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Numerical Study of the Maximum Impact on Engine Efficiency When Insulating the Engine Exhaust Manifold and Ports During Steady and Transient Conditions

Universitat Politècnica de València-Alberto Broatch, Pablo Olmeda, Jaime Martin, Amin Dreif
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0002
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
In the present work, a study about the impact on engine performance, fuel consumption and turbine inlet and outlet temperatures adding thermal insulation to the exhaust ports, manifold and pipes before the turbocharger of a 1.6L Diesel engine is presented. First, a 0D/1D model of the engine was developed and thoroughly validated by means of an extensive testing campaign. The validation was performed by means of steady state or transient running conditions and in two different room temperatures: 20ºC and -7ºC d. Once the validation was complete, in order to quantify the significance of adding thermal isolations, the simulations were performed setting the exhaust air path before the turbine as adiabatic. This is evaluated the maximum gain of the technology. Results showed that the thermal insulation proved to have a great potential in regard to T4 increase since this would reduce the warm up time of the aftertreatment systems. However, its impact on engine efficiency was limited in both steady and transient conditions.
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Modelling and Numerical Simulation of the Noise Generated by Automotive Turbocharger Compressor

TU Wien-Manfred Kaltenbacher, Clemens Freidhager, Stefan Schoder
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1512
To be published on 2020-06-03 by SAE International in United States
An effective technology to reduce emission and fuel-consumption is the use of turbochargers. A turbocharger increases the air pressure at the inlet manifold of the engine by using the waste energy from the exhaust gas to drive a turbine wheel that is linked to the compressor through a shaft. Besides the use in combustion engines, fuel cell systems for vehicle applications also need compressed air to achieve high power densities. Thereby, in fuel cell systems the noise emission of turbochargers is no longer masked by the combustion engine. In operation, the main noise sources are generated by the flow in the compressor and the different noise phenomena need to be understood in order to efficiently reduce the emitted noise and increase comfort. A huge potential in order to achieve this goal is a simulation based investigation to study in detail the flow mechanism, the aeroacoustic sources and its sound propagation. However, the actual physical source mechanism as rotational and pulsation noise as well as hiss / whoosh noise is currently not fully understood. Therefore, the…
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Combustion Characterization of Neat n-Butanol in an SI Engine

Shanghai Jiao Tong University-Tie Li
University of Windsor-Navjot Singh Sandhu, Xiao Yu, Simon Leblanc, Ming Zheng, David Ting
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0334
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Increasingly stringent emission standards have promoted the interest in alternate fuel sources. Because of the comparable energy density to the existing fossil fuels and renewable production, alcohol fuels may be a suitable replacement, or an additive to the gasoline/diesel fuels to meet the future emission standards with minimal modification to current engine geometry. In this research, the combustion characteristics of neat n-butanol are analyzed under spark ignition operation using a single cylinder SI engine. The fuel is injected into the intake manifold using a port-fuel injector. Two modes of charge dilution were used in this investigation to test the limits of stable engine operation, namely lean burn using excess fresh air and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). The in-cylinder pressure measurement and subsequently, heat release analysis are used to investigate the combustion characteristics of the fuel under low load SI engine operation. Additionally, a comprehensive emission analysis is performed to study the combustion by-products. Furthermore, the combustion and emission characteristics of n-butanol fuel are compared to those of the gasoline fuel. Preliminary results highlight the effect…
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Development of Dual Fuel Engine Fueled with Used Cooking Oil Biodiesel and Ethanol-an Experimental Study on Performance and Combustion Characteristics

