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Energy Recovery Rate from an Electric Air-cycle System under the Cruising Altitude and Speed.

Akita University-Takahiro Adachi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1905
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
In this study, we focus on an electric air-cycle system in an electric aircraft, where the system has an electric compressor instead of a hydraulically-operated oil-based compressor. The electric compressor consumes the power to compress the rarefied air outside and take it in the system. The air goes through the air-cycle as a working fluid to exchange the heat and work. The main purpose of the air-cycle is to adjust the temperature and pressure in a cabin. Therefore, the working fluid of the air repeats compression and expansion. The working fluid passing through the cabin absorbs heat from the passengers and avionics. After that, the air is discharged outside with higher heat level and pressure levels. This means that the discharged air has a potential energy to recover the power consumption in the electric compressor. So, we have analytically estimated an energy recovery rate which is defined as a ratio of the potential energy of the discharged air to the energy consumption in the compressor, and shown the recovery rate under the condition of cruising…
 

Laser surface treatment machine for Ariane 6 Cryogenic Tanks

Electroimpact-Jeremy FERRER
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1897
To be published on 2019-09-16 by SAE International in United States
Surface treatment of cryogenic tanks (liquid oxygen and liquid hydrogen) for the Ariane 6 Space Launcher is a critical step for the adhesion of insulation materials. This operation is currently performed by the help of chemical products which are for some of them carcinogenic, mutagenic and repro-toxic. The large tank dimensions require using an important quantity of those products which generate massive recurring costs and health and environment problems. ArianeGroup has previously qualified and patented the Laser Surface Treatment as a replacement solution to chemical process. The aim is to use energy provided by infrared laser beam to modify the top layer of the tank surface. The chosen technology is Nd-YAG pulsed laser. Electroimpact has been chosen to carry out the industrial application. The main components of the laser system are a laser source, to generate the laser beam, an optic fiber to transport the beam and an optic with galvo mirrors to focus and move the laser on the part. The optic scan field is about 50 x 50mm, so it needs to be…
 
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Optimizing Cooling Fan Power Consumption for Improving Diesel Engine Fuel Efficiency Using CFD Technique

Tafe Motors and Tractor Ltd., India-Ajay Nain
  • Journal Article
  • 03-12-04-0024
Published 2019-06-11 by SAE International in United States
Fan cooling system of an air-cooled diesel engine is optimized using 3D CFD numerical simulation approach. The main objective of this article is to increase engine fuel efficiency by reducing fan power consumption. It is achieved by optimizing airflow rates and flow distribution over the engine surfaces to keep the maximum temperature of engine oil and engine surfaces well within the lubrication and material limit, respectively, at the expense of lower fan power. Based on basic fan laws, a bigger fan consumes lesser power for the same airflow rate as compared to a smaller fan, provided both fans have similar efficiency. Flow analysis is also conducted with the engine head and block modeled as solid medium and fan cooling system as fluid domain. Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes turbulence (RANS) equations were solved to get the flow field inside the cooling system and on the engine liner fins. The Moving Reference Frame approach was used for simulating the rotation of a fan. