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Student Concept Vehicle: Development and Usability of an Innovative Holographic User Interface Concept and a Novel Parking Assistance System Concept

BMW Group-Joerg Schulte, Julian Weber
Clemson University-Lauren K. Mims, Johnell Brooks, Breno Schwambach, Robert Knizek, Casey Jenkins, Mitchell Beckman
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0396
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The Deep Orange program is a concept vehicle development program focused on providing hands-on experience in vehicle design, engineering, prototyping and production planning as part of students’ two-year MS graduate education. Throughout this project, the team was challenged to create innovative concepts during the ideation phase as part of building the running vehicle. This paper describes the usability studies performed on two of the vehicle concepts that require driver interaction. One concept is a human machine interface (HMI) that uses a holographic companion that can act as a concierge for all functions of the vehicle. After creating a prototype of the holographic display using existing technologies and developing a user interface controlled by hand gestures, a usability study was completed with older adults, between 68 and 89 years of age. The results suggest the input method was not intuitive. Participants demonstrated better performance with tasks using discrete hand motions in comparison to those that required continuous motions. The data were helpful to understand the challenges of untrained users interacting with a new HMI system. The…

A Multi-domain Component Based Modeling Toolset for Dynamic Integrated Power and Thermal System Modeling

PC Krause & Associates-Patrick Thomas McCarthy, Kevin McCarthy, Maher Hasan, Michelle Boyd, Michael Chang, Eric Walters
US Air Force Research Laboratory-Nicholas Niedbalski
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1385
To be published on 2019-03-19 by SAE International in United States
Design of modern aircraft relies heavily on modeling and simulation for reducing cost and improving performance. However, the complexity of aircraft architectures requires accurate modeling of dynamic components across many subsystems. Integrated power and thermal modeling necessitates dynamic simulations of liquid, air, and two-phase fluids within vapor cycle system components, air cycle machine and propulsion components, hydraulic components, and more while heat generation of many on-board electrical components must also be precisely calculated as well. Integration of these highly complex subsystems may result in simulations which are too computational expensive for quickly modeling extensive variations of aircraft architecture or will require simulations with reduced accuracy in order to provide computationally inexpensive models. As such, a need for software toolsets with the ability to model complex aircraft architectures with accurate calculations while maintaining high computational speeds is apparent. This paper details the development of the ATTMOSphere toolset which enables modeling of electrical, mechanical, thermal, fluid flow and heat transfer across a range of components applicable to integrated power and thermal systems. Graphical user interfaces provide user-friendly…

A Dynamic Two-Phase Component Model Library for High Heat Flux Applications

PC Krause & Associates-Stephen Hodson, Kevin McCarthy, Patrick McCarthy
Purdue University-Issam Mudawar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1386
To be published on 2019-03-19 by SAE International in United States
Pumped two-phase systems using mini- or micro-channel heat sink evaporators are prime candidates for high heat flux applications due to relatively low pumping power requirements and efficient heat removal in compact designs. A number of challenges exist in the implementation of these systems including: ensuring subcooled liquid to the pump to avoid cavitation, avoiding dry out conditions in heat exchangers that can lead to failures of the components under cooling, and avoiding flow instabilities that can damage components in the integrated system. To reduce risk and cost, modeling and simulation can be employed in the design and development of these complex systems, but such modeling must include the relevant behavior necessary to capture the above dynamic effects. To this end, a component model library has been developed in this work that demonstrates the ability to model dynamic and steady-state flow characteristics commonly observed in pumped two-phase refrigeration systems using micro-channel heat sinks. The library is comprised of components that can either be used to model individual components or be coupled with other components to form…
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Computer Detects and Understands Body Language

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-33609
Published 2019-01-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Detecting the nuances of nonverbal communication between individuals will allow robots to serve in social spaces, enabling them to perceive what people around them are doing, what moods they are in, and whether they can be interrupted. A self-driving car could get an early warning that a pedestrian is about to step into the street by monitoring body language. Enabling machines to understand human behavior also could enable new approaches to behavioral diagnosis and rehabilitation for conditions such as autism, dyslexia, and depression.

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Brain-Computer Interface Enables People with Paralysis to Control Tablet Devices

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-33566
Published 2019-01-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Tablets and other mobile computing devices are part of everyday life, but using them can be difficult for people with paralysis. New research from the BrainGate consortium shows that a brain-computer interface (BCI) can enable people with paralysis to directly operate an off-the-shelf tablet device just by thinking about making cursor movements and clicks.

