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Automotive (243) Commercial Vehicle (4) Aerospace (3)

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Injury causation (247) Crashes (247) Injuries (247) Safety (247) Human Factors and Ergonomics (67) Injury classification (65) Protective systems (44) Vehicle occupants (33) Age groups (28) Restraint systems (24) Vehicles and Performance (22) Vehicles (20) Protective equipment (18) Crash research (17) Children (16) Helmets (16) Safety belts (16) Safety testing and procedures (13) Two or three wheeled vehicles (13) Accident types (12) Adults (12) Bodies and Structures (12) Interiors, Cabins, and Cockpits (11) Anthropometric test devices (10) Body structures (10) Anatomy (9) Medical, health, and wellness (9) Vehicle front ends (9) Design Engineering and Styling (7) Electrical, Electronics, and Avionics (7) Fatal injuries (7) Passenger compartments (7) Bumpers, fasciae and grilles (6) Exteriors (6) Manufacturing (6) Nervous system (6) Analysis methodologies (5) Child injuries (5) Crash statistics (5) Interiors, Cabins and Cockpits (5) Materials (5) Seats and seating (5) Aged (4) Airbag systems (4) Manufacturing processes (4) Metals (4) Passive restraint systems (4) Body regions (3) Data acquisition and handling (3) Finite element analysis (3)

Authors

Mackay, G. M. (16) Tarriere, C. (11) Ashton, S. J. (9) Cesari, D. (9) Gloyns, P. F. (9) Got, C. (9) Patel, A. (9) Nordentoft, E. L. (8) Ramet, M. (8) Hayes, H. R. M. (7) Appel, H. (6) Bunketorp, O. (6) Otte, D. (6) States, J. D. (6) Suren, E. G. (6) Aldman, B. (5) Bourret, P. (5) Cavallero, C. (5) Pedder, J. B. (5) Romanus, B. (5) Thomas, C. (5) Hight, P. V. (4) Kalbe, P. (4) McLean, A. J. (4) Nahum, A. M. (4) Rattenbury, S. J. (4) Ryan, G. A. (4) Stürtz, G. (4) Thorson, J. (4) Agran, P. F. (3) Balcerak, J. C. (3) Billault, P. (3) Farisse, J. (3) Faverjon, G. (3) Fayon, A. (3) Griffiths, D. K. (3) Hartemann, F. (3) Henry, C. (3) King, Albert I. (3) Langwieder, K. (3) Nielsen, H. V. (3) Popkin, C. L. (3) Schmidt, G. (3) Schneider, Lawrence W. (3) Seriat-Gautier, B. (3) Siegel, A. W. (3) Viano, D. C. (3) Walfisch, G. (3) Weeth, R. (3) Andersson, A. (2)

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IRCOBI (114) AAAM (91) SAE (22) STAPP (16) TBMG (2) HFES (1) JSAE (1)

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University of Birmingham (13) Birmingham Univ. (10) Peugeot-Renault Association (10) Odense University Hospital (9) Organisme National de Securite Routiere (9) University of Michigan (8) Chalmers University of Technology (6) Raymond Poincare Hospital (6) Technical University Berlin (6) University of California (6) California Univ. (5) General Motors Corp. (5) Berlin Technische Univ. (4) Berlin Technische Universität (4) Medizinische Hochschule (4) National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (4) Adelaide Univ. (3) Citroen SA (3) Highway Safety Research Center (3) Rochester Univ. (3) Swedish Foundation for Occupational Health and Safety for St (3) Transport and Road Research Lab. (3) Umeaa Universitet (3) University of Göteborg (3) University of Heidelberg (3) University of Michigan Transportation Research Institute (3) Wayne State Univ. (3) Berlin Technical Univ. (2) Calspan Field Services, Inc. (2) Ford Motor Company (2) Goteborgs Univ. (2) Hannover Medical School (2) HUK-Verband (2) Institut National de Recherche sur les Transports et leur Se (2) Institute of Medical and Veterinary Science (2) Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (2) Marseille Laboratoire d'Anatomie (2) Odense Univ. (2) Pennsylvania Univ. (2) Southern General Hospital (2) Southwest Research Institute (2) Tennessee Univ. (2) University of Gothenburg (2) University of North Carolina (2) University of Ottawa (2) University of Rochester (2) University of Southern California (2) University of Virginia (2) University of Virginia Automobile Safety Laboratory (2) Volvo Car Corp. (2)

