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Development of high power density diesel engine for constant speed application

TMTL-Rakesh K
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2566
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Engine up gradation for higher power rating involves challenges that require hardware changes which not only increase cost but also demand higher space. This paper focuses on the up gradation of a 4 cylinder 4.9l CRDi engine from 24.03 kW/L to 30.75 kW/L by adjustment of various parameters to meet both emission and performance targets. Various challenges like higher exhaust temperature, increased peak firing pressure etc. were met using the proper calibration strategy. To meet SFC targets and keep peak firing pressures, exhaust temperatures within desired limits, different operating points for EGR, main injection timing, rail pressure have been optimized. The operating points for optimization were determined by conducting various drive trials on different type of load conditions in test bench. Calibration strategy involved the safe limits of NOx, soot, CO emissions, fuel consumption.pfp, and exhaust temperature. By using the same hardware we are thus able to achieve higher power rating for same engine and also meet CPCB 2 emission norms comfortably.
 

Optimization of Compression Ratio for DI Diesel Engines for better fuel Economy

Tata Technologies Ltd-Aashish Bhargava, Gaurav Soni
Tata Technologies, Ltd.-Sujit Gavade
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2431
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Fuel economy is becoming one of the key parameter as it not only accounts for the profitability of commercial vehicle owner but also has impact on environment. Fuel economy gets affected from several parameters of engine such as Peak firing pressure, reduction in parasitic losses, improved volumetric efficiency, improved thermal efficiency etc. Compression ratio is one of key design criteria which affects most of the above mentioned parameters, which not only improve fuel efficiency but also results in improvement of emission levels. This paper evaluates the optimization of Compression ratio and study its effect on Engine performance. The parameters investigated in this paper include; combustion bowl volume in Piston and Cylinder head gasket thickness as these are major contributing factors affecting clearance volume and in turn the compression ratio of engine. Based on the calculation results, an optimum Compression Ratio for the engine is selected. Further Engine testing carried out with selected Compression ratios and parameters such as Fuel efficiency, In cylinder pressure, Brake thermal efficiency and Ignition delay were compared.
 

Feasibility of Multiple Piston Motion Control Approaches in a Free Piston Engine Generator

West Virginia University-Mehar Bade, Nigel Clark, Parviz Famouri, PriyaankaDevi Guggilapu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2599
To be published on 2019-10-22 by SAE International in United States
The design optimization and control of Free Piston Linear Engine (FPLE) has been found to be difficult as each independent variable changes the dynamics with respect to time. These dynamics, in turn, alters the alternator and engine response to other governing variables. As a result, the FPLE system necessitates an energy balance control algorithm with high-speed dynamic response for stable operation and perhaps optimized system efficiency. The main objective of this control algorithm is to match the power generated by the engine to the power demanded by the alternator. This energy balance control is similar to the use of a governor to control the crankshaft rotational speed in a conventional crankshaft driven engine. In addition to that, when stiff springs are added to the FPLE system, the dynamics becomes more sinusoidal and more consistent with increasing spring stiffness. To understand the cycle-to-cycle variations, a comprehensive FPLE numerical model with a 1kW target electric power was developed in MATLAB®/Simulink. An FPLE system corresponding to that numerical model has been operated in the laboratory. In this numerical…
 

Design of a novel Electro-Pneumatic gear shift system for a Sequential gearbox

Vellore Institute of Technology-Jeevesh Jain, Vaibhav Mittal, Dore Ranganath Srinivasa Raghuraman, Shivam Singh Rathore, Sumit Nilesh Vadodaria
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0011
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes the design of a novel pneumatic gear shifting system to replace the existing gear stick manual shifting system for ease of the driver while shifting gears. The aim of this work is to have a semi-automatic shifting(pneumatic shifting) removing the need for the driver clutch operation. The system consists of a solenoid valve, CO2 gas pressurized cylinder, double acting cylinder, and single acting cylinder. On basis of the signal received the gear needs to be changed, the shifter opens or closes a magnetic valve assembly. The solenoid valve allows the compressed air into the piston that comes from a pressurized cylinder, in order to create the effect of shifting gears. Pedal shifter and buttons are used to shift the gears. The pedal shifter was designed by using a 3-D printing technique using PLA material. The microcontroller used is ATMEGA-328 in this system. There are three switches, one for upshift, downshift, and clutch respectively. An algorithm has been created in a microcontroller for a sequential gearbox of CBR 600RR. The system has been…
 

Advanced Mathematical Modelling for Glass Surface Optimization with PSO

Becton Dickinson India Technical Center-Pawan Pandey
Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Hasan Askari, Sreebalajinarayanan Raadhaasaminathan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0104
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
In automobile car body door engineering, fitting a styling surface of side door glass to the cylinder or torus is the basic requirement. Optimization is required to approximate the class A side door glass surface to cylindrical or toroidal surface. This optimization process requires a solver which could be efficacious for best surface fitting. This paper propounds a methodology which could be used for fitting a styling surface of side door glass to the cylinder or torus. The method will significantly help in developing the required surface and would successfully obsolete the onerous manual calibrations. The mathematical model mentioned is a novel approach based on “Particle Swarm Optimization” towards surface optimization technique. VB script is used to make it applicable in CATIA but could be easily applied in python, java etc.
 

