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Engine mount design & failure analysis in commercial vehicle and a correlation between virtual & physical validation.

VE Commercial Vehicles Ltd.-Mahendra Parwal
VE Commercial Vehicles, Ltd.-Arushi Dev
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0491
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle life and performance is affected by many factors when in use. The most influential being the vibrations generated especially when the vehicle is in motion. These vibrations are directly experienced by the driver, whose performance goes down, if under continuous influence of these vibrations. This increases the fatigue and greatly reduces the return on investment done by the customer. There are two major sources of vibrations, the engine and the road on which the vehicle moves. To prevent such issues engine mounts are used in vehicles, which may seem simple but perform a critical role, of providing comfort to the driver. Therefore it becomes important that thoroughly designed and examined mounts are being used in the vehicle. This paper focuses on the parameters and methodology to be followed for design and validation of an engine mount used in heavy duty vehicles. Case study has been presented to show the failure cases in an engine mount, especially the separation of rubber and metal bonding. Importance of surface pre-treatments to have better bonding has been discussed…
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Novel CAE CV Joint Modeling Method for Driveline Half-Shaft at Idle condition

FCA US LLC-Ahmad ABBAS, Francisco Sturla, Syed Haider
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1265
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Idle shake is an important NVH attribute. Vehicles with good NVH characteristics are designed to perform excellent in IDLE and SHAKE conditions. Typically, tactile vibrations at Idle are measured at the driver seat and steering wheel. Vibrations caused by engine excitation at Idle are passed through several paths to the body structure. The dominant paths being the engine mounts and the half shafts, either one of them or both can be a major factor influencing the perceived idle vibration in a vehicle. In the past, modeling the half-shafts accurately has been a challenge and often a time has been ignored because of modeling complexity. This has led to idle CAE predictions not correlating with test data. The main purpose of this paper is to describe a representative finite element modeling method of half shaft to predict idle vibrations levels. The proposed model includes all the major components of a physical half shaft: the main shaft and the two constant velocity (CV) joints, modeling of two distinctly different types of CV joints is presented. The first…
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Engine Mount Stopper Design Techniques to Balance Vehicle Level Buzz, Squeak, Rattle and Durability.

Tata Motors, Ltd.-Sandip Hazra, Sagar Deshmukh
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0401
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In the highly competitive global automotive market and with the taste of customer becoming more refined, the need to develop high quality products and achieve product excellence in all areas to obtain market leadership is critical. Buzz, squeak and rattle (BSR) is the automotive industry term for the audible engineering challenges faced by all vehicle and component engineers. Minimizing BSR is of paramount importance when designing vehicle components and whole vehicle assemblies. Focus on BSR issues for an automobile interior component design have rapidly increased due to customer's expectation for high quality vehicles. Also, due to advances in the reduction of vehicle interior and exterior noise, engine mounts have recently been brought to the forefront to meet the vehicle interior sound level targets. Engine mounts serve two principal functions in a vehicle, vibration isolation and engine support. The objective of this paper to experimentally analyze the impact of conventional engine mount design on the rattle and whistling noise audible from the engine mounts when the vehicle is subjected to rough road conditions and pot holes…
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Elastomeric Component Fatigue Analysis: Rubber Fatigue Methodology and Correlation between Crack Initiation and Crack Growth

FCA US LLC-Touhid Zarrin-Ghalami, Sandip Datta, Robert Bodombo Keinti, Ravish Chandrashekar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0193
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Many elastomeric components in automotive industry applications are subjected to dynamic service loads. Fatigue must be a consideration in the design of these components. The two approaches in rubber fatigue analysis discussed in this study are the conventional crack initiation approach, based on continuum mechanics parameters versus life, and the crack growth approach, based on fracture mechanics parameters. These methodologies were utilized and illustrated for a passenger vehicle engine mount here. Temperature effects are not considered since testing was performed at ambient room temperature and with a low frequency, typically less than 5 Hz. This promising methodology for fatigue life prediction, discussed in this paper, is a critical plane approach based on crack energy density. Rainflow cycle counting method and Miner’s damage rule are used for load cycle characterization and damage accumulation respectively. A fracture mechanics approach is implemented based on specimen crack growth data. This methodology is validated with component testing under constant amplitude experiments. Results are investigated through analysis of critical stress locations, life values, and strain states. Comparative results are presented. Numerical…
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Develop the methodology to predict the engine mount loads from road load data using MSC ADAMS and FEMFAT Virtual Iteration

