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Correlation of Cylinder Head Gasket Sealing Analysis Results Between Gasket Element and 3D Continuum Element

Cummins Engine Co., Ltd.-Amit Ozarde
Cummins Inc.-Gene McNay
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0049
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
A head gasket is a component that sits between the engine block/liner and cylinder head(s) in an internal combustion engine. Its purpose is to seal high pressure combustion gasses in the cylinders, seal coolant and engine oil transfer ports between the block and head and to ensure no leakage of gasses or fluids out of the block to head joint; as such, it is the most critical sealing application in an engine. In general practice, the load deflection(L/D) characteristic is generated by the gasket manufacturer for edge molded or composite gasket types. In the case of a solid-sheet metallic gasket, where the gasket is expected to undergo local yielding to provide adequate conformance and sealing, supplier is usually not able to provide the required L/D curve due to difficulties experimentally separating the large loads and small displacements from the elastic loads and deflections of the experimental apparatus. In absence of L/D curve the current analysis approach is to model gasket as 3D continuum elements with considering nonlinear material and contacts. The focus of the procedure…
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On Shedding Frequency and Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Rotating Wire-wrapped Cylinder

California State University-Long Beach-Hamid R. Rahai
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0028
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
Numerical investigations of shedding frequency of rotating smooth and wire-wrapped cylinders, placed in steady flow have been performed. The freestream mean velocity was 10 m/sec. and the smooth cylinder diameter was 5 cm, which corresponds to an approximate Reynolds number based on cylinder’s diameter of 3.2x104. The wire wrapped cylinder had a wire diameter of 5 mm and the ratios of pitch spacing to the cylinder diameter, p/D, was 1.0. The cylinder length to diameter ratio was 20. The rotation rate (λ), the ratio of axial tangential mean velocity at the cylinder’s surface to the free stream mean velocity was 2.0. To obtain the shedding frequency, numerical probes were placed at 3D downstream, 0.5 D above the centerline, spaced at 0.5D along the spanwise direction for obtaining instantaneous axial velocity and shedding frequencies were obtained from spectra of the axial velocity. Results indicate that the lift for the wire-wrapped cylinder is nearly 150% of that of the smooth cylinder, however, it has higher drag force. The lift to drag ratio for the smooth rotating cylinder…
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Piston Temperature Measurement during Engine Warm-up and Application for Analysis of Piston Behavior

Digital Engineering Dept., Suzuki Motor Corporation-Shinya Kubota
Environment, Material & Manufacturing Engineering Develo-Akira Ishibashi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0548
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
In recent years, internal-combustion engines have been required to satisfy various performance standards against emission regulations and fuel-efficiency targets. To this end, accurate measurement of piston temperature under various engine operating conditions is important.Some studies reported the use of wireless methods to confirm the reliability of the measurement system at the highest engine speed and create a piston temperature map under all operating conditions. However, previous case studies only considered relatively large displacement engines, and the advantage of wireless methods—a high degree of freedom for design—was not used. In terms of engine operating conditions, few cases focus on the piston to cylinder wall clearance during engine warm-up conditions. Thus, wireless methods are still space to use their features.In this study, we develop and implement a telemetry-type method for a motorcycle engine, which has smaller displacement and is therefore more restrictive relative to measurement system design than past case studies. The temperature distribution in the entire piston is measured, considering the temperature distribution of a cylinder bore wall surface during the period between a cold start…
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Investigation of The Effect of Enhanced In-Cylinder Flow on HCCI Combustion in a Rapid Compression and Expansion Machine

Chiba University-Yiwen Zhong, Kazuya Ogawa, Tatsuya Kuboyama, Yasuo Moriyoshi
SUZUKI MOTOR CORPORATION-Kei Yoshimura
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0528
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
The purpose of this paper is to find a way to extend the high load limit of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion. A newly developed rapid compression and expansion machine (RCEM) was employed to reproduce the typical HCCI high load condition. The in-cylinder turbulence was created by the special piston which equipped with a flow guide plate. Meanwhile, the ambient temperature distribution in the cylinder was determined by the wall temperature controlling system which was controlled by the independent coolant passages. In addition, the numerical simulation by using large eddy method coupled with a detailed chemical reaction was conducted as well. The results show that HCCI mode is potential to be improved at high load condition in full consideration of in-cylinder temperature, flow, and turbulence.
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Improvement of On-board In-cylinder Gas Flow Model and Wall Heat Transfer Prediction Model for CI Engines Using CFD Analysis and PIV Measurements under Motoring and Firing Conditions

Sophia University-Mitsuhisa Ichiyanagi, Gerard Ndizeye, Yuji Sawamura, Reina Saito, Kotaro Takahashi, Koki Otsubo, Haoyu Chen, Suzuki Takashi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0542
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
For the improvement of the transient driving performance and the thermal efficiency for diesel engines, it is effective to control the fuel injection by model-based control (MBC) on ECU with cycle-by-cycle calculation, and MBC requires six models; gas flow, spray development, mixture formation, combustion, ignition delay, and heat loss. The authors previously developed on-board in-cylinder gas flow and wall heat transfer prediction models to estimate the heat loss. However, the developed gas flow model has an undetermined coefficient called the turbulence intensity coefficient (TIC), which significantly influences the prediction accuracy of the wall heat transfer prediction model. The present study improved the gas flow model and the wall heat transfer prediction model by applying TICs obtained using the PIV and CFD analysis. In-cylinder gas flow in an optical single-cylinder diesel engine was measured by PIV under both motoring and firing conditions, and TICs were calculated and applied to the wall heat transfer prediction model. The heat flux values obtained from the model were compared with those from the experiments using heat flux sensors. It was…
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Effect of Two-point Ignition on Knocking in Spark-assisted HCCI Combustion using an Optically Accessible Engine

