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Factors Affecting the Severity of Motor Vehicle Traffic Crashes in Tunisia

Najran University, Saudi Arabia-Mounir Belloumi
University of Sousse, Tunisia-Fedy Ouni
  • Journal Article
  • 09-07-01-0006
Published 2019-08-19 by SAE International in United States
We investigate the contribution of several variables concerning the severity of accidents involving vehicle occupant and pedestrian victims in Tunisia. In order to investigate the effect of various explanatory variables, Odds Ratio (OR) effects are considered for both serious injury accidents and fatal accidents. The empirical results are of great variety. The vehicle-occupant severity model indicates that male drivers are associated with higher severity levels as compared to female drivers. Added to that, accidents occurring in rainy conditions increase the likelihood of fatal injuries but have no significant effect on other injury severity levels. Among driver contributory factors, a driver under the influence of alcohol or drug is associated with an increased risk of sustaining fatal injuries compared to other driver contributory factors. The season factor shows that accident severity during the summer season is high. Among time of accident, daytime periods indicate a high likelihood of severe injuries as compared to nighttime periods. Another finding of the study is that the day of accident and region of accident increases the probability of severe injury.…
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Quantification of Sternum Morphomics and Injury Data

Chantal Parenteau
General Motors-Barbara Bunn, Suzanne Johannson
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Crash safety researchers have an increased concern regarding the decreased thoracic deflection and the contributing injury causation factors among the elderly population. Sternum fractures are categorized as moderate severity injuries, but can have long term effects depending on the fragility and frailty of the occupant. Current research has provided detail on rib morphology, but very little information on sternum morphology, sternum fracture locations, and mechanisms of injury. The objective of this study is two-fold (1) quantify sternum morphology and (2) document sternum fracture locations using computed tomography (CT) scans and crash data. Thoracic CT scans from the University of Michigan Hospital database were used to measure thoracic depth, manubriosternal joint, sternum thickness and bone density. The sternum fracture locations and descriptions were extracted from 63 International Center for Automotive Medicine (ICAM) crash cases, of which 22 cases had corresponding CT scans. The University of Michigan Internal Review Board (HUM00043599 and HUM00041441) approved the use of crash cases and CT scan data.The sternum morphomics data showed the thoracic depth increased, except for the 60-74-year-old age group.…
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Computational and Experimental Analysis of Head Injury Criteria (HIC) in Frontal Collision of Car with Pedestrian

Rajarambapu Institute of Technology-Dr. Dhananjay G Thombare
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
Road accident between pedestrian and motor vehicle causes severe injuries and even death of pedestrian. The accident statistics show that the possibility of injury to pedestrian is higher in case of collision with car on busy roads. In car and pedestrian collisions, the pedestrian’s head hits with car bonnet and suffer from multiple injuries such as skull fractures and brain injury. The role of car bonnet structural strength plays an important role in pedestrian head injury level. To provide enough structural strength the high bonnet thickness is provided with under bonnet stiffeners, however thick bonnet and stiffeners reduces deformation of the bonnet during collision and increases injury level to pedestrian. Hence optimum bonnet thickness, least number and geometry of stiffeners and enough structural strength is important for bonnet to reduce injury level. The aim of this study is to analyse the effect of car bonnet thickness, number and arrangement of under bonnet stiffeners on head injury levels with the help of head injury criteria (HIC). Head Injury Criteria (HIC) is a measure of the likelihood…
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CAE Based Head Form Impact Simulations for Development of Vehicle Interiors

Tata Motors, Ltd.-Kedar Joshi, Vilas Jadhav
Tata Technologies, Ltd.-Yuvraj Suryawanshi, Sachin Lambate
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
The interior components of a passenger vehicle are designed to provide comfort and safety to its occupants. In the event of accident, vehicle interiors are primary source of injuries when occupants interact with them. Vehicle interiors consists of Instrument panel (IP), center console, seats and controls in front of seating position etc. Severity of the injuries depends on the energy dissipating characteristics, profiles, projections of different interior components. These are assessed by ECE R21 and IS12553 head form impact tests. To evaluate the Head form impact performance on Interior components, Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) simulations are extensively used during the vehicle development. In order to predict failure of plastic components and snap joints which might lead to expose sharp edges, it is critical to model plastic material and snap joint. Vehicle interiors are certified for head form impact requirements based on physical testing where dashboard samples from productions tools are used. At this stage of development, if any failure occurs then changes in interior design becomes very expensive and time consuming. To avoid this situation,…
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Synthetic Hydrogels Deliver Cells to Repair Intestinal Injuries

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-27975
Published 2017-12-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

By combining engineered polymeric materials known as hydrogels with complex intestinal tissue known as organoids— made from human pluripotent stem cells — researchers have taken an important step toward creating a new technology for controlling the growth of these organoids and using them for treating wounds in the gut that can be caused by disorders such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD).

