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To establish the correlation in between Computer Aided Engineering & physical testing of automotive parts returnable case (Stacktainer).

International Centre for Automotive Technology-Ashish Singh
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2569
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Automotive returnable cases (Stacktainers) are being used to transport the automotive parts through surface & seaways. No automotive manufacturer wants to spend money on woods, paper & cardboard again and again, it`s better to pay once for robust & reusable cases. these provide better protection to parts from its manufacturing to assembly line of vehicle. While transporting, any kind of crack or failure of returnable cases may lead to loss of money, human & time. To ensure the safety, these pallets have to be validated for vibrations coming from surface irregularities, sea waves & load due to stacking of cases one above other. The objective of this study is to establish a correlation in between the physical testing & simulation in Computer added Engineering (CAE) of automotive returnable case (Stacktainers). There are different types of tests considered to validate the returnable case, rough road evaluation, Multi-axial Vibration & strength evaluation. After conducting the physical test & CAE simulation, a correlation & confidence level up to 90% is established.
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Light-Weighting of Additive Manufactured Automotive Fixtures through Topology Optimization Techniques

General Motors Technical Center India-Abhijith Naik, T Sujan, Suraj Desai, Saravanakumar Shanmugam
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2544
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Rapidly enhancing engineering techniques to manufacture components in quick turnaround time have gained importance in recent times. Manufacturing strategies like Additive Manufacturing (AM) are a key enabler for achieving them. Unlike traditional manufacturing techniques like injection molding, casting etc.; AM unites advanced materials, machines, and software which will be critical for the fourth industrial revolution known as Industry 4.0. Successful application of AM involves a specific combination and understanding of these three key elements. In this paper the AM approach used is Fused Deposition Modelling (FDM). Since material costs contribute to 60% of the overall FDM costs, it becomes a necessity to optimize the parts. This paper reports the case studies of 3D-printed Automotive Fixtures which utilize computational methods (CAE), topology optimization and FDM constrains (build directions) to manufacture the part. These methodologies were used to validate the current operating conditions, optimize the design, increase the stiffness of the original part and reduce the material costs. The newly optimized designs were verified successfully passing the Finite Element Analysis tests. The components have been printed and…
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Industry 4.0 in Agriculture

John Deere India Pvt, Ltd.-Vishal Eknath Kirve
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2442
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
In recent times, there has been an enormous shift towards automation in Auto as well as Agriculture Industry. Farming is playing an important role in the survival of world. Currently, agricultural industry is facing several challenges. These challenges can be reduced or removed by using automation in the agricultural tools and techniques. Industry 4.0 is the industrial fourth revolution which focused on automations in manufacturing technologies such as cyber physical systems, Internet of Things, artificial intelligence and cloud and cognitive computing. The development and improvement of the connectivity between agricultural tools is leading to significant progress in the agricultural practices. Advancement and automation of the technologies with Internet of Things (IoT), replacing traditional agricultural methodologies which causes wide range of improvements in the fields. The main purpose of this paper is focused on the review of basic concept of Industry 4.0, the number of new tools and techniques used by smart agriculture for the improvement in the fields and the list of benefits of smart agricultural solutions. Smart Agriculture is using advanced technologies such as…
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ENHANCE STRENGTH, ACCURACY AND PRECISION OF THE 3D PRINTED ASSEMBLY AID GAUGES

General Motors Technical Center India-Ramesh Kavalur, Raghavendra Rao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2568
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
ENHANCE STRENGTH, ACCURACY AND PRECISION OF THE 3D PRINTED ASSEMBLY AID GAUGES Ramesh Kavalur1, Raghavendra Rao 1 1 Body in White, Manufacturing Engineering, General Motors Technical Centre India Pvt. Ltd, India, Keywords - Additive manufacturing, assembly aid gauges, 3D printer. Research Objective - Automotive manufacturing impressively implementing 3D printed jigs and fixtures. Traditional manufacturing of metal assembly aid gauges have limitations such as lead time and causes dent and rough marks on the outer panel of the body. On the other hand, 3D printed jigs and fixtures, demands more time (depends on complexity), have low level of precision and they offer lower strength. It is observed that this occurs because of the inefficient design and manufacturing without understanding the functionality and capability of the 3D printer. The primary objective of this study is to examine, design & develop 3D printed jigs and fixture to optimize the product, achieve required precision and functionality with improvement in the strength of the product. Methodology - In order to examine, detail examination of existing 3D printed part were studied.…
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High Durable PU Metallic Monocoat System for Tractor Sheet Metal Application