Events

International IRCOBI Conference on the Biomechanics of Impacts (114) American Association for Automotive Medicine, Annual Meeting (82) SAE 2001 World Congress (11) STAPP Car Crash Conference (5) 53rd Stapp Car Crash Conference (3) 43rd Stapp Car Crash Conference (2) 54th Stapp Car Crash Conference (2) 60TH Stapp Car Crash Conference (2) SAE 2011 World Congress & Exhibition (2) SAE 2016 World Congress and Exhibition (2) 18th Asia Pacific Automotive Engineering Conference (1) 34th Annual Meeting of the Human Factors Society (1) 49th Stapp Car Crash Conference (1) 51st Stapp Car Crash Conference (1) SAE 2014 World Congress & Exhibition (1) SAE 2015 Commercial Vehicle Engineering Congress (1) Small Engine Technology Conference & Exposition (1) WCX™ 17: SAE World Congress Experience (1)

Senior Drivers, Bicyclists and Pedestrian Behavior Related with Traffic Accidents and Injuries

  • Applus + Idiada Spain - Alba Fornells, Núria Parera, Adria Ferrer
  • Fiat Chrysler Automobiles - Anita Fiorentino
Published 2017-03-28 by SAE International in United States

While accident data show a decreasing number of fatalities and serious injuries on European Union (EU) roads, recent data from ERSO (European Road Safety Observatory) show an increasing proportion of elderly in the fatality statistics. Due to the continuous increase of life expectancy in Europe and other highly-developed countries, the elderly make up a higher number of drivers and other road users such as bicyclists and pedestrians whose mobility needs and habits have been changing over recent years. Moreover, due to their greater vulnerability, the elderly are more likely to be seriously injured in any given accident than younger people. With the goal of improving the safety mobility of the elderly, the SENIORS Project, funded by the European Commission, is investigating and assessing the injury reduction that can be achieved through innovative tools and safety systems. The first step was to develop the required understanding of accident scenarios, injury mechanisms and risks and to implement these findings in the test tool and test assessment procedures. To this end, accident databases were studied and compared regarding the more critical accident scenarios involving the elderly and their injuries as well as their behavior and the transport modes that represent higher risk. This paper presents a novel statistical study of the accident database in Spain and provides an overview of the main accident situations involving elderly drivers, bicyclists or pedestrians as well as the most typical causes of injury and its severity. Moreover, the in-depth analysis of scenarios, actions and law violations carried out makes it possible to identify the travelling behavior of the elderly. Differences between ages and gender were also identified. The conclusions match with general beliefs and with literature information. Finally a general comparison with results from other countries was done.

Evaluation of WIAMan Technology Demonstrator Biofidelity Relative to Sub-Injurious PMHS Response in Simulated Under-body Blast Events

  • US Army Tank Automotive Research, Development, and Engineeri - Hollie A. Pietsch, Kelly E. Bosch, David R. Weyland
  • University of Virginia Center for Applied Biomechanics - E. Meade Spratley, Kyvory A. Henderson, Robert S. Salzar
  • Show More
  • Technical Paper
  • 2016-22-0009
Published 2016-11-07 by The Stapp Association in United States

Three laboratory simulated sub-injurious under-body blast (UBB) test conditions were conducted with whole-body Post Mortem Human Surrogates (PMHS) and the Warrior Assessment Injury Manikin (WIAMan) Technology Demonstrator (TD) to establish and assess UBB biofidelity of the WIAMan TD. Test conditions included a rigid floor and rigid seat with independently varied pulses. On the floor, peak velocities of 4 m/s and 6 m/s were applied with a 5 ms time to peak (TTP). The seat peak velocity was 4 m/s with varied TTP of 5 and 10 ms. Tests were conducted with and without personal protective equipment (PPE). PMHS response data was compiled into preliminary biofidelity response corridors (BRCs), which served as evaluation metrics for the WIAMan TD.

