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Micro-Macro Acoustic Modeling of Heterogeneous Foams with Nucleation Perturbation

Duke University-Johann Guilleminot
Ecole des Ponts ParisTech-Michel BORNERT
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1526
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
The properties of a polyurethane foam are greatly influenced by the addition of graphite particles during the manufacturing process, initially used as a fire retardant. These thin solid particles perturbate the nucleation process by generating bubbles in its immediate vicinity. The preponderance of work so far has focused on foams that are locally relatively homogeneous. We propose a model for locally inhomogeneous foams (including membrane effects) consisting of a random stack of spheres that permits one to represent certain pore size distribution functions. The cellular structure of the foam is obtained through a Laguerre tessellation and the solid skeleton determined from the minimization of surface energy (Surface Evolver). The structure of real foam samples is analyzed using X-ray computed tomography and scanning electron microscopy followed by image processing to create computerized three-dimensional models of the samples. The corresponding effective material parameters, including the permeability, the tortuosity and the viscous characteristic length are computed by applying a numerical homogenization approach. All the numerical data are presented, discussed and further compared with experimental results.
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Dynamic Characterization of FDM 3D-Printed Parts

Karlsruhe Institute of Technology-Manuel Bopp, Matthias Behrendt
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1561
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
With substantial progress in additive manufacturing (AM) technology in the recent years, AM parts are on the verge of becoming an economical option for small series manufacturing and on-demand spare parts. Especially Filament-Deposition-Modeling (FDM) has found widespread use in industrial as well as in private applications due to its many advantages like multi material manufacturing, its wide range of available materials, low overall cost and easy handling. Depending on the specific application, the dynamic behavior of a structure can be critical, for example when designing resonating absorber elements, to avoid unwanted resonance-coupling with other parts, or regarding the general vibrational and acoustic behavior. To predict the dynamic behavior of a structure, two of the most important parameters are the storage modulus and loss modulus of the material. In polymers these parameters are typically frequency-dependent and in the case of FDM manufactured parts they are also strongly anisotropic, due to the layer- and path-wise fabrication process. In this study different samples of FDM 3D-printed ABS parts are investigated. First the effect of various slicing and printing…
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Anisotropic material behavior and design optimization of 3D printed structures

University of Kentucky-Jordan Garcia, Robert Harper, Coilin Bradley, John Schmidt, Y Charles Lu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0228
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Traditional manufacturing processes such as injection or compression molding are often enclosed and pressurized systems that produce homogenous products. In contrast, 3D printing is exposed to the environment at ambient (or reduced) temperature and atmospheric pressure. Further, the printing process itself is mostly “layered manufacturing”, i.e., it forms a three-dimensional part by laying down successive layers of materials. Those characteristics inevitably lead to inconsistent microstructure of 3D printed products and thus cause anisotropic mechanical properties. In this paper, the anisotropic behaviors of 3D printed parts were investigated by using both laboratory coupon specimens (bending specimens) and complex engineering structures (A-pillar). Results show that the orientation of the infills of 3D printed parts can significantly influence their mechanical properties. Parts with 0-degree filament orientation are seen to have the most favorable responses, including Young’s modulus, maximum strength, failure strain, and toughness. The findings also suggest that the 3D printed products could be theoretically “designed” or “tailored” by adjusting the infill angles to achieve optimal performance. The 3D printed A-pillar structure has been designed by utilizing the…
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A McPherson Lightweight Suspension Arm

Barnem Tecnologie Plastiche Srl-Marcello Chessari
Metal-Stampi di Maccarinelli e Cucchi-Silvia Maccarinelli
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0772
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The paper deals with the design and manufacturing of a McPherson suspension arm made from short glass fiber reinforced polyamide (PA66). The design of the arm and the design of the molds have been made jointly. According to Industry 4.0 paradigms, a full digitalization of both the product and process has been performed.Since the mechanical behavior of the suspension arm strongly depends on constraints which are difficult to be modelled, a simpler structure with well-defined mechanical constraints has been developed. By means of such simple structure, the model for the behavior of the material has been validated. Since the suspension arm is a hybrid structure, the associated simple structure is hybrid as well, featuring a metal sheet with over-molded polymer. The issues referring to material flow, material to material contact, weld lines, fatigue strength, high and low temperature behavior, creep, dynamic strength have been investigated on the simple structure. The detailed understanding gained with the simple structure has been transferred on the actual suspension arm.The McPherson arm has been produced and withstood the technical specifications.
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A Robust Methodology for Predicting the Fatigue Life of an Automotive Closures System Subjected to Hinge and Check Link Load

Ford India Pvt., Ltd.-Nirmal Puthuvayil, Sivasankari S
RLE India Pvt., Ltd.-Thoheer Zaman
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0599
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Quality in the automotive industry symbolizes the development and the manufacturing of vehicles whose specifications meet customer requirements. Among the quality issues, opening and closing effort of any closures in a vehicle is a characteristic that strongly affects the customer first opinion about vehicle design. The closure opening and closing effort is affected by different uncertainties like opening angle, load to the check-link, hinge stoppage, materials and manufacturing process. A check stop & hinge stop load durability cycle occurs when a customer opens the closures beyond the closure detent position with a force applied on the check link or hinge check stops. Due to few uncertainties like abuse opening, manufacturing imperfections, weak mounting locations, the closures will be subjected to fatigue failure. The present study is aimed to introduce a probabilistic frame-work for fatigue life reliability analysis that addresses the uncertainties associated with door opening-closing effort due to check-hinge loads, door closure opening angles and hinge stop tolerance. A fatigue life probabilistic model of various closure systems was developed using Monte-Carlo simulation, where the stress…
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Material model selection for numerical crankshaft deep rolling process simulation

Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica-Luiz Aun Fonseca, Alfredo Rocha de Faria
University of Waterloo-Hamid Jahed, John Montesano
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1078
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Residual stress prediction arising from manufacturing processes provides paramount information for the fatigue performance assessment of components subjected to cyclic loading. The determination of the material model to be applied on the numerical model should be taken carefully. This study focus on the estimation of residual stresses generated after deep rolling of cast iron crankshafts. The researched literature on the field employs the available commercial material codes without closer consideration on their reverse loading capacities. To mitigate this gap, a single element model was used to compare potential material models with tensile-compression experiments. The best fit model was then applied to a previously developed crankshaft deep rolling numerical model. In order to confront the simulation outcomes, residual stresses were measured in two directions with real crankshaft specimens that passed through the same modeled deep rolling process. Electrolytic polishing was used to etch the region of interest and enable in-depth residual stress analysis through X-ray diffraction method. The comparison revealed the model’s ability to follow the residual stress state tendency, predicting compressive stresses at the surface,…
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Innovative Additive Manufacturing Process for Successful Production of 7000 Series Aluminum Alloy Components Using Smart Optical Monitoring System

SenSigma LLC-Jay Choi, Alex Rice
University of Michigan-Jyoti Mazumder
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1300
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Aircraft components are commonly produced with 7000 series aluminum alloys (AA) due to its weight, strength, and fatigue properties. Auto Industry is also choosing more and more aluminum component for weight reduction. Current additive manufacturing (AM) methods fall short of successfully producing 7000 series AA due to the reflective nature of the material along with elements with low vaporization temperature. Moreover, lacking in ideal thermal control, print inherently defective products with such issues as poor surface finish alloying element loss and porosity. All these defects contribute to reduction of mechanical strength. By monitoring plasma with spectroscopic sensors, multiple information such as line intensity, standard deviation, plasma temperature or electron density, and by using different signal processing algorithm, AM defects have been detected and classified. For composition analysis, the ratio of the maximum intensities of Mg(I)/Al(I) shows a strong trend with the amount of Zn and Mg in the powder, and the results are extremely promising regarding the ability to use the online spectra for real time determination of the composition of the AA7075 powders with…
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Spatially Optimized Diffusion Alloys: A Novel Multi-Layered Steel Material for Exhaust Applications

Arcanum Alloys Inc.-Zachary Detweiler, David Keifer, Daniel Bullard
Tenneco Inc.-Adam Kotrba, Tony Quan, Winston Wei
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1051
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A novel Spatially Optimized Diffusion Alloy (SODA) material has been developed and applied to exhaust systems, a very aggressive environment with high temperatures and loads, as well as excessive corrosion. Traditional stainless steels disperse chromium homogeneously throughout the material, with varying amounts ranging from 11% to 18% dependent upon its grade (e.g. 409, 436, 439, and 441). SODA steels, however, offer layered concentrations of chromium, enabling an increased amount along the outer surface for much needed corrosion resistance and aesthetics. This outer layer, approximately 70µm thick, exceeds 20% of chromium concentration locally, but is only 3% in bulk, offering selective placement of the chromium to minimize its overall usage. And, since this layer is metallurgically bonded, it cannot delaminate or separate from its core, enabling durable protection throughout manufacturing processes and full useful life. The core material may be of various grades, however, so this study employs interstitial free steel (low carbon), which offers not only commercial advantages, but also eases manufacturing operations, as it is more formable than stainless steel grades. The material and…
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CAE Modeling Static and Fatigue Performance of Short Glass Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene Coupons and Components

FCA US LLC-Congyue Wang, Mingchao Guo, Mohan Shanmugam, Ramchandra Bhandarkar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1309
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Fiber reinforced polypropylene (FRPP) is a typical anisotropic composite and its material properties highly depend on the fiber orientations within the material. To improve accuracy in prediction of durability performance of structures made of this kind of composite material, simulation of manufacturing process is necessary to obtain distribution of fibers and their orientations at every location of the structure. This paper describes a CAE modeling techniques to simulate 1) injection molding process, 2) static and fatigue performance of coupons and 3) static and fatigue performance of components made of 30% FRPP. Details of CAE model setup, analysis procedures and correlation between analysis and test results are presented. In this study, various fiber orientation (0, 20, 90 degrees & knit line), temperature (-40, 23 and 80 degree C) and mean stress (R=-1.0, -0.5, -0.2, 0.1 and 0.4) have been considered. To demonstrate correlation, battery trays made of this FRPP have been tested subjected to block cycle loads, results of which have been discussed.
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Automotive Dimensional Quality Control with Geometry Tree Process

FCA US LLC-James Cole, Yuqin Wang, Robert Bertucci
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0480
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Geometry Tree is a term describing the product assembly structure and the manufacturing process for the product. The concept refers to the assembly structure of the final vehicle (the Part Tree) and the assembly process and tools for the final product (the Process Tree). In the past few years, the Geometry Tree-based quality process was piloted in the FCA NAFTA region and has since evolved into a standardized quality control process. In the Part Tree process, the coordinated measurements and naming convention are enforced throughout the different levels of product sub-assemblies and measurement processes. The Process Tree, on the other hand, includes both prominently identified assembly tools and the mapping of key product characteristics to key assembly tools. The benefits of directly tying critical customer characteristics to actual machine components that have a high propensity to influence them is both preventive and reactive. This article describes the integrated Geometry Tree quality process and how it has been implemented at the FCA vehicle assembly plants and in the dimensional data management system.