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Identifying Virtuous Cycles of Using Real-Time Process Data in Portable Semi-Automated Electric Drilling

Airbus Operations GmbH-Jan Sturhmann
Airbus UK-Luke bagshaw, Philip Edwards
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1875
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Purpose: Thanks to the long lifetimes of aerospace platforms, manufacturers face opportunities for improving the manufacturing processes of legacy products. However, the potential benefits of process innovations must be carefully balanced with the costs. One such opportunity is offered through portable semi-automated electric drilling. The purpose of this paper is to identify critical elements in building a business case for incorporating portable semi-automated electric drills on aerospace products and processes. Design/methodology/approach: Drawing on institutional knowledge, we distinguish three entities in hole-generation tasks: hole types, hole-cutting tools, and hole-cutting assets (e.g. portable drills). We identify the specific needs, requirements and constraints in hole generation by focusing on each entity and the relationships between them. We then examine the implications of introducing sensor-equipped portable electric drills that allow real-time process data collection. Finally, we assess the impact of innovation in hole-cutting assets in general. Findings: It was found that the benefits of real-time process data collection can lead into a virtuous cycle where a first-order benefit can lead to multiple higher-order benefits. For example, provision of spindle…
 

MANAGEMENT OF MANUFACTURING AND ASSEMBLY PROCESSES RISCS BASED ON MODIFIED FMEA

IRCUT-Galina Susova
National technology Chamber-Rostislav Sirotkin
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1870
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
The quality of production is defined by the actual deviations from the requirements stated in design and technological documentation including drawings. In this article the problem of ensuring steady decrease in quantity of deviations from these requirements by production is considered. Carrying out preventive actions, in combination with control of time and costs of correction of discrepancies of such decrease it is possible to achieve. For the solution of an objective the method of the modified FMEA using parameters and levels of ranging as elements of operation of technological process where at a design stage of a product are set structure, is offered and are adjusted on the basis of feedback of production and operation. Such statement of a problem demands automation of collecting and data processing which can be used for creation of the knowledge base necessary for management of productions. Considering the specification level used in this analysis it is also possible to obtain the data necessary for the solution of some other the problems, for example, connected with productions, including technologies, the…
 
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Heat Transfer Enhancement in Stagnation Region of Aero-Engine Inlet Vanes due to Ejection Slot and Anisotropic Heat Conduction

AECC Commercial Aircraft Engine Co., Ltd-Kun Yang, Hongkui Zhou
Beihang University-Peng Ke, Jie Liu, Lukas Schaeflein
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Ice protection is important for aero-engine induction system, such as the inlet vanes. For the ice protection of such parts manufactured with low thermal conductivity polymer-based composite material, the combined heating method using interior jet impingement and exterior ejection film has certain advantages. The simulation model coupling CFD with solid heat conduction was developed and solved with the anisotropic thermal conductivities model to investigate the heat transfer enhancement in the stagnation region of aero-engine inlet vanes due to ejection slot and anisotropic heat conduction, which is related to the curved geometry, ejection slots and anisotropic heat conduction.The temperature distribution and heat flux ratio between the stagnation region on outside surface and the impingement region inside were calculated and analyzed for the configuration with different ejection angle and different materials. The results show that ejection slots and anisotropic heat conduction plays important roles of the heat transfer process. For the same ejection angles, the larger the thermal conductivity, the higher the temperature at stagnation point and the better ice protection. For the same material property, the…
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Aerodynamic Assessment of Complex 3D Ice Shape Replications

Austrian Institute for Icing Sciences-Thomas Neubauer, David Kozomara
FH Joanneum GmbH-Reinhard Puffing, Wolfgang Hassler
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
This work introduces an approach allowing the detailed replication of ice shapes generated in icing wind tunnels, with a special focus on complex and strongly varying ice structures, e.g., ice feathers or residual ice stemming from incomplete removal of accreted ice by ice protection systems. 3D-scans are used as an input for the manufacturing process of the ice shape replica. The manufacturing approach itself is based on additive techniques using semi-flexible materials. In contrast to existing replication techniques, this approach allows also clean areas between ice-covered surface locations. In the present paper, a quality assessment based on the comparison of the lift coefficients of real and corresponding artificial ice shapes is presented.
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Aero-Engine Inlet Vane Structure Optimization for Anti-Icing with Hot Air Film Using Neural Network and Genetic Algorithm

