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Hypersonic flow simulation towards space propulsion geometries

Universidade Da Beira Interior-Odelma Teixeira, Jose Pascoa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1873
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
With the actual tendency of space exploration, hypersonic flight have gain a significant relevance, taking the attention of many researchers over the world. This work aims to present a numerical tool to solve hypersonic gas dynamic flows for space propulsion geometries. This will be done by validating the code using two well-known hypersonic test cases, the double cone and the hollow cylinder flare. These test cases are part of NATO Research and Technology Organization Working Group 10 validation of hypersonic flight for laminar viscous-inviscid interactions. During the validation process several important flow features of hypersonic flow are captured and compared with available CFD and numerical data. Special attention is taken to the phenomenon of vibrational excitation of the molecules. Different vibrational non-equilibrium models are used and compared with the available data. The pressure and the heat flux along the surfaces are also analyzed. The CFD simulation is conducted using an open-source CDF solver for hypersonic flows using the OpenFOAM framework. The two-temperature CFD solver, employing central-upwind interpolation schemes of Kurganov, Noelle e Petrova, hy2Foam, is…
 
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Measurement of Liquid Water Content for Supercooled Large Drop Conditions in the NRC’s Altitude Icing Wind Tunnel

National Research Council Canada-David M. Orchard, Catherine Clark, Gislain Chevrette
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
As a result of new regulations pertaining to the airworthiness of aircraft exposed to in-flight icing conditions where maximum water drop size is greater than 100 microns (referred to as Supercooled Large Droplet (SLD) conditions), updates are required to the test facilities and simulations that will enable manufactures to certify their products under these new rules. While a number of facilities report achieving some of the conditions specified in the new regulations, questions remain as to the suitability of the instrumentation used to measure the Liquid Water Content (LWC) and drop size distributions of the SLD icing cloud. This study aims to provide baseline LWC data through ice accretion measurement techniques on a NACA 0012 airfoil and rotating cylinders of varying diameters. This forms part of a collaborative effort between the NRC, NASA Glenn and the Italian Aerospace Research Centre (CIRA), to examine the suitability of current instruments in accurately measuring LWC in clouds where SLD conditions are present.Calculation of LWC’s from leading edge airfoil ice thickness measurements on the NACA 0012 airfoil were within…
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Numerical Demonstration of the Humidity Effect in Engine Icing

ANSYS Inc.-Yue Zhang, Isik Ozcer, Shezad Nilamdeen, Guido S. Baruzzi, Jeyatharsan Selvanayagam
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
The importance of the variation of relative humidity across turbomachinery engine components for in-flight icing is shown by numerical analysis. A species transport equation for vapor has been added to the existing CFD methodology for the simulation of ice growth and water flow on engine components that are subject to ice crystal icing. This entire system couples several partial differential equations that consider heat and mass transfer between droplets, crystals and air, adding the cooling of the air due to particle evaporation to the icing simulation, increasing the accuracy of the evaporative heat fluxes on wetted walls. Three validation cases are presented for the new methodology: the first one compares with the numerical results of droplets traveling inside an icing tunnel with an existing evaporation model proposed by the National Research Council of Canada (NRC). The second one compares humidity and the reduction in the outflow total temperature to the experimental data from NASA Glenn Research Center’s Propulsion Systems Laboratory (PSL). The third case shows that the vapor model improves our icing validation of the…
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Model Verification of CAE with NVH-Test Acting on Downsized Car Engines