Hindustan Institute of Technology & Science-Ramanathan Velmurugan, Jaikumar Mayakrishnan, Vijayabalan Palanimuthu, Sasikumar Nandagopal, Sangeethkumar Elumalai, Shridhar Anaimuthu, Vamshidhar Busireddy
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0803
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper investigates the performance and combustion characteristics of a compression ignition engine (CI engine) fueled with Used Cooking Oil Biodiesel (UCOB) and ethanol in dual fuel mode. In this study, UCOB was injected as the main fuel through a conventional mechanical fuel injection system. Various mass flow rates of ethanol were inducted as primary fuel through the engine intake manifold using a separate fuel injection system. Mass flow rates of ethanol were metered by an electronic control circuit. The engine test was conducted under different load conditions from no load to full load in a fully instrumented direct injection, water-cooled compression ignition engine. The results indicated that the dual fuel engine produced higher brake thermal efficiency, cylinder pressure, heat release rate with lower specific fuel consumption at a higher load condition. However, it was found that combustion characteristics improved marginally at the lower load conditions.
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Study on the Effect of Manifold Induction of Acetylene in a Dual-Fuelled CI Engine

NIT Rourkela-Rakesh Kumar Sahoo, Akshat Jaiswal, Murugan Sivalingam
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0817
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The utilization of gaseous fuels in internal combustion (IC) engines is receiving more significant greater interest in recent years because of their better fuel mixing characteristics. Apart from potential gaseous fuels such as liquefied natural gas (LPG), compressed natural gas (CNG), and hydrogen, other alternatives are being explored for their utilization in IC engines. The reason for this exploration is mainly because of the durability and robust nature of compression ignition (CI) engines, and more research focuses on the utilization of a variety of gaseous fuels in CI engines. However, gaseous fuels need to be used in CI engines on dual fuel mode only. In this investigation, a single-cylinder, four-stroke, air-cooled diesel engine was converted into Acetylene run dual-fuel CI engine by changing the intake manifold of the test engine. Acetylene at three flow rates viz., 2lpm, 4lpm, and 6lpm were introduced into the intake port by manifold induction technique while Jatropha biodiesel/diesel was injected directly into the cylinder. In this paper, the effect of manifold induction of Acetylene on the performance and emission characteristics…
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Effect of Different Geometrical Changes in the Intake Manifold of a DI Diesel Engine Fueled with Biodiesel-Diesel Blends

JNTU, Anantapur-Devendra Uppara
NIT Rourkela, India-Niklesh P. Reddy, Naseem Khayum
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0346
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
One of the major challenges of biodiesel run diesel engines is poor mixture formation. This problem can be overcome by inducing the turbulence into the engine cylinder, thereby a proper mixing of air-fuel occurs. In this study, an attempt was made to assess the engine behavior in terms of its combustion, performance and emission characteristics by replacing the normal intake manifold with the internally buttress threaded manifold, which is designated as IBTM throughout the manuscript. This investigation was further carried out to run the engine with suitable blends such as WCOME10 (10% of WCOME + 90% diesel) and WCOME20 (20% of WCOME + 80% diesel). Based on the results obtained in this study, IBTM exhibits a higher BTE of about by 2.8% for WCOME20-b than that of diesel operation (at normal intake). At the same time, the carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC) and smoke emissions were decreased by about 1%, 30.3%, and 20.4% respectively, whereas, NOx emissions were increased by about 21.9% for IBTM run on same blend (WCOME20-b) on compared to the normal intake…
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CFD Modeling of Gas-Fuel Interaction and Mixture Formation in a Gasoline Direct-Injection Engine Coupled With the ECN Spray G Injector

Politecnico di Milano-Davide Paredi, Tommaso Lucchini
TU Darmstadt-Andrea Pati, Christian Hasse
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0327
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The thorough understanding of the effects due to the fuel direct injection process in modern gasoline direct injection engines has become a mandatory task to meet the most demanding regulations in terms of pollutant emissions. Within this context, computational fluid dynamics proves to be a powerful tool to investigate how the in-cylinder spray evolution influences the mixture distribution, the soot formation and the wall impingement. In this work, the authors proposed a comprehensive methodology to simulate the air-fuel mixture formation into a gasoline direct injection engine under multiple operating conditions.At first, a suitable set of spray sub-models, implemented into an open-source code, was tested on the Engine Combustion Network Spray G injector operating into a static vessel chamber. Such configuration was chosen as it represents a typical gasoline multi-hole injector, extensively used in modern gasoline direct injection engines. Afterwards, the Spray G injector was coupled with the Darmstadt optical engine and full-cycle simulations were carried out for three operating points, combining two engine speeds, respectively equal to 800 rpm and 1500 rpm, and two different…
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EGR Flow Control Strategy for a Smaller Capacity Diesel Engine Using a Phase Shifting Chamber