Nihon University-Kojiro Yoshida, Takuma Furusho, Yosuke Abe, Masaya Iimura, Takafumi Imai, Kazutoshi Hoshi, Akira Iijima
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0562
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
This study investigated the effect of the ignition positions in a two-point ignition system on homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion. Focus was put on controlling the ignition timing, and changes in combustion behavior due to the ignition positions were observed on the basis of in-cylinder combustion visualization and pressure analysis. Experimental results showed that misfire occurred under a condition where the temperature rise time was short and combustion became unstable. In contrast, combustion was stable under a condition where the rise time was sufficiently long and autoignition developed along the cylinder wall. As a result, knocking intensity was reduced by stable combustion.
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Analysis of ethanol spray behavior into a Single Cylinder Optical Research Engine

Centro Federal de Educação Tecnológica de Minas Gerais-Márcio Expedito Guzzo, Rafael Lara Franco, Fernando Antonio Rodrigues Filho
Universidade Federal de Itajubá-Carlos Alberto Gomes Júnior, Roberto Berlini Rodrigues da Costa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0223
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The work focuses on studying ethanol spray behavior injected directly inside a spark ignited internal combustion engine in the compression stroke. An experimental procedure for measuring spray penetration and spray overall cone angle produced by a multi-hole direct injector was developed by means of computational codes written in Matlab environment for working with images of spray injections and to acquire calculated results in an automatic way. The shadowgraph technique with back continuous illumination associated with a high speed recording image process was used in a single cylinder optical research engine for acquiring images of Brazilian ethanol fuel injected at 120° before the top dead center of compression stroke. The process of spray injections occurred with engine speeds of 1000 rpm, 2000 rpm and 3000 rpm. The results showed that spray penetrations decrease and spray cone angle increase when the engine speed is raised. The rising pressure behavior in the compression stroke with the upward air flow induced by piston bowl ascendant movement possible decreased the rate of spray penetrations at the end of injections. In…
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Engine calibration and driveability evaluation of a racecar

Federal University of Santa Maria-Aleff Goulart, Alexandre Piccini, Alice Müller, Felipe Balbom, Mario Martins, Pedro Carvalho
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0126
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The passenger car automakers are always competing to excel in vehicle characteristics related to passenger comfort and driveability aspects. The engine calibration is a theoretical and experimental procedure with the intention to extract maximum efficiency from the engine and guarantee satisfactory levels of driving for both conventional and racing cars. This paper describes the calibration procedure of a Formula SAE race car engine. The engine was a four cylinder 600 cm3 four-strokes with modified intake and exhaust systems, controlled by an engine control unit (Motec M800 ECU). These engines present optimized characteristics for high speed, in exchange for some combustion degradation in some specific operating conditions at low speed that may impair vehicle driveability. Therefore, good tip-in reaction and the progression of the torque delivery are fundamental criteria to increase the vehicle performance, specially, to those submitted to short acceleration distances. The related criteria to the vehicle dynamic comfort has objective values to measure the abrupt engine speed transactions, jerks and acceleration variability related to torque variation. Improvement on such parameters can be obtained by…
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Design and optimization of the intake system of a Formula SAE race engine

Federal University of Santa Maria-Pedro Carvalho, Alexandre Piccini, Aleff Goulart, Felipe Balbom, Alice Müller, Thompson Lanzanova, Mario Martins
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0253
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Several motorsport competitions impose restrictions on intake systems to limit maximum engine power. Since the restriction interferes with the efficiency of the intake system as a whole, it is necessary to study ways to minimize the negative effect of changes in engine performance. In practice, the regulation imposes restrictions to the inlet air which motivates the search for the minimum pressure loss in the restrictor while maintaining an equal volumetric efficiency between the cylinders. This way, it is necessary to tune the duct lengths and diameters, and plenum volume to obtain the maximum volumetric efficiency in the most required speeds. Formula SAE competition imposes an intake system restriction of 20 mm or 19 mm diameter (for gasoline or ethanol fueled engines, respectively). Thus, to reduce pressure loss in the imposed restriction orifice, a system with a convergent divergent duct forming a venturi tube was used. This venturi was designed to maximize its discharge coefficient to increase engine volumetric efficiency. Considering that the focus of motorsport competitions is performance, this paper presents a method to minimize…
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Chemical kinetic mechanisms for HCCI combustion of wet ethanol with exhaust gas recirculation

Chemical Engineering Department – UFSM-Jean L. S. Fagundez, Nina P. G. Salau
Mechanical Engineering Department – UFSM-Filipe A. Herzer, Mario E. S. Martins
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0293
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
This work compares the accuracy of in-cylinder pressure and apparent heat release rate (AHRR) diagrams to the experimental data and the use of different chemical kinetics models applied to the GT-Power® software. The engine computational model is based on a naturally aspirated diesel engine with three cylinders, one of them modified to operate with hydrous ethanol with port fuel injection and HCCI combustion achieved with hot exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) of the Diesel cylinders. Operating points chosen to perform the comparison to experimental tests were 1800 rpm, 300 kPa of indicated mean effective pressure and fuels with 10% and 20% of water-in-ethanol by volume. The kinetic mechanisms for ethanol oxidation evaluated were the detailed NUI Galway and a Skeletal model based on it. With either model, cylinder pressure diagrams were not very different from the experimental values. The detailed mechanism was, on average, 9 times slower to process each case than the Skeletal mechanism. The quality of data obtained with the Skeletal mechanism and its lower computational cost makes it a good solution for a…
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