Design and development of intake ports for 2-valve & 4-valve configurations for heavy duty off-highway Diesel Engine

College of Engineering-Sameer Tikar, Dileep Malkhede, Milankumar Nandgaonkar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0042
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Keywords - Four valve intake port design, steady flow test, CFD numerical simulation, off-highway engines Abstract: Future emission limits for off-highway application engines need advanced power train solutions to meet stringent emissions legislation, whilst meeting customer requirements and minimising engineering costs. Development of diesel engines for off-highway application for different power segments need different intake port design solutions to optimise in-cylinder flow structure for efficient combustion. With adaptation of low pressure mechanical fuel injection system, intake port development becomes an important stage for reduction of emission formation at the source and improvement in fuel economy. In this paper, intake port design and development process is elaborated for two different power ratings of 75 hp and 120 hp of off-highway engine. 2-valve and 4-valve configurations are deployed for the same cylinder bore size. Considering the legislative emission limits for these two power segments of engines, intake port are designed for target swirl and flow performance within the same constraints of cylinder head bolting pattern and valve train actuation mechanism. For 2-valve configuration, a helical intake port…
 

Knock Onset Detection Methods Evaluation by In-Cylinder Direct Observation

Istituto Motori CNR-Francesco Catapano, Paolo Sementa, Bianca Maria Vaglieco
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0233
To be published on 2019-10-07 by SAE International in United States
Improvement of performance and emission of future internal combustion engine for passenger cars is mandatory during the transition period toward their substitution with electric propulsion systems. In middle time, direct injection spark ignition (DISI) engines could offer a good compromise between fuel economy and exhaust emissions. However, abnormal combustion and particularly knock and super-knock are some of the most important obstacles to the improvement of SI engines efficiency. Although knock has been studied for many years and its basic characteristics are clear, phenomena involved in its occurrence are very complex and are still worth of investigation. In particular, the definition of an absolute knock intensity and the precise determination of the knock onset are arduous and many index and methodologies has been proposed. In this work, most used methods for knock onset detection from in-cylinder pressure analyses have been considered. Moreover, same methodologies were applied also to the ionization signal collected through the spark plug, properly instrumented. High speed imaging has been carried out in the combustion chamber of a high performance DISI engine provided…
 

Hypersonic Flow Simulation Towards Space Propulsion Geometries

Universidade Da Beira Interior-Odelma Teixeira, Jose Pascoa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1873
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
This work aims to expand the applicability of an open-source numerical tool to solve hypersonic gas dynamic flows for space propulsion geometries. This is done by validating the code using two well-known hypersonic test cases, the double cone and the hollow cylinder flare, used by the NATO Research and Technology Organization for the validation of hypersonic flight for laminar viscous-inviscid interactions (D. Knight, "RTO WG 10 - Test cases for CFD validation of hypersonic flight," in 40th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting & Exhibit, 2002). The Computational Fluid Dynamic (CFD) simulation is conducted using the two-temperature solver hy2Foam that is capable to study external aerodynamics in re-entry flows. In the present work the assessment of hy2Foam to solve hypersonic complex flow features with strong interactions including non-equilibrium effects was demonstrated. Freestream conditions with stagnation enthalpy of 5.44 MJ/kg and Mach number of 12.2, for the double cone case, and stagnation enthalpy of 5.07 MJ/kg and Mach number of 11.3 for the hollow cylinder case were considered. Comparison with newer existing numerical data and experimental data from…
 

Optical Investigation of Mixture Formation in a Small Bore DISI Engine by Laser Induced Exciplex Fluorescence (LIEF)

Technische Univ. Braunschweig-Alexander Pauls, Peter Eilts
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0133
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Legislative and customer demands in terms of fuel consumption and emissions are an enormous challenge for the development of modern combustion engines. Downsizing in combination with turbocharging and direct injection is one way to increase efficiency and therefore meet the requirements. This results in a reduction of the displacement and thus the bore diameter. The application of direct injection with small cylinder dimensions increases the probability of the interaction of liquid fuel with the cylinder walls, which may result in disadvantages concerning especially particulate emissions. This leads to the question which bore diameter is feasible without drawbacks concerning emissions as a result of wall wetting. The emerging trends towards long-stroke engine design and hybridization make the use of small bore diameters in future gasoline engines a realistic scenario. In the previous project “GDI Boundary Bore” the feasibility of an SI engine with direct injection and small bore diameter was shown by the analyses of two different cylinder head concepts (3V and 4V). For the acquirement of deeper understanding of the mixture formation in such engines…
 

Study of Fuel Octane Sensitivity Effects on Gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion Using Optical Diagnostics

King Abdullah Univ of Science & Tech-Hao Shi, Yanzhao An, Bengt Johansson
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0025
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Partially premixed combustion (PPC) is a low-temperature combustion (LTC) concept that could deliver higher engine efficiency, as well as lower NOx and soot emissions. Gasoline-like fuels are beneficial for air/fuel mixing process under PPC mode because they have superior auto-ignition resistance to prolong ignition delay time. In current experiments, the high octane number gasoline fuel E10 (US market used gasoline, RON=91) and low octane number GCI blend fuel (RON=77) were tested respectively in a full-transparent AVL single cylinder optical compression ignition (CI) engine. Aiming at investigating the fuel sensitivity on engine performances under different combustion modes as well as soot particle emissions, the engine operating parameters and emission data were analyzed from CI to HCCI (homogeneous charge compression ignition) via PPC (partially premixed combustion) by changing fuel injection timing. In addition, in order to get a deep insight of in-cylinder auto-ignition and combustion evolution process, planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) imaging and high-speed natural flame luminosity (NFL) imaging techniques are used for visualizing fuel distribution, auto-ignition kernel development and combustion processes.