Mahindra Research Valley-Baskar Anthonysamy, Balaramakrishna N, Abhijit Londhe
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1401
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Design of powertrain mounting bracket is always challenging in achieving good NVH characteristics and durability with less weight. This paper introduces an innovative new method to calculate engine mount loads from chassis acceleration. The method starts from measuring chassis acceleration near engine mount location, then reproduce same chassis acceleration in Multi Axis Shaker Table (MAST), and finally extract the load in engine mount using testing (using load cell). Import the same MAST test actuator displacement input into ADAMS and extract the engine mount load and compare with test data. Then establish the correlation between testing and simulation. The correlation includes load time history and peak-to-peak load range. The correlations show good comparisons between measured and predicted in all the mounts, especially for the high load mounts. It is recommended to implement this method in early vehicle design phases. Implement this method in early vehicle design, converting the road load data into simulation input is mandatory instead of MAST testing and conversation. To avoid MAST testing and do the MAST simulation based on road load data,…
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Optimization of engine mounting system for first gear marching judder

Tata Motors, Ltd.-Sagar Ramchandra Deshmukh, Shreyash Borole, Sandip Hazra, Dhananjay Gadve
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0416
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Normal engine mounting system is designed to bear loads of powertrain in all driving conditions and also isolate the vibrations of powertrain. Softer mounts are good for vibration isolation but it is not recommended to have softer mounts because durability will be affected adversely. Optimum stiffness needs to be finalised which will have balance between durability and performance. In addition to durability many performance parameters needs to be checked during the time of development. This study includes the development of engine mounting system for elimination of drive away judder in first gear. Maximum peak torque value for the drive-away event: typical value is 80Nm - 120Nm. In the worst case, this peak torque can reach a maximum of 170Nm depending on maneuver. RPM is around 1100-1200. Steering wheel, instrument panel and whole vehicle cabin will vibrate for few seconds and then vehicle will run smoothly. To eliminate this issue various iterations were done in the mounting system and solution is selected which has no marching judder in 1st gear. A 16DOF rigid body model is…
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An FxLMS controller for active control engine mount with experimental secondary path identification

Tongji University-Rong Guo, Ziwei Zhou, Hao Chen
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0424
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Active engine mounts (AEMs) notably contribute to ensuring superior performance of vehicle’s noise, vibration, and harshness. This paper incorporates a filtered-x-least-mean-squares (FxLMS) controller into the active control engine mount system to attenuate the transmitted force to the body. To avoid the error caused by substituting the load cell for acceleration transducer, the FIR model of the secondary path was obtained by experiment. Finally, a hardware-in-the-loop testing system is built to verify the performance of the active engine mount. It can be found from the test results that the vibration is reduced notably after control, which demonstrates the effectiveness of the active engine mount and the controller in vibration attenuation.
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S-12 Powered Lift Propulsion Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR4172
  • Current
Published 2020-01-31 by SAE International in United States
This Aerospace Information Report (AIR) reviews the requirements to be satisfied by the engine mount systems and provides an outline of some suitable methods. Factors such as drive shaft alignment, engine expansion, mount crashworthiness, vibration isolation, and other effects on the installation are discussed.
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General Motors Mercosul-Marcos Rogério Sanches Barbetti, Fernando Braga, Luiz Carlos Sá, Rafael Tedim Terra
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0094
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
This Paper has as objective to present a study about how the stiffness variation can affect the powertrain mounts system loading. The initial driver for this research is to find enablers to improve the durability performance through loads reduction without noise and vibration degradation.In this study, we will review a summary about powertrain mounts main characteristics to help the understanding how to establish the static and dynamic characteristics, with the external excitations originated from durability track as well the engine torque applied over the system.We used the mid-size truck as physical hardware and the required load data were collected through load cells installed on the powertrain mount system.The load data were analyzed individually per mount and split over the three axles (X, Y and Z). As control factor, we applied different stiffness or “tunings” on the mount rubber body and as result, we established the relation between stiffness and powertrain mounts system loading.The presented graphic results show the load behavior along the durability tracks, it is possible to understand and establish the relation between loads…
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Methodology for Failure Simulation Using 4 Corner 6 DOF Road Load Simulator of Overhanging Components: An Experimental Approach

Maruti Suzuki India, Ltd.-Naveen Malik, Ayan Bhattacharya, Sahil Jindal, Sayed Zergham Ali Naqvi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2404
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Nowadays, Road Load Simulators are used by automobile companies to reproduce the accurate and multi axial stresses in test parts to simulate the real loading conditions. The road conditions are simulated in lab by measuring the customer usage data by sensors like Wheel Force transducers, accelerometers, displacement sensors and strain gauges on the vehicle body and suspension parts. The acquired data is simulated in lab condition by generating ‘drive file’ using the response of the above mentioned sensors. Due to non- linear nature of the vehicle parts, transmissibility of load is a complex phenomenon.Due to this complex transmissibility, good simulation at wheel center does not always ensure good correlation at all vehicle locations. The low level of correlation is common at the locations like engine mount, horn bracket and other overhanging brackets which are away from the wheel center. However, during countermeasure evaluation for vehicle development, often it becomes essential to simulate failure at this kind of low correlation zones.In this paper, an experimental approach was applied for focused failure simulation of engine mount which…
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