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Reducing the High Cost Of Titanium

Aerospace & Defense Technology: December 2019

  • Magazine Article
  • 19AERP12_03
Published 2019-12-01 by SAE International in United States

Titanium is neither a precious metal nor rare, yet among industrial metals it has the reputation for being very expensive. It's the fourth most abundant metallic element and the ninth most abundant of all the elements in the earth's crust. Its commercially useful oxide ore occurs in the minerals rutile and ilmenite and numerous iron ores, and exploitable ore deposits are liberally scattered around the world in Australia, Canada, India, Malaysia, Norway, Russia, South Africa and the U.S. But due to its properties and high cost it has often been referred to as unobtanium.

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Magnesium Alloys in Aircraft Seats - Engineering Design and Fabrication Recommended Practices

Aircraft SEAT Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP6256
  • Current
Published 2019-10-31 by SAE International in United States
This document is a guide to the application of magnesium alloys to aircraft interior components including but not limited to aircraft seats. It provides background information on magnesium, its alloys and readily available forms such as extrusions and plate. It also contains guidelines for “enabling technologies” for the application of magnesium to engineering solutions including: machining, joining, forming, cutting, surface treatment, flammability issues, and designing from aluminum to magnesium.
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Parameter Optimization during Minimum Quantity Lubrication Turning of Inconel 625 Alloy with CUO, Al2O3 and CNT Nanoparticles Dispersed Vegetable-Oil-Based Cutting Fluid

Vellore Institute of Technology-Venkatesan Kannan, Devendiran Sundararajan
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Inconel 625, nickel based alloy, is found in gas turbine blades, seals, rings, shafts, and turbine disks. On the other hand, the manufacturing of this alloy is challenging, mainly when machining processes are used due to excellent mechanical properties. Application of nanofluids in minimum quantity lubrication (MQL) shows gaining importance in the machining process, which is economical and eco-friendly. The principal objective of this investigational work is to study the influence of three types of nanofluids in the MQL turning of Inconel 625 nickel based alloys. The used nanofluids are multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNT), alumina (Al2O3) and copper oxide (CUO) dispersed in vegetable oil. Taguchi-based L27 orthogonal array is used for the experimental design. The parameter optimization of design variables over response is carried out by the use of Taguchi-based derringer's desirability function. The design variables are machining parameters (speed, feed), nanofluids (Al2O3, CNT, CUO), and three different weight percentage (0.1, 0.25, and 0.5 wt. %). The results showed that minimum values of surface roughness could be achieved at 0.10 wt. % of nanoparticles, CNT…
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Design and Analysis of Aluminium-Flyash Composite for Connecting Rod

Geethanjali College of Engg. and Tech.-Suresh Nuthalapati, Devaiah Malkapuram
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
In this modern era of rapid growth of technology and need of economical machining processes and materials, there is an increasing demand for new materials for different mechanical applications. Composites with fly ash as reinforcement are likely to overcome the cost barrier for wide spread applications in automotive and small engine applications. To improve wettability, elements such as Mg and Si are added into Al melt to incorporate the ceramic particles. The chemical composition and engineering properties of fly ash, its physical and chemical properties make it an ideal raw material for producing various application based composites. The main objective is to fabricate an Aluminium- Flyash composite material suitable for parts like engine connecting rod which demand high strength and temperature sustainability at comparatively less weight. The composite will be made using casting process and Engine connecting rod will be designed in AutoCAD software. The design will be analyzed with the help of Ansys with Aluminium and Aluminium- Flyash composite (at different compositions).
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Design and Analysis of Hybrid Metal Matrix Composite Connecting Rod via Stir/Squeeze Casting Route