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Karthikeyan N. Krishnan, Padmavathi Ramadandi, Vinodini Bhargava, Karthik Chandana
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1358
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) is an effective strategy to control NOx emissions in diesel engines. EGR reduces NOx through lowering the oxygen concentration in the combustion chamber, as well as through heat absorption. The stringent emission norms have forced diesel engines to further improve thermal efficiency and reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx). Throttle control is adopted in diesel intake system to control the EGR & fresh charge flow and to meet the emissions norms. In three or lesser cylinder. diesel engines, predominantly single and two-cylinder diesel engines, there is a higher possibility of the exhaust gas reaching the intake throttle and Particulate matter getting deposited on the throttle body. This can significantly affect the idling stability and intake restriction in prolonged usage. In idling condition, the clogged throttle body stagnates the fresh charge from entering the cylinder.The work aims at the study of flow pattern for EGR reaching the throttle body. A numerical study is conducted on a two-cylinder smaller displacement diesel engine. In a two-cylinder engine with an EGR circuit the intake valve of cylinder…
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Assessment & Optimization of Front End Cooling Module of a Commercial Vehicle by CFD Simulation & Prototype Testing

VE Commercial Vehicles Ltd-Ashok Patidar, Vikas LASHKARI
VE Commercial Vehicles Ltd.-Eshaan Ayyar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0164
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Overall cycle time and prototype testing are significantly decreased by assessment of cooling module performance in the design stage itself. Hence, Front End Cooling and Thermal Management are essential components of the vehicle design process. Performance of the cooling module depends upon a variety of factors like frontal opening, air flow, under-hood sub-systems, module positioning, front grill design, fan operation.Effects of design modifications on the engine cooling performance are quantified by utilizing computational fluid dynamics (CFD) tool FluentTM. Vehicle frontal configuration is captured in the FE model considering cabin, cargo and underbody components. Heat Exchanger module is modelled as a porous medium to simulate the fluid flow. Performance data for the Heat Exchanger module is generated using the 1D KuliTM software.In this paper, CFD simulation of Front End Cooling is performed for maximum torque and maximum power operating conditions. Analysis results predict and plot the air flow patterns in the under-body region by obtaining velocity streamlines in the wind tunnel volume. Hot and cold air recirculation zones are identified and rectified by design changes. Temperature…
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Infrared/Visible Optical Diagnostics of RCCI Combustion with Dieseline in a Compression Ignition Engine

Istituto Motori CNR-Luigi Sequino, Ezio Mancaruso
Universitat Politecnica de Valencia-Javier Monsalve-Serrano, Antonio Garcia
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0557
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Compression ignition engines are widely used for transport and energy generation due to their high efficiency and low fuel consumption. To minimize the environmental impact of this technology, the pollutant emissions levels at the exhaust are strictly regulated. To reduce the after-treatment needs, alternative strategies as the low temperature combustion (LTC) concepts are being investigated recently. The reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) uses two fuels (direct- and port- injected) with different reactivity to control the in-cylinder mixture reactivity by adjusting the proportion of both fuels. In spite of the proportion of the port-injected fuel is typically higher than the direct-injected one, the characteristics of the latter play a main role on the combustion process. Use of gasoline for direct injection is attractive to retard the start of combustion and to improve the air-fuel mixing process. In this work, the influence of the direct-injected fuel properties on RCCI combustion mode is studied in an optical compression ignition engine. Gasoline fuel is injected in the intake manifold while a blend of gasoline and diesel (a.k.a. dieseline) is…