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The Cloud Detectability Conundrum

Collins Aerospace-Darren Glenn Jackson
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Since the beginning of aviation, aircraft designers, researchers, and pilots have monitored the skies looking for clouds to determine when and where to fly as well as when to deice aircraft surfaces. Seeing a cloud has generally consisted of looking for a white / grey puffy orb floating in the sky, indicating the presence of moisture. A simple monitoring of a temperature gauge or dew point sensor was used to help determine if precipitation was likely or accumulation of ice / snow on the airframe could occur.Various instruments have been introduced over the years to identify the presence of clouds and characterize them for the purposes of air traffic control weather awareness, icing flight test measurements, and production aircraft ice detection. These instruments have included oil slides, illuminated rods, vibrating probes, hot wires, LIDAR, RADAR, and several other measurement techniques. Each technology has its own strength and weakness including the particle size range and water content that can be measured and its ability (or lack thereof) to discriminate different types of icing conditions.The FAA release…
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SLD and Ice Crystal Discrimination with the Optical Ice Detector

Collins Aerospace-Kaare J. Anderson, Mark D. Ray
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
In response to new safety regulations regarding aircraft icing, Collins Aerospace has developed and tested an Optical Ice Detector (OID) capable of discriminating among icing conditions appropriate to Appendix C and Appendix O of 14 CFR Part 25 and Appendix D of Part 33. The OID is a short-range, polarimetric lidar that samples the airstream up to ten meters beyond the skin of the aircraft. The intensity and extinction of the backscatter light correlate with bulk properties of the cloud, such as water content and phase. Backscatter scintillation (combined with the outside air temperature from another probe) signals the presence of supercooled large droplets (SLD) within the cloud-a capability incorporated into the OID to meet the requirements of Appendix O.Recent laboratory and flight tests of the Optical Ice Detector have confirmed the efficacy of the OID to discriminate among the various icing conditions. Drizzle-sized droplets, mixed with a small droplet cloud in the Collins Cloud Chamber, appear as scintillations in the lidar signal when it is processed pulse-by-pulse. Averaging the signal over multiple pulses, causes…
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On-Ground Cold Soak Fuel Frost Modeling

Embraer-Daniel Martins da Silva, Luis Santos, André Katchborian, Rodrigo Sousa
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
In this paper a cold soak fuel frost modeling for an aircraft wing tank is presented. Numerical prediction is compared with experimental data and a qualitative verification for the frost formation and melting is also shown. The numerical simulation showed good agreement with experimental observations. The model was used to define, through a Monte Carlo analysis, two different frost formations whose impact on aircraft handling was evaluated by flight tests using representative grits.
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Wind Tunnel Measurements of Simulated Glaciated Cloud Conditions to Evaluate Newly Developed 2D Imaging Probes

Artium Technologies Inc.-William D. Bachalo
CIRA, Italian Aerospace Research Centre-Biagio M. Esposito
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Instrumentation that has been used for characterization of mixed-phase and glaciated conditions in the past, like the OAP probes, are subject to errors caused by variations in diffraction on the images away from the object plane and by the discrete nature of their particle detection and sizing. Correction methods are necessary to consider their measurements adequate for high ice water content (IWC) environments judged to represent a significant safety hazard to propellers and turbofan engine operability and performance. For this reason, within the frame of EU FP7 HAIC project, instrumentation characterization and validation is considered a major element need for successful execution of flight tests campaigns. Clearly, instrumentation must be sufficiently reliable to assess the reproducibility of artificial clouds with high ice water content generated in icing tunnels. Instruments are required to measure these conditions with a sufficient level of accuracy for the purposes of the testing. Currently, there is an anticipated basic uncertainty of a factor of 2-5 when measuring clouds in-situ. This may be worse for thunderstorm core regions, because of the poorly…
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Korean Utility Helicopter KUH-1 Icing Certification Program

Korea Aerospace Industries (KAI)-Yoo Sang Hwang, Jik Soo Kim, Kyung Sam Kim
Netherlands Aerospace Centre (NLR)-Stefan van 't Hoff, Karel Lammers
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
The KUH-1 Surion is a twin-engine utility helicopter designed and developed jointly by Korea Aerospace Industries (KAI) and Airbus Helicopters primarily for the Republic of Korea Army (ROKA). Following customer requirements, KAI launched a program aimed at the military qualification of the KUH-1 for flight in icing conditions following tailored airworthiness certification criteria based on 14 CFR Part 29 and DEF STAN 00-970. The Netherlands Aerospace Centre (NLR) became involved in the program on the eve of the first icing flight test campaign performed in the winter of 2015/2016. NLR has supported all subsequent test activities and the finding of compliance in close collaboration with KAI and certain suppliers. The test activities performed include 1) component-level development and qualification icing wind tunnel testing at Cox & Co in Long Island, NY, 2) icing qualification testing of the engine air intake ice protection system at Rail Tec Arsenal (RTA) in Vienna, Austria, 3) artificial icing flight testing using the US Army Helicopter Icing Spray System (HISS), and 4) natural icing flight testing of the complete aircraft…
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CH148 Icing Flight Test Performance Data Correlation

