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Experimental investigation on the use of Argon to improve FMEP determination through motoring method

Jaguar & Land Rover-Gilbert Sammut
Univ of Malta-Carl Caruana, Mario Farrugia
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0141
To be published on 2019-08-15 by SAE International in United States
Mechanical friction is still one of the current topics in internal combustion engine research and development. In the ever increasing challenge of developing more efficient and less polluting engines, friction reduction is of significant importance; whose investigation needs an accurate and reliable measurement technique. The Pressurized Motoring method is one of the techniques used for both friction and heat transfer measurements in internal combustion engines. This method is able to simulate mechanical loading on the engine components similar to the fired conditions. It also allows measurement of friction mean effective pressure (FMEP) with a much smaller uncertainty as opposed to that achieved from a typical firing setup. Despite its advantages, this method of FMEP determination is usually criticized over the fact that the thermal conditions imposed in pressurized motoring are far detached from those seen in fired conditions, hence not able to simulate the complete effects on FMEP. The authors have put forward a modification to the method, employing Argon in place of Air as pressurization medium (SAE paper 2019-01-0930). Due to the higher heat…
 

Biogenous Ethanol: CO2 Savings and Operation in a Dual-Fuel Designed Diesel Engine

Vienna University of Technology-Aleksandar Aleksandrov Damyanov, Peter Hofmann
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0040
To be published on 2019-08-15 by SAE International in United States
The usage of ethanol and two different mixtures of ethanol and gasoline (E85 and E65) was investigated on a modified diesel engine designed to work in a dual-fuel combustion mode with intake manifold alcohol injection. The maximum ratio of alcohol to diesel fuel was limited by irregular combustion phenomena like degrading combustion quality and poor process controllability at low load and knock as well as auto-ignition at high load. With rising alcohol amount, a significant reduction of soot mass and particle number was observed. At some testing points, substituting diesel with ethanol, E65 or E85 led to a reduction of NOx emissions; however, the real benefit concerning the nitrogen oxides was introduced by the mitigation of the soot-NOx trade-off. With regard to the engine efficiency aspect, the results show bidirectional behaviour: at low load points engine efficiency degrades, whereas the process becomes by up to 6 % (rel.) more effective at higher engine loads. Substituting diesel via manifold injected alcohol at higher mean effective pressures also enhances the EGR tolerance, making it possible to apply…
 

Intake manifold primary trumpet tuning options for fuel flow limited high performance ICEs

Ferrari Gestione Sportiva-Angelo Rosetti, Corrado Iotti
University of Modena e Reggio Emilia-Giuseppe Cantore
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0005
To be published on 2019-08-15 by SAE International in United States
The 2014 change in Formula 1 power units, from naturally aspirated to highly-downsized and heavily-boosted hybridized power units led to a relevant increase of the internal combustion engine brake specific power output in comparison with former V-8 units. The newly designed “down-sized” engines are characterized by a fuel flow limitation and relevant increase in the thermal loads acting on the engine components, in particular on those facing the combustion chamber. Furthermore, efficiency becomes an equivalent paradigm as performance. In the power unit layout, the air path is defined by the compressor, the intercooler and the piping from the intake plenum to the cylinder. Intake duct length is defined from intake plenum to valve seat and it is a key parameter for engine performance. In order to find the optimum length different design criteria can be applied: the so –called “tuning”, the so-called “un-tuning” or the so-called “anti-tuning” are all valid possibilities, showing pros and cons. The scope of the paper is to study and present the possible different tuning options for the ICE part of…
 
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Experimental Studies on Liquid Phase LPG Direct Injection on a Two-Stroke SI Engine

SAE International Journal of Engines

Indian Institute of Technology Madras, India-Adwitiya Dube, M. Vivekanand, A. Ramesh
  • Journal Article
  • 03-12-03-0023
Published 2019-05-31 by SAE International in United States
Directly injecting fuel in two-stroke spark-ignition (2S-SI) engines will significantly reduce fuel short-circuiting losses. The liquid phase liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) DI (LLDI) mode has not been studied on 2S-SI engines even though this fuel is widely used for transportation. In this experimental work a 2S-SI gasoline-powered engine used on three-wheelers was modified to operate in LLDI mode with an electronic engine controller. The influences of injection pressure (IP), end of injection (EOI) timing, location of the spark plug, and type of injector on performance, combustion, and emissions were studied at different operating conditions. EOI close to bottom dead center with the spark plug located near the exhaust port was the most suitable for the LLDI mode which significantly enhanced the fuel trapping efficiency and improved the thermal efficiency. At 70% throttle condition the brake thermal efficiency increased from 19% to 25.6% and there was an 87% reduction in hydrocarbon (HC) emission compared to liquid phase LPG manifold injection. The use of multi-hole injector extended the maximum power output due to better in-cylinder mixture formation,…
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Methods of Pegging Cylinder Pressure to Maximize Data Quality

Michigan Tech APS LABS-Jeremy Worm
Michigan Technological Univ-Darrell Robinette
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Engine cylinder pressure is traditionally measured with a piezo-electric pressure transducer, and as such, must be referenced or pegged to a known value. Frequently, the cylinder pressure is pegged to the pressure in the intake manifold plenum whereby the manifold absolute pressure (MAP) at the end of the intake stroke is measured and the cylinder pressure trace for the entire cycle is adjusted such that the cylinder pressure is set equal to the manifold pressure at the end of the intake stroke. However, any error in pegging induces an error in the cylinder pressure trace, which has an adverse effect on the entire combustion analysis. This research is focused on assessing the pegging error for several pegging methods across a wide range of engine operating conditions, and ultimately determining best practices to minimize error in pegging and the calculated combustion metrics. The study was conducted through 1D simulations using the commercially available GT-Power. The test matrix included variations of speed, load, intake runner length and intake valve timing. Five different pegging locations were compared, and…
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Modeling Heavy-Duty Engine Thermal Management Technologies to Meet Future Cold Start Requirements

