and Engine Wear Performance

Aichi Machine Industry Co.,Ltd.-Keisuke Yoshida
Nissan Automotive Technology Co., Ltd.-Satoshi Kawamura
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1423
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Engine oil with viscosity lower than 0W-16 has been needed for improving fuel efficiency in the Japanese market. However, lower viscosity oil generally has negative aspects with regard to oil consumption and anti-wear performance. The technical challenges are to reduce viscosity while keeping anti-wear performance and volatility level the same as 0W-20 oil. They have been solved in developing a new engine oil by focusing on the molybdenum dithiocarbamate friction modifier and base oil properties. This paper describes the new oil that supports good fuel efficiency while reliably maintaining other necessary performance attributes.
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Crevice Corrosion Accelerated Test for Cylinder Head/Gasket/Monoblock Assemblies from Lightweight Engines Considering Overheating Effects

Instituto Politecnico Nacional Esime Zac-Gerardo Rodríguez-Bravo, Roberto Vega-Moron
Instituto Politécnico Nacional ESIQIE-Jesús Godínez-Salcedo
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1067
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Severe crevice corrosion occurring at the joint of cylinder head/gasket/mono-block from lightweight engines causes accelerated dissolution of lightweight material, in particular, in the cylinder head. It facilitates the linking of cooling vessels with the combustion chambers or oil vessels in both the cylinder head and monoblock. It is conductive to combustion of coolant or oil, and contamination of oil with coolant or vice versa, which is considered as catastrophic engine failure. Since crevice corrosion is dependent of assembly characteristics, coolant and engine operation conditions, full-scale tests are the most frequent alternative for this type of evaluations. Nonetheless, they are very long and expensive, and sometimes, unreliable. Alternatively, the standard procedure ASTM-G78 is widely used to evaluate accelerated crevice corrosion of different metallic materials under certain specified immersion conditions using a corrosive media. However, this method does not cover the characteristics and conditions existing at the cylinder head/gasket/mono-block joint. This paper presents an accelerated test consisting on three-electrode cyclic potentiodynamic anodic polarization and polarization resistance standard tests using special assembly samples to replicate the actual cylinder…
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Development of Ultra Low Viscosity 0W-8 Engine Oil

JXTG Nippon Oil & Energy Corp.-Shintaro Kusuhara, Yu Misaki
Toyota Motor Corporation-Kazuo Yamamori, Yuta Uematsu, Kazuyoshi Manabe, Itsuki Miyata
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1425
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Further fuel economy improvement of the internal combustion engine is indispensable for CO2 reduction in order to cope with serious global environmental problems. Although lowering the viscosity of engine oil is an effective way to improve fuel economy, it may reduce the wear resistance. Therefore, it is important to achieve both improved fuel economy and reliability. We have developed new 0W- 8 engine oil of ultra-low viscosity and achieved an improvement in fuel economy by 0.8% compared to the commercial 0W-16 engine oil. For this new oil, we reduced the friction coefficient under boundary lubrication regime by applying an oil film former and calcium borate detergent. The film former increased the oil film thickness without increasing the oil viscosity. The calcium borate detergent enhanced the friction reduction effect of molybdenum dithiocarbamate (MoDTC). By applying these technologies, an engine oil was developed which successfully achieved desired fuel efficiency and reliability. The developed oil also met the new JASO GLV-1 specification.
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Full Body Car Analysis in the Time and Frequency Domains - Sheet, Spot and Seam Weld Fatigue Benchmark Studies

CAEfatigue, Ltd.-Neil Bishop, Stuart Kerr
Desktop Engineering Ltd.-Andy Woodward
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0195
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The fatigue analysis of a full car body requires the sheet metal (sheet fatigue), spot welds (spot weld fatigue) and seam welds (seam weld fatigue) to be thoroughly evaluated for durability. Traditionally this has always been done (via separate processes) in the time domain but recently new techniques have been implemented to perform all of these tasks in the frequency domain with numerous advantages. This paper will summarize the frequency domain process and then compare the results (and performance) against the more usual time base result
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Lightweight Plastic Engine Oil Pump

SABIC-Subhransu Sekhar Mohapatra, Arunachala P, Raghavendra Janiwarad, Ashwin Kumar Ramasagaram, Fred Chang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0233
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
An oil pump is an important component of the automotive powertrain, which can potentially help improve fuel economy and reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. This can be achieved not only through a lightweight design, but also through an increase in engine efficiency by drawing the optimal amount of energy for its operation. This paper discusses the engineering design and development of a plastic automotive engine oil pump as an alternative to current metal oil pumps. Detailed component design features to ensure the working of the plastic pump under harsh chemical, temperature and vibration environment are discussed. The proposed design integrates several parts and uses unique plastic design elements to improve upon current metal design. Innovative joining methods and assembly sequencing are implemented to maintain pump efficiency and functional precision. Use of self-lubricating plastics to increase engine efficiency by reducing wear between moving parts is explored. Data and findings from extensive structural and processing simulations, as well as high temperature and long-term material tests, carried out during the design phase to ensure structural integrity and manufacturability…