Sikorsky, a Lockheed Martin Company-Daniel Griffiths
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents results of correlation of an empirical code to CH148 Cyclone® icing flight test performance data. Predicted icing main rotor torque penalties, generated using the Sikorsky Generalized Rotor Performance (GRP) model with the integral DELICE icing performance module, are compared to flight test results. DELICE methodology adjustments are shown that lead to CH148 test data correlation and improved correlation to previously-examined S-92A™ icing flight test performance data. Finally, a comparison of results between GRP and Sikorsky-Maryland FreeWake is shown, providing an indication of the influence of rotor wake methodology on icing model correlation.
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A Smart Icing Detection System for Any Location on the Outer Aircraft Surface

Airborne Technologies-Thomas Unger
Eologix Sensor Technology GmbH-Thomas Schlegl, Michael Moser
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Given approximately one million small and light aircraft in operation worldwide, icing detection and icing quantification of in-flight icing are still an open research topic. Despite technical means are available to de-ice on ground, there is a lack of a suitable control system based on sensor data to de-ice while the aircraft is airborne. Most often, it is still task of the pilot to visually inspect the icing status of the airfoil and/or other critical parts of the aircraft such as engine air intakes, which distracts the flight crew from flying the aircraft especially in IMC conditions. Based on preliminary simulation and tests in 2014 in a collaborative research project lasting from 2015 until 2018, the technology of energy self-sustaining, wireless, self-adhesive smart sensors for industrial sensing in an aerodynamically critical environment (i.e. wind turbines) was further investigated to fulfil general aviation requirements. Prototype hardware setups have been designed and built for application on aircraft. In test flights carried out in Scotland in late 2017, the functionality of the system could be demonstrated. It could…
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NRC Particle Detection Probe: Results and Analysis from Ground and Flight Tests

National Research Council Canada-Craig Davison, Jennifer Chalmers, Dan Fuleki
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
High altitude ice crystals are causing in-service events in excess of one per month for commercial aircraft. The effects include air data probes malfunctioning (pitot pressure and total air temperature in particular), and uncommanded engine power loss or flameout events. The National Research Council Canada (NRC) has developed a particle detection probe (PDP) that mounts on the fuselage of aircraft to sense and quantify the ice crystals in the environment. The probe is low-power and non-intrusive. This paper presents the results of ground and flight testing of this probe. Results are presented for ground testing in a sea level ice crystal wind tunnel and an altitude icing tunnel capable of generating both ice crystal and super-cooled liquid. The PDP was operated on several flight campaigns and the results of two will be presented. The first was on board a NRC Convair 580 aircraft in French Guiana (FG) and the second was on an Airbus operated A340 research aircraft in Darwin and Reunion Island. The flight campaigns included fully glaciated, mixed phase and fully liquid conditions.…
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Facing the Challenges of Supercooled Large Droplet Icing: Results of a Flight Test Based Joint DLR-Embraer Research Project

Embraer-Celso Mendonca, Daniel Silva
German Aerospace Center (DLR)-Christoph Deiler, Per Ohme, Christian Raab
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Today’s airplanes are well equipped to cope with most common icing conditions. However, some atmospheric conditions consisting of supercooled large droplets (SLD) have been identified as cause of severe accidents over the last decades as existing countermeasures even on modern aircraft are not necessarily effective against SLD-ice. In 2014, the new Appendix O to the certification regulations (FAR Part 25 / CS-25) had been issued to guarantee the safe operation of future airplane when encountering SLD conditions. But as the SLD topic is quite new for the majority of aircraft manufacturers and research institutes in a same way, DLR (German Aerospace Center) and Embraer established a joint research cooperation in 2012 to obtain a better understanding of the distinct influences of SLD-ice shapes on aircraft characteristics and to evaluate proper ways for future airplane certification under App. O. Furthermore, one additional scientific goal of the cooperation was to develop and test new tools for the in-flight monitoring of aircraft characteristics as well as the on-board identification of simulation models. During the 4 years of the…
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High Altitude Ice Crystal Detection with Aircraft X-band Weather Radar

Honeywell Aerospace-Jan Lukas, Pavel Badin
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
During participation on EU FP7 HAIC project, Honeywell has developed methodology to detect High Altitude Ice Crystals with the Honeywell IntuVue® RDR-4000 X-band Weather Radar. The algorithm utilizes 3D weather buffer of RDR-4000 weather radar and is based on machine learning. The modified RDR-4000 Weather Radar was successfully flight tested during 2016 HAIC Validation Campaign; the technology was granted Technology Readiness Level 6 by HAIC consortium. After the end of HAIC project, the method was also evaluated with respect to newly set preliminary industry standard performance requirements1. This paper discuses technology design rationale, high level technology architecture, technology performance, and challenges associated with performance evaluation.
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