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Brazil's Option to Join iGLAD - International Harmonized In-Depth Accident Data

Daimler-Jörg Bakker
IDIADA-Alejandro Longton, Nuria Parera, Joel Leitao
Published 2017-11-07 by SAE International in United States
A strong local initiative in Campinas - Brazil is studying how to be more effective in the improvement of road safety in order to align to other worldwide initiatives with similar goals. This paper describes the Brazilian initiative’s approach to the challenge of being aligned with iGLAD (Initiative for the Global Harmonization of Accident Data, starting as a project in 2011 and collecting data since 2007) on the delivery of its first set of accident cases from 2016. The Brazilian source of data started as a pilot project collecting local data with the aim of extending it within the next years to a larger region.In fact, a consistent method for the development of strategies and measures to prevent accidents and mitigate injury severity comes from accident database analysis. Although databases such as national statistics are available for many countries for assessing accident situations, examining trends, or carrying out similar analysis; the identification of accident and injury causation and the evaluation of countermeasures require a higher level of detail. Comparison with other regions or countries in…
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SAE Instrumented Arm User’s Manual

Dummy Testing and Equipment Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2855_201710
  • Current
Published 2017-10-02 by SAE International in United States
This user’s manual covers the instrumented arm for the Hybrid III 5th Percentile Small Female dummy as well as the SID –IIs dummy. It is intended for technicians and engineers who have an interest in assessing arm injury from the use of frontal and side impact airbags. It covers the construction, disassembly and reassembly, available instrumentation, and segment masses.
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Driver Restraint System Optimization for Vehicle Frontal Impact

General Motors Brazil-Anderson de Lima, Eduardo L. Almeida, Marco A. Gouvea
Published 2015-09-22 by SAE International in United States
In 2010, the UN General Assembly proclaimed the period 2011-2020 as the Decade of Action for Road Safety, with a goal to stabilize and then reduce the forecast level of road traffic fatalities around the world.Road traffic accidents are the 8th cause of death in Brazil, according to World Health Rankings. There are few studies around the world with respect to cost due to traffic accidents, however a study performed in 2011 estimates that were spent R$ 44.6 billion in Brazil. So, the recent Brazilian regulations updates have enforced the automakers to develop vehicles safer to passengers and pedestrians. These regulations focus on prevent, reduce or minimize the traumas and injuries caused by different types of vehicular accidents.The present work was developed to optimize the driver restraint system, while focusing on minimizing the trauma during a vehicle frontal impact. The driver restraint system was optimized considering the complex interaction between the ATD and the different components that assemble the restraint system, like airbag, safety belts with/without pre-tensioners, seatbelt load limiting devices and steering column stroke.The…
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Under-Body Blast Mitigation: Stand-Alone Seat Safety Activation System

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Paradigm Research and Engineering-Mehmet H. Uras
TARDEC-Sebastian Karwaczynski
  • Journal Article
  • 2014-01-0556
Published 2014-04-01 by SAE International in United States
This work is based on a current project funded by the United States Army Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) Program and is being conducted with the Tank Automotive Research, Development and Engineering Center (TARDEC) Ground Systems Survivability (GSS) Team and Paradigm Research and Engineering. The focus of this project is to develop an advanced and novel sensing and activation strategy for Pyrotechnic Restraint Systems, Air Bags and other systems that may require activation. The overriding technical challenge is to activate these systems to effectively protect the Soldier during blast events in addition to Crash, Rollover and Other Injury Causing events. These activations of Pyrotechnic systems must occur in fractions of milliseconds as compared to typical automotive crashes. By investigating systems outside of typical accelerometer based applications and activations, the potential exists to exploit systems that require little power, are self-contained and provide the required output for the desired result. As such Constant-Flux Magnetostrictive Sensors shall be evaluated in a self-contained environment to provide the output during these events. By activating the Pyrotechnic Restraint Systems and…
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Comparative Analysis of Side Impact Tests, Tendencies and Challenges for Brazilian Market

Volkswagen do Brasil-Gustavo Imbrizi Prado, Eduardo Alves Pereira, Rogério Madrid Lacerda
Published 2013-10-07 by SAE International in United States
A considerable number of victims in the traffic are originated by some kind of side collisions. Around 30% of the fatalities occur due to these kinds of accidents [1][2].Due to this fact, the development of the occupant protection for this kind of load cases becomes indispensable. For this, different kinds of crash tests were and are being developed around the world according to the characteristics inherent of each market. Barrier weight, impact angle, barrier type (pole or movable deformable barrier) and dummy types are some of the variations observed.The severity of injuries caused by side crashes is very high as the occupant is very close to the impacting object and the crush space is almost nothing when compared to frontal impact. To decrease these injuries the following features of the vehicle must be developed: structure (high strength materials, reinforcements, etc), restraint system (side airbags, curtain airbags, pre-tensioners, seats, etc), design and package (distances between occupant and interior parts, flat surfaces, etc), high speed sensing systems (accelerometers, pressure sensors, etc).This paper will present a comparative analysis…
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