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Assessing exhaust toxicity with biological detector: Configuration of portable air-liquid interface human lung cell model exposure system, sampling train and test conditions.

Czech Technical University in Prague-Michal Vojtisek-Lom, Rajesh Rameswaran, Kalpita Kumar Praharaj
Czech University of Life Sciences-Martin Pechout, David Macoun
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0050
To be published on 2019-08-15 by SAE International in United States
Air pollution remains to be one of the leading causes of premature death worldwide, with significant share attributed to particulate matter and reactive nitrogen compounds from mobile sources. Due to discrepancies between legislative metrics and health effects, and between laboratory tests and real driving, health-relevant metric applicable to real driving conditions are sought to evaluate the effects of emerging legislation, technologies and fuels. Models of human lung air-liquid interface have been recently explored to simulate effects of exposure to the whole exhaust. In this study, a compact exposure system, utilizing commercially available inserts with 3D in-vitro model of human lung cells, has been designed in-house with the vision of mobile use, minimizing size and power consumption. Due to deposition and reentrainment of semivolatile compounds in a full-flow dilution tunnel, most studies sampled raw exhaust and used a constant dilution ratio. In this study, operation of the exposure system with a proportional sampler for gravimetric particle measurement was explored. Trial runs were conducted on a typical production direct ignition spark ignition engine mounted on an engine…
 

FEM reduced modelling for the vibrational characterization of a petrol engine

FCA Italy S.p.A.-Antonio Parente, Mauro Pirelli
University of Naples-Enrico Armentani
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0059
To be published on 2019-08-15 by SAE International in United States
In this work the vibrational behaviour of a 4-cylinder, 4-stroke, petrol engine has been simulated by leveraging on the Finite Element Method (FEM). A reduced modelling strategy, based on the Component Mode Synthesis (CMS), has been adopted to reduce the size of the FEM model. A full FEM model of the whole engine, comprising all its sub-components, has been preliminary characterized from the vibrational standpoint. Subsequently, the CMS has been adopted in order to reduce the computational burden. Frequency Response Function (FRF) analyses have been used to identify the resonant frequencies and mode shapes of the different FEM models, and the so-obtained results have been compared showing a very good agreement. The reduced model has been able to reproduce with a high accuracy the vibration response at the engine mounts. The adopted reduced modelling strategy turned out to be effective in lowering the computational burden, keeping at the same time an accurate replication of the engine vibrational behaviour. Runtimes have been significantly reduced from 3 weeks for the full FEM model to nearly 2 days…
 
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New Method for Decoupling the Powertrain Roll Mode to Improve Idle Vibration

FCA US LLC-Syed F. Haider, Ahmad Abbas, Francisco Sturla
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Modern engines have high torque outputs and have low RPM due to increased demand for fuel efficiency. Vibrations caused by such engines have to be mitigated. Decoupling the roll mode from the remaining five rigid body modes results in a response which is predominantly about the torque roll axis (TRA) and helps reduce vibrations. Therefore, placing the mounts on the TRA early in the design phase is crucial. Best NVH performance can be obtained by optimizing the powertrain mount parameters viz; Position, Orientation and Stiffness. Many times, packaging restricts the mounts to be placed about the TRA resulting in degradation in NVH performance. Assuming that the line through the engine mount (Body side) centers is the desired TRA, we propose a novel method of shifting the TRA by adding mass modifying the powertrain inertia such that the new TRA is parallel to and on top to the desired TRA. This in turn will decouple the roll mode and reduce vibrations. This problem is formulated as an optimization problem. The numerical examples presented in this paper…
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Development of New I4 2.5L Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

Nissan Automotive Technology Co., Ltd.-Naohiro Yoshida
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
A new 2.5L 4-cylinder direct-injection engine (PR25DD) was developed for use on the new 2019 model year Altima as a successor to the QR25DE engine mounted on the previous model. The development concept defined for this new 4-cylinder engine was to achieve acceleration, fuel economy and noise, vibration and harshness (NVH) performance at the highest possible levels by incorporating the latest technologies, including a world’s first application.The PR25DD engine continues Nissan’s new engine concept of recent years with regard to the basic engine systems, including the use of direct injection, an electrically operated valve timing control (VTC) system, cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), an integrated exhaust manifold, mirror bore coating and a variable displacement oil pump [1]. In addition to these features, it also adopts a resin intake port. The resin port is inserted into the intake port cast in the cylinder head, thereby forming an air layer between the intake air passageway and the head inner wall so as to suppress the rise in intake air temperature. This world’s first application of a resin…
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Design and Modelling of Single Cylinder 4 Stroke Gasoline Engine Crankshaft

CASRAE, Delhi Technological University-Shourya Paul, Devanshu Jain, Rohan Brella, Naveen Kumar
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The crankshaft translates the reciprocatory motion of the piston into rotary motion. A flywheel is generally connected to the crankshaft to reduce the vibrating characteristic of four stroke cycle. Counterweights are added for each reciprocating piston to provide engine balance while operating. Gasoline engines have curtailed compression ratio therefore shorter stoke length as a deduction have higher RPM in comparison to diesel counterpart. A crankshaft is subjected to enormous stresses, potentially equivalent of several tones of force. Failure of the crankshaft is predominantly due to violent vibrations, insufficient lubrication, excessively pressurized cylinder. This research aims to examine the stress subjected to acute points on a crankshaft. Three dimension model of 4 stroke single cylinder engine crankshaft is modeled using SolidWorks v18. End conditions were applied taking into consideration the engine mountings of the crankshaft. Stresses were applied to crankpin to replicate the forces of a running engine. Twisting moment causes Shear stresses; bending moment are determinant of the tensile and compressive stresses. This research was conducted for two different materials Stainless steel and Epoxy carbon…
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A Lumped Parameter Model Concerning the Amplitude-Dependent Characteristics for the Hydraulic Engine Mount with a Suspended Decoupler