NVH-testing Powertrain-Janos Ribarits
Volvo Cars, Engine Vibrations CAE-Urban Rönnqvist
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Today’s trend of combustion engine development for cars is characterized with; high torque, low engine speed, low weight, high degree of cyclic irregularity, low excitation frequency due to fewer cylinders active e.g. 4-cylinder or less.This implies in respect of vibrations that it is crucial to control powertrain rigid body modes and place these were they cannot be reached and induced by the low exciting harmonic frequencies for low engine speeds or idling. It is also important to control the overall flexible vibration modes.A mathematical CAE model is created in simulation software AVL-EXCITE in order to handle the vibration phenomenon as a first step. But it is absolutely necessary to “verify” these models with real measurements in respect of NVH and if needed upgrade the CAE model if there are detected deviations. The NVH-test is done with testing tool DEWESoft.The purpose of below paper is to do model verification on a concrete example in respect of powertrain vibrations. Volvo Cars in-line 4-cylinder VEA diesel engine in rig installation is the object for the paper of model…
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Use of Active Vibration Control to Improve Vehicle Refinement while Expanding the Usable Range of Cylinder Deactivation

FCA US LLC-Jeff Orzechowski, Gaurav Agnihotri, Vikas Juneja
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Cylinder deactivation has been in use for several years resulting in a sizable fuel economy advantage for V8-powered vehicles. The size of the fuel-economy benefit, compared to the full potential possible, is often limited due to the amount of usable torque available in four-cylinder-mode being capped by Noise, Vibration, and Harshness (NVH) sensitivities of various rear-wheel-drive vehicle architectures. This paper describes the application and optimization of active vibration absorbers as a system to attenuate vibration through several paths from the powertrain-driveline into the car body. The use of this strategy for attenuating vibration at strategic points is shown to diminish the need for reducing the powertrain source amplitude.This paper describes the process by which the strategic application of these devices is developed in order to achieve the increased usage of the most fuel efficient reduced-cylinder-count engine-operating-points.
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Why JLR is reviving the inline-six

Automotive Engineering: May 2019

Stuart Birch
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AUTP05_11
Published 2019-05-01 by SAE International in United States

The market may have been surprised by Jaguar Land Rover's decision to offer the latest Range Rover with an I-6 gasoline engine, but it's been on the company's development list since the Ingenium engine series was conceived more than eight years ago. With refinement a salient Range Rover selling point, it was determined the I-6 had sufficient advantages over a V6 (including manufacture) to tip the balance in its favor.

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Service Brake Structural Integrity Requirements—Truck and Bus

Truck and Bus Foundation Brake Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1404_201904
  • Current
Published 2019-04-24 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice presents requirements for the structural integrity of the brake system of all new trucks, buses, and combinations of vehicles designed for roadway use and falling into the following classifications: a Truck and Bus—Over 4500 kg (10 000 lb) GVWR b Combination Vehicles—Towing vehicle over 4500 kg (10 000 lb) GVWR The requirements are based on data obtained from SAE J294.
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Lift Capacity Calculation Method Scrap and Material Handlers

MTC C5, Excavators
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2518_201904
  • Current
Published 2019-04-15 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Standard provides a uniform method to calculate the lift capacity of scrap and material handlers, establishes definitions and specifies machine conditions for the calculations. This document applies to scrap and material handlers as defined in SAE J2506 that have a 360 degrees continuous rotating upper structure. It does not apply to equipment that is incapable of lifting a load completely off the ground. This document applies to those machines that are crawler, wheel, rail and pedestal or stationary mounted.
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Volumetric Rating of Excavator Mounted, Bucket Linkage Operated Grapples

MTC C5, Excavators
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2754_201904
  • Current
Published 2019-04-15 by SAE International in United States
No Abstract Available.
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Oxygen Cylinder Installation Guide

A-10 Aircraft Oxygen Equipment Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP5021B
  • Current
Published 2019-04-11 by SAE International in United States
This document provides guidance for oxygen cylinder installation on commerical aircraft based on airworthiness requirements, and methods practiced within aerospace industry. It covers considerations for oxygen systems from beginning of project phase up to production, maintenance, and servicing. The document is related to requirements of DOT-approved oxygen cylinders, as well to those designed and manufactured to standards of ISO 11119. However, its basic rules may also be applicable to new development pertaining to use of such equipment in an oxygen environment. For information regarding oxygen cylinders itself, also refer to AIR825/12.
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