Traffic Accidents Involving Cyclists Identifying Causal Factors Using Questionnaire Survey, Traffic Accident Data, and Real-World Observation

  • National Traffic Safety and Environment Laboratory - Shoko Oikawa
  • Shibaura Institute of Technology - Toshiya Hirose
  • Show More
  • Technical Paper
  • 2016-22-0008
Published 2016-11-07 by The Stapp Association in United States

The purpose of this study is to clarify the mechanism of traffic accidents involving cyclists. The focus is on the characteristics of cyclist accidents and scenarios, because the number of traffic accidents involving cyclists in Tokyo is the highest in Japan. First, dangerous situations in traffic incidents were investigated by collecting data from 304 cyclists in one city in Tokyo using a questionnaire survey. The survey indicated that cyclists used their bicycles generally while commuting to work or school in the morning. Second, the study investigated the characteristics of 250 accident situations involving cyclists that happened in the city using real-world bicycle accident data. The results revealed that the traffic accidents occurred at intersections of local streets, where cyclists collided most often with vehicles during commute time in the morning. Third, cyclists’ behavior was observed at a local street intersection in the morning in the city using video pictures. In one hour during the morning commute period, 250 bicycles passed through the intersection. The results indicated that one of the reasons for traffic accidents involving cyclists might be the combined effect of low visibility, caused by the presence of box-like building structures close to the intersections, and the cyclists’ behavior in terms of their velocity and no confirming safety. It was observed that, on average, bicycle velocity was 3.1 m/s at the initial line of an intersection. The findings from this study could be useful in developing new technologies to improve cyclist safety, such as alert devices for cyclists and vehicle drivers, wireless communication systems between cyclists and vehicle drivers, or advanced vehicles with bicycle detection and collision mitigation systems.

A Study on Vehicle Crash Pulse Severity in Frontal NCAP Tests

  • George Mason University - Chung-Kyu Park, Cing-Dao Kan
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States

In this study, the available metrics to evaluate the crash pulse severity are reviewed and their assessability is investigated by using frontal New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) test data. Linear regression analysis and sled test simulations are conducted. In addition, a new approach is proposed to measure the crash pulse severity and restraint system performance separately and objectively.

Analysis of Occupant Kinematics of Rollover Buck Test

  • Toyota Motor Corporation - Takahiro Suzaki, Noritaka Takagi, Kosho Kawahara, Tsuyoshi Yasuki
Published 2016-04-05 by SAE International in United States

Approximately 20% of traffic fatalities in United States 2012 were caused by rollover accidents. Mostly injured parts were head, chest, backbone and arms. In order to clarify the injury mechanism of rollover accidents, kinematics of six kinds of Anthropomorphic Test Devices (ATD) and Post Mortem Human Subjects (PMHS) in the rolling compartment, whose body size is 50th percentile male (AM50), were researched by Zhang et al.(2014) using rollover buck testing system. It was clarified from the research that flexibility of the backbone and thoracic vertebra affected to occupant’s kinematics. On the other hand, the kinematics research of body size except AM50 will be needed in order to decrease traffic fatalities. There were few reports about the researches of occupant kinematics using FE models of body sizes except AM50. This paper describes results of occupant kinematics of 95th percentile male (AM95), AM50, and 5th percentile female (AF05), simulated using Total Human Model for Safety Version 4 (hereafter referred to as "THUMS”)(5, 6, 7), when a rolling condition was added to rollover buck FE model that include the cases using a simple rigid seat and a vehicle seat.