Sri Krishna College of Engg. and Tech.-Soundararajan Ranganathan, Sathishkumar Kuppuraj, Karthik Soundarrajan, Ashokvarthanan Perumal
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The connecting rod was manufactured by forging process for enhancing high tensile and compressive load so that it was followed by the machining process and suite the IC engine as a part of the component. The main intern of our proposed work is to manufacture a two set of composites specimen of A356 alloy with reinforcement of 5 wt.% silicon carbide and 10 wt.% flyash processed through two different techniques like stir casting and stir cum squeeze casting route and obtain better mechanical properties. Further, the same properties were taken for modeling and analysing of the developed connecting rod model. Due to the commercial demand, the hybrid composite materials take a vigorous role in the analysis part of the connecting rod model. The FEA analysis is done on the connecting rod for a180cc engine by using Ansys 18.1. The static analysis is done by considering four different cases by altering material library property. The output parameter such as total deformation, Von Mises stress, and maximum equivalent elastic strain are taken in each condition. The analysed…
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Optimization of Machining Process Parameters for Minimizing the Waste Stream Response through Multi-Objective Optimization

SRM Institute of Science and Technology-Sundar Singh Sivam Sundarlingam Paramasivam, Krishnaswamy Saravanan, Durai Kumaran, Raj Rajendran, Harish Sriram
Tishk International University-Ganesh Babu Loganathan
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
During the delivering of an item, any material created moreover to a definitive item will be named as waste. The waste produced in light of machining could be a notable conservation worry for creators. The shape and condition of waste streams created, and their transportation components divergence with the strategy utilized and also shift among the technique. The effect in view of each waste stream differs as well. This examination reports a machining strategy includes the procedure of material to give a completed or a semi-completed item. This is frequently done by misapplication tools, totaling, machines and distinctive data sources that are appropriate to the strategy. The procedures thought of for the point of this work includes machining of material manipulation devices to give parts and items. The yield of the technique incorporates the item and increase the waste streams. The waste streams will be in the form of Chips, Energy usage, and Worn cutting tools and Operating time. TOPSIS and ANOVA was acclimated gauge the chief essential Cutting speed, Feed rate, Depth of Cut…
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Taguchi Based Vikor Method for Optimization of Cutting Parameters for Improving the Efficiency in Machining Process by Considering the Effect of Tool Nose Radius

SRM Institute Of Science And Technology-Sundar Singh Sivam Sundarlingam Paramasivam, Durai Kumaran, Krishnaswamy Saravanan, Harish Sriram
Tishk International University-Ganesh Babu Loganathan
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
In order to take advantage of the machining characteristics of magnesium it is useful to consider recommended tool design and angles. The geometry of the tool can have a large influence on the machining process. Tool geometry can be used to aid with chip flow and clearance, reduce excessive heat generation, reduce tool build up, enable greater feed rates to be employed and improved tool life. This paper presents a new approach for the optimization of Machining parameters on face Milling of ZE41 with multiple responses based on Taughi orthogonal array with VIKOR. Machining tests are carried out 12 mm diameter of insert having 1 flute under dry condition. In this study, Machining parameters namely cutting speed, feed and Depth of Cut and Tool Node radius are optimized with the considerations of multi responses such as surface roughness, Material Removal rate, Tool Wear and Trust Force. A VIKOR grade is obtained from the VIKOR analysis. Based on the VIKOR grade, optimum levels of parameters have been identified and significant contribution of parameters is determined by…
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Orbital Forming of Automotive Wheel Bearings

Orbitform-Jake Sponsler
Published 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
Orbital forming is considered an optimal assembly process for many designs of automotive wheel bearing assemblies. More specifically, this process involves forming the spindle over the inner race of the wheel bearing to maximize surface area contact on the inner ring for retention, and to maintain bearing preload. The unique forming properties and precise controls allow orbital forming to produce an ideal finished retention feature and form for these types of bearings. This paper discusses the specific benefits of orbital forming of automotive wheel bearings. Forming basics, the physics behind the benefits of orbital forming, as well as pre-form lip geometry and other part design considerations are presented. Advanced machine control methodologies and historical machine process improvements are also reviewed concluding with next steps in process control and in-machine quality assurance.
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Superfinishing of HVOF Applied Tungsten Carbide Coatings

AMS B Finishes Processes and Fluids Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS2452
  • Current
Published 2019-07-15 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers requirements for the superfinishing of High Velocity Oxygen/Fuel (HVOF) applied tungsten carbide thermal spray coatings.
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Machining Capabilities Enhance Space-Related Programs

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34736
Published 2019-07-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

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