Method Trains Robots to Collaborate Through Demonstration

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-33227
Published 2018-11-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Robots that are adapted to respond to physical human-robot interaction (pHRI) traditionally treat such interactions as disturbances, and resume their original behaviors when the interactions end. This pHRI has been enhanced with a method that allows humans to physically adjust a robot's trajectory in real time.

Development of a Riding Simulator for Motorcycles

Kawasaki Heavy Industries, Ltd.-Kazuya Nagasaka, Kazuhiro Ichikawa, Akiyuki Yamasaki, Hiroshi Ishii
Published 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
We developed the motorcycles based on RIDEOLOGY (Ride + Ideology) concept. In the past, the “Ride” was studied by a sensory evaluation with actual driving. However, the recent progress in numerical analysis, there have been developed driving simulators. It allows more quantitative measurement in a sensory evaluation. Therefore, we also developed a riding simulator specialized for motorcycles.In order to develop such riding simulator, there are some technical challenges for motorcycles. First, we need to reproduce roll motion height of motorcycles. Compared to four-wheeled vehicles, motorcycles have a higher center of rotation. Second, we need to reproduce vehicle motion control by rider’s changing body position. A rider controls vehicle’s lean by shifting his center of gravity. Therefore, it is necessary to construct a measurement system of rider’s body position. Third, we need to improve senses of speed and reality. In case of motorcycles, there is visual information of wider areas including the view near the rider’s feet. In order to reproduce that, it is necessary to develop new projection system.To solve these challenges, we developed a…
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Truck and Bus Lane Departure Warning Systems Test Procedure and Minimum Performance Requirements

Truck and Bus Active Safety Systems Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J3045_201808
  • Current
Published 2018-08-28 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice establishes a uniform, powered vehicle test procedure and minimum performance requirement for lane departure warning systems used in highway trucks and buses greater than 4546 kg (10000 pounds) GVW. Systems similar in function but different in scope and complexity, including Lane Keeping/Lane Assist and Merge Assist, are not included in this document. This document does not apply to trailers, dollies, etc. This document does not intend to exclude any particular system or sensor technology. The specification will test the functionality of the LDWS (e.g., ability to detect lane presence, and ability to detect an unintended lane departure), its ability to indicate LDWS engagement, its ability to indicate LDWS disengagement, and determine the point at which the LDWS notifies the Human Machine Interface (HMI) or vehicle control system that a lane departure event is detected. Moreover, the specification determines whether a system performs at a minimally acceptable level. The HMI is not addressed herein but is considered in SAE Standard J2808.
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Architecture Framework for Unmanned Systems

AS-4JAUS Joint Architecture for Unmanned Systems Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR5665B
  • Current
Published 2018-08-23 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) describes the Architecture Framework for Unmanned Systems (AFUS). AFUS comprises a Conceptual View, a Capabilities View, and an Interoperability View. The Conceptual View provides definitions and background for key terms and concepts used in the unmanned systems domain. The Capabilities View uses terms and concepts from the Conceptual View to describe capabilities of unmanned systems and of other entities in the unmanned systems domain. The Interoperability View provides guidance on how to design and develop systems in a way that supports interoperability.
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Analysis of Human Machine Interaction Program in Lane Keeping Assist System Based on Field Test

Tongji University-Yilin Yan
Published 2018-08-07 by SAE International in United States
Lane-keeping assist system (LKA) alerts the driver or intervenes in the driving when the vehicle deviates from the lane. But its effect is highly dependent on the driver’s acceptance. Distance to Lane Crossing (DTLC) and Time to Lane Crossing (TTLC) are two important factors to consider the danger level of the scenario, which are also two references for drivers to make decisions. At present, most of the functional design standards are based on these values, while they often differ for different vehicle movements.This study uses a driving robot to precisely control the test conditions and performs field tests on two advanced autonomous vehicles in National Intelligent Connected Vehicle (Shanghai) Pilot Zone. The test conditions are extended based on various test standards and the LKA performance of vehicles in the pre-experiment. The application of high-precision maps and RT systems in the test provided positioning information for the driving robot with an accuracy error of less than 2 cm. The FIR filtering of the audio and video data is used to obtain the driver’s feedback on the…
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