Spinal Ultrasound Just-in-Time Training Tool

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-23695
Published 2016-01-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Back pain and injury are recognized risks that can affect the well-being and performance of crewmembers during missions, as well as their long-term health. Spine elongation is a documented effect of microgravity, back pain is a common occurrence in early flight, and the post-flight incidence of spinal injury is higher than the population average. These observations suggest that spinal unloading results in a transition to a new set point for the spine, and causes discomfort and an increased risk of injury.

Heavy Truck Crash Analysis and Countermeasures to Improve Occupant Safety

  • University of Michigan - John Woodrooffe, Daniel Blower
Published 2015-09-29 by SAE International in United States

This paper examines truck driver injury and loss of life in truck crashes related to cab crashworthiness. The paper provides analysis of truck driver fatality and injury in crashes to provide a better understanding of how injury occurs and industry initiatives focused on reducing the number of truck occupant fatalities and the severity of injuries. The commercial vehicle focus is on truck-tractors and single unit trucks in the Class 7 and 8 weight range. The analysis used UMTRI's Trucks Involved in Fatal Accidents (TIFA) survey file and NHTSA's General Estimates System (GES) file for categorical analysis and the Large Truck Crash Causation Study (LTCCS) for a supplemental clinical review of cab performance in frontal and rollover crash types.

A Development of Active Vent Airbag for the Passenger New NCAP

  • Hyundai Motor Company - Jaehaeng Yoo
Published 2015-03-10 by SAE International in United States

For the robust passenger NCAP(New Car Assessment Program) 5star and the stable neck injury performance, a new concept of passenger airbag has been required. Especially, the deployment stability and the vent hole control technology of the passenger airbag can be improved. According to these requirements, the deployment stability technique has been studied and the ‘Active Vent’ technology has been developed. As a result, these technologies have led to achieve the robust NCAP rating and are applied to the production vehicles.

Estimation of Body Mass Index Effect on Lower Extremity Injuries for Lateral Collision With-out Airbag

  • Nissan - Chinmoy Pal, Tomosaburo Okabe
  • RNTBCI - Kulothungan Vimalathithan, Muthukumar Muthanandam, Jeyabharath Manoharan, Satheesh Narayanan
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States

A comprehensive analysis was performed to evaluate the effect of BMI on different body region injuries for side impact. The accident data for this study was taken from the National Automotive Sampling System-Crashworthiness Data System (NASS-CDS). It was found that the mean BMI values for driver and front passengers increases over the years in the US. To study the effect of BMI, the range was divided into three groups: Thin (BMI<21), Normal (BMI 24-27) and Obese (BMI>30). Other important variables considered for this study were model year (MY1995-99 for old vehicles & MY2000-08 for newer vehicles), impact location (side-front F, side-center P & side-distributed Y) and direction of force (8-10 o'clock for nearside & 2-4 o'clock for far-side). Accident cases involving older occupants above 60 years was omitted in order to minimize the bone strength depreciation effect. Results of the present study indicated that the Model Year has influence on lower extremity injuries. Occurrence of pelvis injury was found to be influenced by BMI and was validated with logistic regression analysis. Apart from BMI, gender and age may have prominent effect on lower extremity injuries. Percentage of thorax injury and abdomen injuries appeared to be less for the thin people group (BMI<21), which has to be validated in the future by appropriate statistical methods.

Ultraviolet-Blocking Lenses Protect, Enhance Vision

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-12819
Published 2012-02-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

In the 1980s, Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) scientists James Stephens and Charles Miller were studying the harmful properties of light in space, as well as that of artificial radiation produced during laser and welding work. The intense light emitted during welding can harm unprotected eyes, leading to a condition called arc eye, in which ultraviolet light causes inflammation of the cornea and long-term retinal damage.