Tongji University-Dawei Zhou, Shuguang Zuo, Xudong Wu
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a novel lumped parameter model(LPM) and its parameter identification method for the hydraulic engine mount(HEM) with a suspended decoupler. In the new model the decoupler membrane’s variable stiffness caused by being contact with the metallic cage is considered. Therefore, the decoupler membrane in the model can be taken as a spring. As a result, two parameters of the decoupler’s variable stiffness and the equivalent piston area are added. Then the finite element method is employed to analyze the suspended decoupler membrane’s variable stiffness characteristics under the contact state with the metallic cage. A piecewise polynomial is used to fit the decoupler membrane’s variable stiffness. To guarantee the symmetry of the stiffness, the polynomial only keeps the odd power coefficients. The other lumped parameters of the HEM, such as the elastic stiffness and equivalent piston area of the rubber spring, volumetric compliance of the fluid chamber, the fluid inertia and resistance of the inertia track are also identified with the finite element method for further numerical simulations. Finally a computer simulation under sinusoidal…
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Inertia Tensor and Center of Gravity Measurement for Engines and Other Automotive Components

Ohio State University-Dennis Guenther
SEA Ltd.-Dale A. Andreatta, Gary Heydinger, Scott Zagorski
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
A machine has been developed to measure the complete inertia matrix; mass, center of gravity (CG) location, and all moments and products of inertia. Among other things these quantities are useful in studying engine vibrations, calculation of the torque roll axis, and in the placement of engine mounts. While the machine was developed primarily for engines it can be used for other objects of similar size and weight, and even smaller objects such as tires and wheels/rims.A key feature of the device is that the object, once placed on the test table, is never reoriented during the test cycle. This reduces the testing time to an hour or less, with the setup time being a few minutes to a few hours depending on the complexity of the shape of the object. Other inertia test methods can require up to five reorientations, separate CG measurement, and up to several days for a complete test.The device uses a system of pivots, springs, and three sensors to get the three moments and three products of inertia, plus the…
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Response Decoupling Method in Mount Design with Emphasis on Transient Load Conditions

BAIC Motor Co., Ldt.-Lu Shouwei
Beijing Institute of Technology-Mou Xiaolong, Feng Huihua
Published 2019-01-18 by SAE International in United States
This research examined the focused design, elastic design, energy decoupling, and torque roll axis (TRA) decoupling methods for mount optimization design. Requiring some assumptions, these methods are invalid for some load conditions and constraints. The linearity assumption is advantageous and simplifies both design and optimization analysis, facilitating engineering applications. However, the linearity is rarely seen in real-world applications, and there is no practical method to directly measure the reaction forces in the three locally orthogonal directions, preventing validation of existing methods by experimental results. For nonlinear system identification, there are additional challenges such as unobservable internal variables and the uncertainty of measured data. In addition, nonlinear system optimization analysis is hampered by the challenge of analysis of more than two co-dimensional bifurcations as well as the locally multiple minimal values’ problem in high-dimensional space. Therefore, we must confine our analysis to the linear problem. Per the prevailing decoupling concept, the response decoupling (RD) method in time domain shock response analysis is discussed in regard to its application in shock response analysis. The proposed method is…
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Low Frequency In-Cab Booming Noise Reduction in the Passenger Car

The Automotive Research Association of India-Pradeep Jawale, Nagesh Voderahobli Karanth, Atul Annasaheb Gaikwad, Keshav Mutalik
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
In-cab booming noise is low frequency (20 Hz∼300 Hz) phenomenon excites the cabin structure, which occurs mainly due to excitations from the powertrain, exhaust system, road input, etc. Annoyance due to booming noise affects the In-cab sound quality, which results in passenger discomfort. A diesel passenger car observed booming noise issue when operated at stationary as well as dynamic run-up conditions.In order to increase passenger comfort, experimental root cause analysis conducted on the vehicle to investigate the dominant sources for the cavity boom. Exhaust hanger and one of the engine mount identified as major reason for the booming noise in the cabin. A detailed study was carried out on dynamic property optimization of rubber hanger and possibility to relocate the hanger to improve the vibration transmissibility. Operational measurements conducted on vehicle by attaching finalized exhaust mount to confirm the significant booming noise reduction in the cabin.
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Effect of Engine Bush Stiffness and Damping on Engine Shake Performance Using Virtual Simulation (MBD DOE) Approach

Maruti Suzuki India Limited-Sumit Kakria, Joydeep Chatterjee
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
Engine Shake is a low frequency phenomenon which causes vehicle vibration mainly in vertical direction leading to discomfort of the driver/passenger. This is caused by excitation due to small irregularities on smooth road surface. Engine mounting system design plays an important role in the Shake performance of the vehicle. This paper describes the Multi Body Dynamics (MBD) modeling and simulation study of the vehicle to analyze the Shake performance using Design of Experiments (DOE) approach.In the study, a 16 DOF configuration system model of the vehicle system is built using Multi Body Dynamic (MBD) simulation software ADAMS. The effect of change in Engine bush stiffness and damping on Floor displacement has been analyzed by carrying out DOE study using ADAMS. This is done to optimize the Engine bush parameters for improved Shake performance of the vehicle.Static equilibrium analysis is done on MBD model to check the correct load distribution in the vehicle according to test condition. Rigid body modes analysis of the MBD model provides information regarding the vehicle body and engine rigid modes (6…
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