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Low Voltage Powertrain in Light Electric Vehicles

Deki Electronics-Shubham Rai
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2467
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Engineering objective Light Electric Vehicles (LEV) with Li-ion batteries suffer from short battery life and poor efficiency, due to low grade electronics. Battery management systems (BMS) cannot always keep the pack in balance, and after cell voltages drift, capacity of the pack diminishes and some cells may destruct, causing a fire. The paper describes a novel approach to LEV powertrains using parallel connected battery cells & control methodology that keep cells in balance naturally, thereby eliminating BMS and hence safer to use. Li-Ion cells with different chemistries can be used and superior thermal management reduces temperature rise, resulting in longer battery life. Methodology Based on the original invention by the author, the system circuit schematics was designed and simulated using OrCAD PSpice. After obtaining results from the simulation, the first prototype device was constructed and tested in laboratory. Heat mapping and thermo couples were used to find hot spots and improve the efficiency, at the same time creating a thermal pattern that was easy to cool. Different components were tested to find the most efficient…
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Environmental and Health Impact of Electric and Hydrogen Light Vehicles: The Case of an Italian Small City

University of Roma Tor Vergata-Luca Andreassi, Giacomo Falcucci
University of Tuscia-Andrea Luigi Facci, Stefano Ubertini
Published 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
As the emission regulations get more and more stringent in the different fields of energy and environmental systems, the electric and fuel cell electric vehicles have attracted growing attention by automakers, governments, and customers. Research and development efforts have been focused on devising novel concepts, low-cost systems, and reliable electric/fuel cell powertrain. In fact, electric and fuel cell vehicles coupled with low-carbon electricity sources offer the potential for reducing greenhouse gas emissions and exposure to tailpipe emissions from personal transportation.In particular, Pedal Assisted Bicycles popularity is rising in urban areas due to their low energy consumption and environmental impact. In fact, when electrically moved, they are zero emission vehicles with very low noise emissions, as well. These positive characteristics could be even improved by coupling a PAB with a fuel cell based power generation system, thus increasing the vehicle autonomy without influencing their emissions and consumption performances.In this paper, four types of vehicles are compared from an environmental and accessibility point of view: conventional car, bus, electric PAB and hydrogen fuel cell PAB; for such…
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A Practical Recuperated Split Cycle Engine for Low Emissions and High Efficiency

Dolphin N2 Ltd-Nicholas Owen, Fabrizio Treccarichi
Hiflux Limited-David Barnes, Tanzi Besant
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The Recuperated Split Cycle Engine is a new type of ICE, offering a step change in efficiency and tailpipe emissions. It targets the heavy duty, long-haul sector (trucks, off-highway, rail, shipping), where electrification is most challenging, and distributed generation, where capacity is required to support rising electrification. The engine separates cold (induction, compression) and hot (combustion, expansion) parts of the cycle; waste exhaust heat is recovered between them via a recuperator, as in a recuperated gas turbine. Recent research presented at this conference [1] shows that the sonic airflows seen in the induction event give rise to extraordinary fuel mixing and clean, cool combustion, with potential for after-treated emission levels between SULEV and zero-impact (either unmeasurable or below ambient). Recuperation and thermal insulation of the hot cylinder (both feasible within the capability of common materials) also enable high thermal efficiency, with a flatter efficiency map than a conventional ICE. Combining the two attributes, and introducing sustainable fuels, places this readily manufactured, affordable technology on a par with battery-electric and fuel cell propulsion. Results from simulation…
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The Development of a NOx Reduction System during the Fuel Cut Period for Gasoline Vehicles

Heesung Catalysts-Jinwoo Song, Jun Lee
Hyundai Motor Company-Muyoung Choi, Eunsang Lee, Sangjin Ma, Sangmin Lee, Jungmin Seo, Seungbeom Yoo
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Generally, vehicles do not need power during deceleration. Therefore, the fuel efficiency can be improved by stopping the fuel injection in this period. However, when the fuel cut is activated, NOx is emitted immediately after fuel cut. During the fuel cut period, a large amount of fresh air flows into the catalytic converter installed on a vehicle since there is no combustion. Thus, the catalytic materials are converted into an oxidizing atmosphere. As a result, NOx purification performance of the catalyst deteriorates, and eventually NOx is emitted when combustion restarts. The quantity of NOx in this period is relatively small. However, in case of increasing fuel cuts, emission problem could arise. Therefore, in order to meet the stringent regulation such as LEV III-SULEV20 or 30, the number of fuel cuts need to be limited. The problem is that this strategy leads to a disadvantage of fuel efficiency. In order to solve this problem, in this study, the principle and process of NOx during the fuel cut period was analyzed in detail and then a new…
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A Comparison on Emission Characteristics between Passenger Car Using Gasoline (Including HEV) and Diesel Fuel according to the Various Test Mode

Induk University-Hyun Gu Roh
National Institute of Environmental Research-Hyung Jun Kim, Jong Tae Lee, Yunsung Lim, Jihoon Keel, Youdeug Hong
Published 2019-03-25 by SAE International in United States
In the whole world, emission regulations for vehicles with internal combustion engine have been dramatically strengthened to reduce air pollutions of urban area. Recently, SULEV and EURO-6 emission standard were applied to the gasoline and diesel vehicles in Korea, respectively. Therefore, emission characteristics on passenger car using gasoline including HEV and diesel fuel according to the various test modes were conducted in this study. In order to this investigation, exhaust emission characteristics of gasoline and diesel vehicles were measured and analyzed by using chassis dynamometer (Chassis dynamometer 48˝compact 2WD, AVL) and emission analyzer (MEXA-7000 series, Horiba). Test vehicles were selected the 3 domestic models of a car in Korea. For analysis on emission characteristics according to driving cycles including certification mode, NEDC, FTP-75 and WLTP modes was applied. From these results, it can be shown that all test vehicle models meet the emission standard. In the diesel vehicles, NOx emission in FTP-75 and WLTP mode dramatically increased compared to NEDC mode. CO2 emission of gasoline vehicles have higher level than that of diesel vehicles. Also,…
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Development of a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell Stack for a Range Extender for Electric Vehicles

