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Study on the Effect of Manifold Induction of Acetylene in a Dual-fuelled CI Engine

NIT Rourkela, Odisha, India-Rakesh Kumar Sahoo, Akshat Jaiswal, Sivalingam Murugan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0817
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The utilization of gaseous fuels in internal combustion (IC) engines is receiving more significant greater interest in recent years because of their better fuel mixing characteristics. Apart from potential gaseous fuels such as liquefied natural gas (LPG), compressed natural gas (CNG) and hydrogen, other gaseous fuels are being explored for their utilization in IC engines. The reason for this exploration is mainly because of the durability and robust nature of compression ignition (CI) engines, more research focuses on the utilization of a variety of gaseous fuels in CI engines. However, gaseous fuels need to be used in CI engines on dual fuel mode only. In this investigation, a single-cylinder, four-stroke, air-cooled diesel engine was converted into Acetylene run dual-fuel CI engine by changing the intake manifold of the test engine. Acetylene at three flow rates viz., 2lpm, 4lpm, and 6lpm were introduced into the intake port by manifold induction technique while Jatropha biodiesel was injected directly into the cylinder. In this paper, the effect of manifold induction of Acetylene on the performance and emission characteristics…
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Effect of different geometrical changes in the intake manifold of a DI diesel engine fuelled with biodiesel-diesel blends

JNTU, Anantapur-Devendra Uppara
NIT Rourkela, India-NIKLESH REDDY P, Naseem Khayum
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0346
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The aim of this research work is to investigate on a single cylinder, 4-stroke DI diesel engine fuelled with waste cooking oil methyl ester (WCOME)-diesel blends by changing the intake manifold. Considering this, a research was carried out by fitting two different intake manifold. One is normal intake manifold, and other is internal buttress threaded intake manifold (IBTM), which is designated in this article as IBTM. In this experimental investigation, a suitable blends such as WCOME10 (10% of WCOME + 90% diesel) and WCOME20 (20% of WCOME + 80% diesel) were tested in a different intake manifolds as mentioned above. Based on the results obtained in this study, IBTM exhibits a better performance and emission results when compared to normal intake manifold. The carbon monoxide (CO), hydrocarbon (HC) and smoke emissions were decreased by about 26.5%, 36.76% and 24.09% respectively, whereas, NOx emissions were increased by about 23.03% for IBTM on compared to normal intake manifold when fuelled with diesel.
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Evaluation of Fast Warm-Up Strategies for a Light-duty Gasoline Compression Ignition(GCI) Engine

Aramco Research Center-Praveen Kumar, Mark Sellnau
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0317
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Increasingly stringent emissions regulations in automotive applications are driving advancements in after-treatment technology and emissions control strategies. Fast warm-up of the after-treatment system during the engine cold-start is essential to meet future emissions targets. In this study, a range of strategies were evaluated on a 2.2L, four cylinder, light-duty Gasoline Compression Ignition (GCI) engine with geometric compression ratio 17. The GCI engine has a single stage turbocharger and low-pressure exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) with EGR cooler bypass. . For cold-start assist, the engine is equipped with a 2.5kW electric heater. The aftertreatment system is comprised of an oxidation catalyst, followed by a particulate filter and an SCR catalyst. A detailed GT-Power model of the GCI engine system was developed for evaluations. In the first work phase, the individual and combined benefit of the engine-based strategies, such as flare speed, load, retarded CA50, intake air heater and backpressure valve throttling were evaluated for ambient cold-start. The cumulative benefit of the strategies produced estimated exhaust temperature and exhaust enthalpy of 470 degree C and 10 kW, respectively…
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Importance of Turbulence-chemistry Interactions in Predicting Spray A End of Injection Phenomenon

Univ. of Oxford-Xiaohang Fang
University of Oxford-Riyaz Ismail, Nikola Sekularac, Martin Davy
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0779
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In this study, the role of turbulence-chemistry interaction in diesel spray auto-ignition, flame stabilisation and end of injection phenomenon is investigated under engine relevant Spray A conditions. A recently developed diesel spray combustion modelling approach, conditional source-term estimation (CSE-FGM), is coupled with Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes simulation (RANS) framework to study the details of spray combustion. The detailed chemistry mechanism is included in this approach through the flamelet generated manifold (FGM) method. Both unsteady and steady flamelet solutions are included in the manifold to account for the auto-ignition process and subsequent flame propagation in a diesel spray. Conditionally averaged chemical source terms are closed by the conditional scalars obtained in the CSE routine. Both non-reacting and reacting spray jets are computed over a wide range of Engine Combustion Network (ECN) diesel Spray A conditions. The reacting results are compared with simulations using homogeneous reactor combustion model and flamelet combustion model with the same chemical mechanism. The present study represents the first application of CSE for a diesel spray. The non-reacting liquid/vapour penetration, the mean and rms mixture…
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EGR distribution in an Intake Manifold: Analysis, Dynamometer Correlation and Prediction

FCA US LLC-Devesh Pande, Surendra Gaikwad, Bogdan Nitu, Prashant Modi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0840
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Every passing year automotive engineers are challenged to attain higher fuel economy and improved emission targets. One widely used approach is to use Cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation (CEGR) to meet these objectives. Apart from reducing emissions and improving fuel economy, CEGR also plays a significant role in knock mitigation in spark ignited gasoline engines. Generally, CEGR is introduced into the intake manifold in SI gasoline engine. Even though the benefits of using CEGR are significant, they can be easily negated by the uneven CEGR flow distribution between the cylinders, which can result in combustion instability. This paper describes the application of co-simulation between one and three dimensional tools that accurately predict the distribution of CEGR to the cylinders and the effect of its distribution on engine performance. In order to understand the effect of uneven CEGR distribution on combustion and system performance, a three dimensional intake manifold model was used along with a one dimensional engine system model with a model developed in-house for knock prediction. Two extreme scenarios for distribution of CEGR are considered…
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Optimal Control of Mass-transport Time-delay Model in a Low-pressure EGR