Beihang University-Jie Liu, Peng Ke
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
An improved anti-icing design with film heating ejection slot and cover for the inlet part of aero-engine was brought out, which combines the interior jet impingement with the exterior hot air film heating and shows promising application for those parts manufactured with composite materials. A hybrid method based on the combination of the Back Propagation Neural Network (BPNN) and Genetic Algorithm (GA) is developed to optimize the anti-icing design for a typical aero-engine inlet vane in two dimensions. The optimization aims to maximize the heating performance of the hot air film, which is assessed by the heating effectiveness. The film-heating ejection angle and the cover opening angle are the two geometric variables to be optimized. Numerical model was established and validated to generate training and testing samples for BPNN, which was used to predict the objective function and find the optimal design variables in conjunction with the GA. The optimal values of the film-heating ejection angle and the cover opening angle were 24.3° and 5°, respectively, which were achieved at a given heat flow rate…
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Noise and Vibration End-of-Line Production Testing and Analysis Challenges

Bruel & Kjaer North America, Inc.-Chris Moon
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Theoretical modeling continues to play a larger role in noise and vibration engineering; however, until products are perfectly made, there will be a need to evaluate their end of the production line performance. Manufacturing production of a wide range of items has classically involved some amount of subjective and/or evolved objective quality testing along, or at the end of the production line. This testing can have goals of determining product safety, durability, functionality, and/or the vibration/sound quality. A vibration-based measurement approach is frequently used for many of those goals. Often, many modern products utilize some combination of electric motors, internal combustion engines, and power transmission rotational components. The end-of-line testing for many of these rotational components is after many years now heavily refined in the measurement and analysis methods, and the separation of good, bad and marginally bad samples may not always be challenging. It is frequently the non-standard types of products or unique operating conditions, either as subcomponents or assemblies, which may provide unique challenges to the typical measurement and analysis methods. Additionally, depending…
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A Computational Process to Effectively Design Seals for Improved Wind Noise Performance

Dassault Systemes SIMULIA-Robert Powell, Sivapalan Senthooran, Philippe Moron
Jaguar Land Rover-Nicholas Oettle
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
The ability to assess noise transmitted through seals to cabin interiors early in the design process is very important for automotive manufacturers. When a seal design is inadequate, the noise transmitted can dominate the interior noise, making the wind noise performance of the vehicle unacceptable. This can cause launch delays, increasing costs and risking loss of sales. Designing seals using conventional experimental processes is challenging, since the location and strength of flow noise sources are not known when the seal design is planned. Making changes to the seal system after the tooling stage is expensive for manufacturers as tooling and redesign costs can be considerable. Deliberate overdesign by adding multiple layers of seals in a wide range of locations also can reduce profit by unnecessarily raising part and manufacturing costs. Consequently, there is a strong motivation to use reliable computational capabilities to predict interior noise transmitted through seals early in the design process to address these challenges, designing seals right first time.The current study presents a computational process that can be used to predict interior…
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COMPOUND, ALKALINE RUST REMOVER Aircraft Turbine Engine Components

AMS J Aircraft Maintenance Chemicals and Materials Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS1379A
  • Current
Published 2019-06-03 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers an alkaline rust remover compound in the form of a liquid concentrate or a water-soluble powder for dilution with water.
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Heat Treatment of Steel Raw Materials

AMS E Carbon and Low Alloy Steels Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMSH6875B
  • Current
Published 2019-05-29 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers the requirements for heat-treatment of four classes of steel (See 1.2) and the requirements for furnace equipment, test procedures and information for heat-treating procedures, heat-treating temperatures and material (See 6.3) test procedures. This specification is applicable only to the heat treatment of raw material (See 6.3.1); it does not cover the requirements for the heat treatment of steel parts (See 3.4 and 6.3.2). This specification also describes procedures that, when followed, will produce the desired properties and material qualities within the limitations of the respective alloys tabulated in Tables 1A, 1B, 1C and 1D. Alloys other than those specifically covered herein may be heat treated using all applicable requirements of this specification.
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Mixture Distributions in Autonomous Decision-Making for Industry 4.0

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Oakland University, USA-Christopher Slon, Vijitashwa Pandey, Sam Kassoumeh
  • Journal Article
  • 05-12-02-0011
Published 2019-05-29 by SAE International in United States
Industry 4.0 is expected to revolutionize product development and, in particular, manufacturing systems. Cyber-physical production systems and digital twins of the product and process already provide the means to predict possible future states of the final product given the current production parameters. With the advent of further data integration coupled with the need for autonomous decision-making, methods are needed to make decisions in real time and in an environment of uncertainty in both the possible outcomes and in the stakeholders’ preferences over them. This article proposes a method of autonomous decision-making in data-intensive environments, such as a cyber-physical assembly system. Theoretical results in group decision-making and utility maximization using mixture distributions are presented. This allows us to perform calculations on expected utility accurately and efficiently through closed-form expressions, which are also provided. The practical value of the method is illustrated with a door assembly example and compared to traditional random assembly methods and results.