Indian Institute of Technology-Prakash Ghosh
Tata Motors, Ltd.-Yogesha S A, Munusamy Raja, Suresh Arikapudi
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
Severe air pollution in cities caused largely by vehicular emissions, which requires urgent remedial measures. As automobiles are indispensable modes of personal and public mobility, pre-emptive efforts are necessary to reduce the adverse effects arising from their operation. A significant improvement in air quality can be achieved through large-scale introduction of vehicles with extremely low emission such as hybrid-electric and zero emission vehicles. Range extension of electric vehicles (EVs) is also of utmost importance to alleviate the handicap of restricted mileage of purely plug-in EVs as compared to conventional vehicles.This paper presents development of a polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack used for the range extender electric vehicles. The Fuel cell stack for range extender vehicle operated in a dead end mode using hydrogen and air as open cathode. Stack is to design to meet various performance requirements such as frequent start-stop, ramp-up rate, drive cycle conditions, vehicle dynamics and a longer operation life. Air-cooled stack development employs cell flow channels design analysis(anode and cathode), membrane selection, gasket design and leak analysis, bipolar plate…
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Bus’ system electrification review – A technological operational comparative assessment

FCB Research and Consulting-Fábio Coelho Barbosa
Published 2018-09-03 by SAE International in United States
Despite the recent groundbreaking improvements in diesel engine technology, with its inherent improved emission performance (Euro VI, US 2010 and their equivalences), it is well known that there is a limit on cleaning diesel buses. At the same time, cities and transit operators have been permanently challenged for seeking for traction technologies to comply with the emissions’ reduction agenda. In this context, electric bus traction technologies appear as a promising alternative for cleaning the bus’ fleets, with their intrinsic potential to reduce environmental impacts caused by public transport, such as greenhouse gas and local pollutant, as well as noise emissions. Moreover, the use of electricity also contributes to reduce the transport system’s dependency on fossil fuels and their inherent price volatility. From an operational perspective, it is required that alternative bus' traction technologies comply with diesel bus performance, in terms of costs, technological maturity, operational reliability, refueling times and infrastructure requirements. This, in some way, has challenged regulatory authorities and operators with the conflicting objectives of shifting to zero emission vehicles, while keeping the required…
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Instructions for Using Plug-In Electric Vehicle (PEV) Communications, Interoperability and Security Documents

Hybrid - EV Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2836_201807
  • Current
Published 2018-07-18 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Information Report J2836 establishes the instructions for the documents required for the variety of potential functions for PEV communications, energy transfer options, interoperability and security. This includes the history, current status and future plans for migrating through these documents created in the Hybrid Communication and Interoperability Task Force, based on functional objective (e.g., (1) if I want to do V2G with an off-board inverter, what documents and items within them do I need, (2) What do we intend for V3 of SAE J2953, …).
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Uncertainty in Gravimetric Analysis Required for LEV III Light-Duty Vehicle PM Emission Measurements

SAE International Journal of Engines

Minnesota State University Mankato-Jacob Swanson
University of California Davis-Jian Xue
  • Journal Article
  • 03-11-03-0024
Published 2018-06-20 by SAE International in United States
With the reduction in PM emission standards for light duty vehicles to 3 mg/mi for current Federal and California standards and subsequently to 1 mg/mi in 2025 for California, the required PM measurements are approaching the detection limits of the gravimetric method. A “filter survey” was conducted with 11 laboratories, representing industry, agencies, research institutes, and academic institutions to analyze the accuracy of the current gravimetric filter measurement method under controlled conditions. The reference filter variability, measured within a given day over periods as short as an hour, ranged from 0.61 μg to 2 μg to 5.0 μg for the 5th, 50th, 95th percentiles (n > 40,000 weights, 317 reference objects), with a laboratory average of 2.5 μg. Reference filters were found to gain approximately 0.01 to 0.56 μg per day (50th percentile) and 0.5 to 1.8 μg per day (95th percentile) with an average of 4.1 μg for the laboratories, which suggests a gas-phase adsorption artifact because metal reference objects did not gain any weight. Tunnel blank biases (n = 615) were much higher…
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Literature Review on the Effects of Organometallic Fuel Additives in Gasoline and Diesel Fuels

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Coordinating Research Council-Amber Leland
Desert Research Institute-S. Kent Hoekman
  • Journal Article
  • 04-11-01-0005
Published 2018-04-18 by SAE International in United States
A literature review was conducted and fuel survey data were obtained to identify the use of metallic fuel additives (MFAs) within market fuels and determine their effects on engines, exhaust systems, and vehicle performance. The primary focus was on modern vehicles equipped with on-board diagnostic (OBD) systems and advanced emissions control systems. For gasoline, this includes vehicles categorized as National Low Emission Vehicles (NLEV) and Tier 2 or beyond in the U.S., and Euro-3 through Euro-6 in the EU. For diesel, this includes engines/vehicles with original equipment manufacturer (OEM)-equipped oxidation catalysts and diesel particulate filters. The literature search of peer-reviewed papers and other publicly available articles returned over 100 items relevant to the use of organometallic fuel additives, but did not provide significant evidence of widespread use of MFAs in either gasoline or diesel fuels. It is possible, however, that in specific cases, MFAs are added to fuels downstream of refinery blending. Recent fuel survey information confirmed that relatively few MFAs are found in market fuels, and they are generally present at quite low concentrations.…
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