GIPSA-lab-Emmanuel Witrant
Grenoble INP-Didier GEORGES
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0251
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents the control-oriented model and control design of the burned gas ratio(BGR) transport phenomenon, witnessed in the intake path of an internal combustion engine, due to the redirection of burned gases to the intake path by the low-pressure EGR. Based on a nonlinear AMESim model of the engine, the BGR in the intake manifold is modeled as a state-space output time-delay model, or alternatively as an ODE-PDE coupled system, that take into account the time delay between the moment at which the combusted gases leave the exhaust manifold and that at which they are readmitted in the intake manifold. In addition to their mass transport delay, the BGRs in the intake path are also subject to inequality constraints because they are positive percentages lying between 0 and 100. The objective of the control problem is to track a reference output profile of the BGR in the intake manifold, taking into account the transport delay and the state(output) and input constraints of the system. In this aim, two indirect optimal control approaches are implemented…
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Bosch On Board Diagnostic solutions for Motorcycles

Robert Bosch GmbH, Robert Bosch Engineering and Business Sol-H. Jessen, A. Kushal, A. Sabu, S. Hande, M. Tappe
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0513
Published 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
EU OBD legislation requirements will bring new challenges for motorcycle engine control from 2020 and 2024 respectively. This paper gives a perspective on the Bosch solutions for On Board Monitoring functions to implement the legislation requirements. Specifically the approach and validation results for the monitor for Secondary Air Injection (SAI) will be highlighted. OBD is well established e.g. for passenger car systems in worldwide markets with Bosch solutions covering different system configurations and legislation requirements. While a large portion of the required OBD monitors for motorcycles can be carried over from passenger car solutions with modifications and enhancements where needed, some specific monitors had to be developed from scratch. These new monitors are required for subsystems and components which do not exist in the passenger car environment, e.g. a controlled valve between the intake manifold and engine outlet of the motorcycle to implement secondary air injection. Special focus of this presentation is on the OBD monitoring of the secondary air injection control valve, where robustness is a challenge given the boundary conditions of only binary…
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Energy Release Characteristics inside a Spark-Ignition Engine with a Bowl-in-Piston Geometry

West Virginia University-Jinlong Liu, Cosmin Emil Dumitrescu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-5003
Published 2020-01-16 by SAE International in United States
The conversion of compression ignition (CI) internal combustion engines to spark-ignition (SI) operation by adding a spark plug to ignite the mixture and fumigating the fuel inside the intake manifold can increase the use of alternative gaseous fuels (e.g., natural gas) in heavy-duty applications. This study proposed a novel, less-complex methodology based on the inflection points in the apparent rate of heat release (ROHR) that can identify and separate the fast-burning stage inside the piston bowl from the slower combustion stage inside the squish region (a characteristic of premixed combustion inside a diesel geometry). A single-cylinder 2L CI research engine converted to natural gas SI operation provided the experimental data needed to evaluate the methodology, at several spark timings, equivalence ratios, and engine speeds. The results indicated that the end of the bulk combustion traditionally defined as the location of 90% energy release was not greatly affected by the change in operating conditions. Moreover, the actual duration of the rapid-burning stage was 60-80% shorter than the crank angle interval between 10% and 90% energy release.…
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B-GAS: Conversion system to Internal Combustion Engine (Diesel) for using alternative energetic source for application in Agricultural Machinery

Giovana Queiroz da Silva, Cléber Willian Gomes, Guilherme Bugatti dos Santos, Paulo Eduardo Wey Nunes da Costa, Pedro Augusto Talib Soares, Renato Zerbinatti Raduan, Vinícius Trento Gomes
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0235
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Fuel has a huge port in the operating costs of agribusiness, the increase on the price and the shortage of this energy resource has a direct impact on agricultural production costs. In this context, regions that are farther from refineries and lack the presence of fuel distribution centers tend to suffer more from the availability and cost of this resource. Economically speaking, agribusiness has a prominent position in the national scenery. The world fuel source had an evolution from the predominance of solid fuels to the current age of liquid fuels derived from petroleum and seeing the future and growing age of gas fuels as the predecessor stage of electric vehicles in some markets. Thereby, agricultural organic waste has the potential to generate an alternative energy, clean and ecological matrix, also reducing the emission of polluting gases, soil, groundwater, rivers and weir are still prevented, and the release of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, such as methane and carbon dioxide. In Brazil, animal waste is normally used for the generation of biofuel, and only 14%…
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CFD-Driven Preliminary Investigation of Ethanol-Diesel Diffusive Combustion in Heavy-Duty Engines

KTH Royal Institute of Technology-Nicola Giramondi, Mihai Mihaescu, Anders Christiansen Erlandsson
Scania CV AB-Anders Jäger
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2192
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
The introduction of renewable alcohols as fuels for heavy-duty engines may play a relevant role for the reduction of the carbon footprint of the transport sector. The direct injection of ethanol as main fuel and diesel as pilot fuel in the engine combustion chamber through two separate injectors may allow good combustion controllability over the entire engine operating range by targeting diffusive combustion. Closed-cycle combustion simulations have been carried out using AVL FIRE coupled to AVL TABKIN for the implementation of the Flamelet Generated Manifold (FGM) chemistry reduction technique in order to investigate the influence of the injection system geometry and the injection strategy of pure ethanol and diesel fuel on ignition characteristics and combustion at different operating conditions.
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