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Multi-zone HAVC Development and Validation with Integrated Heated/Vented Seat Control

FCA US LLC-Murad Maghaireh, Michael Hoppe
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1247
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle multi zone automatic Heating , Venting and Air Conditioning (HVAC) is the advanced form of the traditional air conditioning, the advantage of multi zone automatic HVAC is that it allows the passengers of a vehicle to set a desired temperature for their own zone within the vehicle compartment. This desired temperature is then maintained by the HVAC system, which determines how best to control the available environment data that leads to a higher comfort for the passengers. To achieve ultimate thermal comfort of the occupants in a vehicle, multi zone HVAC takes things a step further by adding heated, vented seats and, steering wheel to the HVAC controller hardware as well as strategies. The heating and cooling of the occupants by this more advance one integrated system is performed by complex control algorithms in form of embedded software programs and private LIN network. This paper describes the approach and tools used to develop, simulate and validate the one integrated climate control system. Included are 1- introduction of an integrated HVAC , steering wheel and…
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Platooning Vehicles Control for Balancing Coupling Maintenance and Trajectory Tracking

Kubota Corp.-Ayumi Suzuki
The University of Tokyo-Rui Fukui, Qiwei Ye, Shin’ichi Warisawa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0128
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Recently, car-sharing services using ultra-compact mobilities have been attracting attention as a means of transportation for one or two passengers in urban areas. A platooning system consisting of a manned leader vehicle and unmanned follower vehicles can reduce vehicle distributors. We have proposed a platooning system which controls vehicle motion based on the relative position and posture measured by non-contact coupling devices installed between vehicles. The feasibility of the coupling devices was validated through a HILS experiment. There are two basic requirements for realizing our platooning system; (1) all devices must remain coupled and (2) follower vehicles must be able to track the leader vehicle trajectory. Thus, this paper proposes two vehicle control method for satisfying those requirements. They are the “device coupling and trajectory tracking merging method” and the “trajectory shifting method”. The device coupling and trajectory tracking merging method consisting of a coupling keeping controller and a trajectory tracking controller. The predominant controller is chosen according to the amount of the coupling device error and the trajectory tracking error. The trajectory shifting method…
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Hardware-in-the-Loop Testing of Electric Traction Drives with an Efficiency Optimized DC-DC Converter Control

RWTH Aachen University-Konstantin Etzold, René Scheer, Timm Fahrbach, Shuang Zhou, Rafael Goldbeck, Daniel Guse, Fabian Frie, Dirk Uwe Sauer, Rik W. De Doncker, Jakob Andert
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0462
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In order to reduce development cost and time, frontloading is now an established methodology for automotive development programs. With this approach, certain development tasks are shifted to earlier program phases. In particular, Hardware-in-the-Loop is a common frontloading tool and it has already been applied to conventional as well as electrified powertrains for various driving scenarios. Regarding driving performance and energy demand, the electrified powertrains are highly dependent on the DC link voltages. However, there is a particular shortage of studies of Hardware-in-the-Loop tests considering a variable DC link voltage control. This article is intended to be a first step towards closing this gap. Thereto, a battery electric vehicle with a virtual HV DC-DC converter is tested in a Hardware-in-the-Loop setup. The starting point for the DC-DC converter control implementation is a loss analysis of the traction drive consisting of an inverter, an interior permanent magnet synchronous machine and a HV DC-DC converter. The loss analysis is conducted for varying DC link voltages, and for each operation point, the optimum DC link voltage is identified and…
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Exergy Based Optimal Controller Design of a Spark-Ignition Internal Combustion Engine

CEAS Western Michigan University-Muataz Abotabik, Rick Meyer, Christopher Proctor
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0250
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Internal combustion engine (ICE) control techniques have been developed with only the first law of thermodynamics in mind, e.g. improving thermal efficiency, tracking specific load requirements, etc. The first law of thermodynamics does not account for the losses in work potential that are caused due to the in-cylinder high temperature thermodynamic processes irreversibilities. For instance, up to 25% of fuel exergy or fuel availability may be lost to irreversibilities during the combustion process. The second law of thermodynamics states that not all energy in an energy source is available to do work; its application evaluates the maximum available energy in that source after accounting for the losses caused by the irreversibilities. Therefore, including the exergy in an optimal engine control algorithm may lead to improved ICE thermal efficiencies. In this work, a model predictive controller (MPC) is developed based on the first and second laws of thermodynamics to control a detailed eight-cylinder ICE model developed in GT-Power. To make the controller practically applicable for eventual hardware in the loop (HiL) investigations, the GT-Power model is…
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Hardware-in-the-Loop and Public Road Testing of RLVW and GLOSA Connected Vehicle Applications

Camp LLC-Jayendra Parikh
Ford Motor Co., Ltd.-Alexander Katriniok
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1379
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Each year, large number of traffic accidents with a large number of injuries and fatalities occur. To reduce these accidents, automotive companies have been developing newer and better active and passive safety measures to increase the safety of passengers. With the developments in connected vehicle infrastructure on the roads and on-board-units for Vehicle to Everything (V2X) connectivity in newer vehicles, V2X communication offers possibilities for preventing accidents as V2X equipped vehicles have situational awareness of other vehicles and road users around them through Vehicle to Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle to Pedestrian (V2P) communication, and signal phase and timing and map information on signalized intersections through Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I) communication. Therefore, vehicle on-board computers can calculate an optimal speed profile for fuel economy purposes or prevent crashes related to red light violations. This paper addresses these two main advantages, firstly by developing and using Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) simulator testing and experimental vehicle testing environments of an algorithm for preventing red light violation, called Red Light Violation Warning (RLVW). The HIL simulator used in the testing is…
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Experimental Evaluation of Longitudinal Control for Connected and Automated Vehicles through Vehicle-in-the-Loop Testing