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Rahul Lalwani, Sudhir Sawant, Yogesh keskar, Nitin Pagar
Mahindra Research Valley-Vinay Kumar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2541
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
In sheet metal painting for various applications like tractor and automobiles, most attractive coating is metallic paints. It is widely applied using 3 coat 2 bake or 3 coat 1 bake technology. Both options, results in high energy consumption, higher production through put time and lower productivity in manufacturing process. During various brainstorming and sustainability initiatives, paint application process was identified to reduce burden on environment and save energy. Various other industry benchmarking and field performance requirement studies helped to identify critical quality parameters. There was collaboration with supplier to develop monocoat system without compromising any performance and aesthetic properties. This resulted in achieving better productivity, elimination of two paint layers, substantial reduction in volatile organic content, elimination of one baking cycle and energy saving.Metallic mono-coat formulated using strong polyurethane resins and latest technology pre-coated aluminum pigment for achieving metallic effect in finish. With new resin technology, further reduction in baking temperature and energy is possible.
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Design of Additive Manufactured Thermoplastic Component as FMVSS 201U Countermeasure

General Motors Technical Center India-Swaroop Kavi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2547
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Research and/or Engineering Questing/Objectives: Safety of the occupant in passenger cars is one of the regulatory requirements in many developed countries. This includes upper interior head impact load case of the unbelted occupant during crash (FMVSS 201U) as one of them. During a crash event the occupant head can collide with the interior parts of the vehicle, such as a headliner, pillar trim and other subsequent components in the loading direction. Injury on the head is quantified in terms of the Head Injury Criterion of a crash test dummy (HIC(d)) value which should be less than 1000 per standard. Several ways can be adopted to reduce the HIC(d) value. These include a change in the design of ribs in the safety plastic components, headliner profile change, use of countermeasure foam between headliner and the exterior sheet metal parts, or a combination of any of these to absorb the energy of impact. Recent developments in the field of manufacturing, such as the Additive Manufacturing (AM) method, have provided an opportunity to design and manufacture components with…
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High Rigidity and Light Weight Bumper Material Development in India

Honda Cars India Limited-Manu Sharma
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2553
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle weight reduction becomes important at the view point of fuel efficiency improvement and CO2 reduction in India also as well as developed countries.With this background, High tensile and Super high tensile steel application has become increasing.Similarly, weight reduction of big plastic parts like bumper face is one of the most important items, so Honda has developed Thin-wall and light weight bumper face.In the development of light weight bumper, rigidity, impact strength and flowability which are main requirement are contradictory property. It is necessary to develop new material to achieve this technical concern.Moreover, we verified part shape and thickness optimization to achieve part requirement.Established high property material and part manufacturing technology were applied for current CITY firstly, and it has been expanded to other models sequentially to contribute weight reduction for Honda vehicles.In this report, we report the analysis and verification result example of high rigidity and light weight bumper material development in India.
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Mitigation for Edge Corrosion Protection for Automotive Bodies

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Jayanthan Balasubramanian, Rahul Lalwani, Vinay Kumar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2561
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
A major challenge to automotive industry is to protect the vehicle from corrosion in varying environments with respect to different service conditions. One of the main types of corrosion that affects aesthetic look is edge corrosion on sheet metal. Mostly edge is acting as starting point of corrosion due to unprotected metal exposed to environment. Special attention needs to be given to exposed edges to protect from rust formation.Samples were prepared as per design of experiments with respect to manufacturing process condition, material usage, and design. These samples were tested for corrosion test and painting process compatibility.In this study effect and limitation of burr and optimum solution with respect to corrosion was evaluated and results will be discussed.
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An Optimization Framework for Fixture Layout Design for Nonrigid Parts: An Automotive Perspective

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Oakland University, USA-Christopher Slon, Vijitashwa Pandey
  • Journal Article
  • 05-13-01-0001
Published 2019-11-19 by SAE International in United States
The inspection process of non-rigid parts during manufacturing and assembly is inherently challenging. This is exacerbated by the need for accurate real-time part data in the digital age. Although many ad hoc techniques exist, there are no rigorous methods to evaluate the quality of a fixture layout before final parts and gauges are available. This typically happens so late in the manufacturing process that errors found can scarcely be remedied. Additionally, the modifications to the gauge are usually costly and can result in significant delays, when performed this late in the process. This article proposes an optimization-driven mathematical approach tailored toward non-rigid parts to identify the best locator layout, early in the part design phase. A metric is proposed using robotic grasping theory to quantify the quality of the locating scheme and serves as the objective of optimization. The proposed method is implemented using a tolerancing software that performs finite element analysis (FEA) on the parts to predict its state given the force and torque inputs, including the effect of gravity. An evolutionary algorithm is…
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RIVET - TUBULAR, COUNTERSUNK, AS7228

E-25 General Standards for Aerospace and Propulsion Systems
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS3228B
  • Current
Published 2019-11-05 by SAE International in United States
No Abstract Available.
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