IAV Automotive Engineering Inc-Yinyan Huang
IAV GmbH-David Kovacs, Hendrik Rauch, Reza Rezaei
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The low-NOx standard for heavy-duty trucks proposed by the California Air Resources Board will require rapid warm-up of the aftertreatment system. Several different engine technologies are being considered to meet this need. In this study, a 1-D engine model was first used to evaluate several individual control strategies capable of increasing the exhaust enthalpy and decreasing the engine-out NOX over the initial portion of the cold start FTP cycle. The additional fuel consumption resulting from these strategies was also quantified with the model. Next, several of those strategies were combined to create a hypothetical aftertreatment warm-up mode for the engine. The model was then used to evaluate potential benefits of an air gap manifold (AGM) and two different turbine by-pass architectures. The detailed geometry of the AGM model was taken into account, having been constructed from a real prototype design. An equally detailed manifold model consisting of a single thick layer with the thermal properties of cast iron served as the baseline. The AGM provided ~30°C increase in temperature and a 13% increase in enthalpy…
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Cylinder to Cylinder Variation Related to Gas Injection Timing on a Dual-Fuel Engine

HAN University of Applied Sciences-Quintin Pet, Peter Mesman
Lund University-Menno Merts, Sebastian Verhelst
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The natural gas/diesel dual-fuel engine is an interesting technique to reduce greenhouse gas emission. A limitation of this concept is the emission of un-combusted methane. In this study we analyzed the influence of PFI gas-injection timing on cylinder to cylinder gas-distribution, and the resulting methane emissions. This was done on a 6 cylinder HD engine test bench and in a GT-power simulation of the same engine. The main variable in all tests was the timing of the intake port gas injection, placed either before, after, or during the intake stroke. It showed that injecting outside of the intake window resulted in significant variation of the amount of trapped gaseous fuel over the 6 cylinders, having a strong impact on methane emissions. Injecting outside of the intake stroke results in gas awaiting in the intake port. Both testing and simulation made clear that as a result of this, cylinder 1 leans out and cylinder 6 enriches. The simulation showed how this is caused by the airflow into the manifold, which enters the manifold close to cylinder…
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Heavy-Duty Engine Intake Manifold Pressure Virtual Sensor

KTH Royal Institute of Technology-Andreas Cronhjort
Scania CV AB-Sotirios Tsironas, Ola Stenlaas, Magnus Apell
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Increasing demands for more efficient engines and stricter legislations on exhaust emissions require more accurate control of the engine operating parameters. Engine control is based on sensors monitoring the condition of the engine. Numerous sensors, in a complex control context, increase the complexity, the fragility and the cost of the system. An alternative to physical sensors are virtual sensors, observers used to monitor parameters of the engine thus reducing both the fragility and the production cost but with a slight increase of the complexity. In the current paper a virtual intake manifold cylinder port pressure sensor is presented. The virtual sensor is based on a compressible flow model and on the pressure signal of the intake manifold pressure sensor. It uses the linearized pressure coefficient approach to keep vital performance behaviors while still conserving calibration effort and embedded system memory. The virtual sensor approach is evaluated from the perspectives of accuracy and robustness. The design and evaluation of the virtual sensor are based on a heavy-duty diesel engine experiment series. The virtual sensor provides promising…
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A 1D Real-Time Engine Manifold Gas Dynamics Model Using Orthogonal Collocation Coupled with the Method of Characteristics

University of Waterloo-Amer Keblawi, John McPhee
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, a new solution method is presented to study the effect of wave propagation in engine manifolds, which includes solving one-dimensional models for compressible flow of air. Velocity, pressure, and density profiles are found by solving a system of non-linear Partial Differential Equations (PDEs) in space and time derived from Euler’s equations. The 1D model includes frictional losses, area change, and heat transfer. The solution is traditionally found by utilizing the Method of Characteristics and applying finite difference solutions to the resulting system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) over a discretized grid. In this work, orthogonal collocation is used to solve the system of ODEs that is defined along the characteristic curves. Orthogonal polynomials are utilized to approximate velocity, pressure, sound speed, and the characteristic curves along which the system of PDEs reduce to a system of ODEs. The approximation polynomials are defined over the whole manifold domain, transforming Euler’s equations into a system of ODEs that can be solved using a generic ODE solver. This reduction is done symbolically using a computer…
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Investigation of the Effects of Heat Transfer and Thermophysical Properties on Dynamics of Droplet-Wall Interaction

Michigan Technological University-Xiucheng Zhu, Nitisha Ahuja, Jiachen Zhai, Seong-Young Lee
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Fuel spray-wall interaction frequently occurs on intake manifold wall in the port fuel injection engine and on the piston in the direct injection engine, especially during the cold start. The heat transfer between the spray and wall is involved in this interaction process and influences the dynamics of the impinged spray which can further affect the engine performance. The physics of impact dynamics of a single droplet serves as a fundamental for better comprehension of spray impingement. In our previous studies, we have focused on diesel droplets, at ambient temperature, impinging on both heated and non-heated wall and found impinged droplet morphology differences. To understand the effect of heat transfer and thermophysical properties on dynamics of droplet-wall interaction better, droplet temperature variation was introduced in this study. Therefore, different conditions were framed to explore the impact of thermophysical properties of the droplet. These conditions were grouped into two: 1) Isothermal: cold wall-cold droplet and heated wall-heated droplet; 2) Non-Isothermal: cold wall-heated droplet and heated wall-cold droplet. Droplet and wall temperature were varied from 25 to…
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