Argonne National Laboratory-Miriam Di Russo, Simeon Iliev, Kevin M. Stutenberg, Eric Rask
Wayne State University-Jerry Ku
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0714
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Automated driving functionalities delivered through Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) have been adopted more and more frequently in consumer vehicles. The development and implementation of such functionalities pose new challenges in safety and functional testing and the associated validations, due primarily to their high demands on facility and infrastructure. This paper presents a rather unique Vehicle-in-the-Loop (VIL) test setup and methodology compared those previously reported, by combining the advantages of the hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) and traditional chassis dynamometer test cell in place of on-road testing, with a multi-agent real-time simulator for the rest of test environment. Details associated with applying the proposed VIL for testing adaptive cruise control (ACC), in conjunction with approaches for creating a virtual lead vehicle, as well as results of energy consumption analysis for a 2017 Toyota Prime with stock and improved longitudinal control algorithm, are reported to illustrate the effectiveness of low-infrastructure-demand test setup and the potential in applying the setup and methodology to other ADAS functionalities
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Obstacle Avoidance using Model Predictive Control: A Detailed Analysis using Scaled Vehicles

Clemson University-Ardashir Bulsara, Adhiti Raman, Srivatsav Kamarajugadda, Matthias Schmid, Venkat N Krovi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0109
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Over the last decade, tremendous amount of research and progress has been made towards developing smart technologies for autonomous vehicles such as adaptive cruise control, lane keeping assist, lane following algorithms, decision making algorithms for lane changing, adaptive control etc. One of the fundamental objectives for the development of such technologies is to enable autonomous vehicles with the capability to avoid obstacles and maintain safety. Automobiles are intricate systems and increasing autonomy in vehicles increases their complexity by several folds; especially since the dynamics of the vehicle needs to be considered. Model predictive control is a powerful tool that is used extensively to control the behavior of complex, dynamic systems. As a model-based approach, the fidelity of the model and selection of model-parameters plays a role in ultimate performance. In this paper, we use model predictive control to comparatively study controller performance for obstacle avoidance strategy using scaled-vehicles (1/10th scale). The assessment is conducted initially in simulation and planned to be evaluated in a hardware-in-loop framework.
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Calibration procedure for measurement data-based fast running model for Hardware-in-the-Loop powertrain systems

Chalmers Univ. of Technology-Jelena Andric
Gamma Technologies LLC-Daniel Schimmel
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0254
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The requirements set for the next-generation powertrain systems (e.g. performance and emissions) are becoming increasingly stringent with ever-shortening time-to-markets at reduced costs. To remain competitive automotive companies are progressively relying on model-driven development and virtual testing. Virtual test benches, such as Hardware-in the-Loop simulators, are powerful tools to reduce the amount of physical testing and speed up engine software calibration process. The introduction of these technologies places new, often conflicting demands (such as higher predictability, faster simulation speed, and reduced calibration effort ) upon simulation models used at Hardware-in-the-Loop test benches. The new models are also expected to offer compliance to industry standards, performance and usability to further increase the usage of virtual tests in powertrain development. The present work describes a novel verification process for creating a fast running model for a heavy-duty diesel engine using FRM-d Builder in GT-SUITE simulation software. The approach uniquely applies the combination physical modelling and parameter estimation techniques, while relying solely on test cell measurements without data maps from the manufactures (e.g. for turbine and compressor). The procedure…
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Energy-optimal deceleration planning system for regenerative braking of electrified vehicles with connectivity and automation

Hyundai Motor Co.-Dohee Kim
Hyundai Motor Co. & KIA Motors Corp.-Jeong Soo Eo, Ryan Miller
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0582
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents an energy-optimal deceleration planning system (EDPS) to maximize regenerative energy for electrified vehicles on deceleration events resulted from map information and connected communication. The optimization range for EDPS is restricted within an upcoming deceleration event rather than the entire routes while considering vehicles driving in front of ego-vehicle. The EDPS is an ecological driver assistance system with level 2 or 3 automation since acceleration is operated by an adaptive cruising system or a human driver and deceleration is operated on a unit of deceleration events which are divided into static ones such as turning and warning as well as dynamic ones such as traffic light. The event-based optimal deceleration profile is obtained by a dynamic programming framework including a driving motor performance model and a gear box model, and with the detection of a front vehicle the profile is updated in real time by nonlinear model predictive control scheme which considers a connected configuration and a modified intelligent driver model. The performance of EDPS has been rigorously validated both based on real-world…
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Experimental performance Analysis of Multi-Channel Active Control System for Road Noise in Vehicles Using FXLMS algorithm

Tongji University-Xiongfei Pi, Lijun Zhang, Dejian Meng, Xiyu Zhang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1277
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
It’s significant to analyze the Experimental performance of active control system for road noise. In this paper, a 4-channel active control system of vehicle road noise based on FXLMS algorithm is established. The bench test and road test are carried out to test and analyze the performance of the control system. Firstly, the general mathematic model of the multi-channel active control system based on FXLMS algorithm is established. The computational complexity of the algorithm is analyzed and compared with that of the adaptive notch filter. Secondly, a hardware-in-the-loop test bench based on multi-channel FXLMS algorithm and a measurement system based on DASP are set up, to measure the noise reduction performance of active noise control system under various working conditions. Finally, using four speakers, four Accelerometers and two microphones, the bench test and the road test are carried out under various working conditions and the results are analyzed.