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Water Load Determination Approach in Two Wheeler Exhaust System

Bosch Limited-Ranjana Kumari Meena
Robert Bosch GmbH-Andrea Krusch, Konrad Meister, Christopher Holzknecht
Published 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
Future emission norms in India (BS6) necessitates the 2 wheeler industry to work towards emission optimization measures. Engine operation at stoichiometric Air-Fuel Ratio (AFR) would result in a good performance, durability and least emissions. To keep the AFR close to stoichiometric condition, an Oxygen sensor is placed in the exhaust system, which detects if air-fuel mixture is rich (λ<1) or lean (λ>1) and provides feedback to fuel injection system for suitable fuel control.O2 sensor has a ceramic element, which needs to be heated to a working temperature for its functioning. The ceramic element would break (thermal shock) if water in liquid form comes in contact with it when the element is hot. To counter this, oxygen sensor is either fully heated only when all the water in the exhaust system is evaporated, which results in delayed closed loop control, or is capable to withstand higher amount of water in the exhaust system by for example being applied with thermal shock protection and a protective tube. It’s a challenge to control the HC emissions during first…
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LEVER ENDS - FUEL AND POWER CONTROL

E-25 General Standards for Aerospace and Propulsion Systems
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS56D
  • Current
Published 2018-09-19 by SAE International in United States
No Abstract Available.
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Operating Instructions for Aircraft Engines (Preparation of)

E-25 General Standards for Aerospace and Propulsion Systems
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS177C
  • Current
Published 2018-09-11 by SAE International in United States
This specification covers the requirements for format and outline of contents of operating instructions in published form or in manuscript form suitable for publication.
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Fuel Control and Spark Optimization of a Propane Fuel System for an Engine-Generator System

University of Kansas-Khalaf AlZeeby, Christopher Depcik
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
As climate change drives the exploration into new and alternative fuels, biodiesel has emerged as a promising alternative to traditional diesel fuel. To further increase the viability of biodiesel, a unique system at the University of Kansas utilizes glycerin, the primary byproduct of biodiesel production, for power generation. This system converts glycerin into a hydrogen-rich gas (syngas) that is sent to an engine-generator system in one continuous flow process. The current setup allows for running the engine-generator system on pure propane, reformed propane, or reformed glycerin, with each fuel serving a unique purpose. This paper discusses upgrades in pure propane operation that serves the intent of preheating the engine prior to syngas operation and establishing the baseline energy requirement for fueling the system. The current upgrade to the fuel system incorporates an Electric Fuel Valve (EFV) as a replacement for a gaseous propane carburetor, providing the ability for Air-to-Fuel Ratio (AFR) adjustment of the engine at different generator loads. The use of EFV in a continuous fuel additive manner provides a solution to the carburetor’s…
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Vehicle Exhaust Emission Control-Dynamic Signature Measurement and Analysis - A Method to Detect Emission Testing Irregularities

US EPA-Xiaoguo Tang, Walter Caldwell, Dan McBryde
Published 2018-04-03 by SAE International in United States
To meet US EPA light-duty vehicle emission standards, the vehicle powertrain has to be optimally controlled in addition to maintaining very high catalyst system efficiency. If vehicles are operated outside the bounds of a standard laboratory exhaust emission test (e.g., on-road or off-cycle) the operating control strategy may shift to optimize other desirable parameters such as fuel economy and drivability. Under these circumstances. The engine control system could be operating in a different state space from an emission control stand point. This control state-space can be observed based on four principal parameters: NOx, Lambda and exhaust temperature (measured at the tailpipe) and vehicle acceleration. These vehicle emission control patterns can be characterized by their corresponding emission control signatures, such as cold start, transient fuel control, and high speed/high load open loop. These emission control signatures are unique to a variety of engine technologies as well. Recognizing these signatures during vehicle operation can identify engine control state space and could estimate NOx mass flow by utilizing an ANN (artificial neural network) for pattern recognition. This could…
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The Impact of Intake Valve Dynamics on Knock Propensity in a Dual-Fuel SI Engine

IFP Energies Nouvelles-Fabien Vidal-Naquet, Thomas Leroy
Illinois Institute of Technology-Mateos Kassa, Carrie Hall
Published 2017-10-08 by SAE International in United States
In this study, the impact of the intake valve timing on knock propensity is investigated on a dual-fuel engine which leverages a low octane fuel and a high octane fuel to adjust the fuel mixture’s research octane rating (RON) based on operating point. Variations in the intake valve timing have a direct impact on residual gas concentrations due to valve overlap, and also affect the compression pressure and temperature by altering the effective compression ratio (eCR). In this study, it is shown that the fuel RON requirement for a non-knocking condition at a fixed operating point can vary significantly solely due to variations of the intake valve timing. At 2000 rpm and 6 bar IMEP, the fuel RON requirement ranges from 80 to 90 as a function of the intake valve timing, and the valve timing can change the RON requirement from 98 to 104 at 2000 rpm and 14 bar IMEP. These significant changes in the required fuel RON are attributed to increases in the charge temperature due to high residual concentration as well…
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Contaminants for Aircraft Turbine Engine Fuel System Component Testing

AE-5B Aircraft and Engine Fuel and Lubricant Sys Components
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR4246D
  • Current
Published 2017-09-27 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) is intended as a guide toward standardization of descriptions and specifications of fluid contamination products.
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Achieving Performance Advantages in Unmanned Systems

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-25555
Published 2016-10-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Unmanned Vehicle Systems (UVS) are reaching new levels of functionality and performance, and it’s not just for air vehicles either. Ground and underwater UVS programs are all taking advantage of the higher-performance computing platforms that are using highly integrated, multicore processors; faster and larger DDR and flash memory; as well as integrated I/O. Additionally, remote I/O subsystems are being implemented to distribute the processing power closer to the sensors and use packetized message passing — with multiple levels of security (MLS) — back to a smaller central vehicle and mission management computer.

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Achieving Performance Advantages in Unmanned Systems

Aerospace & Defense Technology: October 2016

  • Magazine Article
  • 16AERP10_01
Published 2016-10-01 by SAE International in United States

Unmanned Vehicle Systems (UVS) are reaching new levels of functionality and performance, and it's not just for air vehicles either.

Unmanned Vehicle Systems (UVS) are reaching new levels of functionality and performance, and it's not just for air vehicles either. Ground and underwater UVS programs are all taking advantage of the higher-performance computing platforms that are using highly integrated, multicore processors; faster and larger DDR and flash memory; as well as integrated I/O. Additionally, remote I/O subsystems are being implemented to distribute the processing power closer to the sensors and use packetized message passing - with multiple levels of security (MLS) - back to a smaller central vehicle and mission management computer.

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Fuel Level Control Valves and Systems

AE-5A Aerospace Fuel, Inerting and Lubrication Sys Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR1660C
  • Current
Published 2016-05-17 by SAE International in United States
A fuel level control valve/system controls the quantity of fuel in a tank being filled or emptied on the aircraft. This document provides a general familiarization with these mechanisms (e.g., forms they take, functions, system design considerations). This document provides the aircraft fuel system designer with information about these mechanisms/devices, so that he can prescribe the types of level control valves/systems which are best suited for his particular fuel system configuration. The scope has been expanded as different aircraft manufacturers may use different type of fuel system architectures. Their refueling and defueling systems may take different configurations, may require different types of fuel control valves and may require different types of interface with the onboard Fuel Measurement System. They must also limit pressure surges and be compatible with ground refueling equipment which have varying surge potentials and create surges.
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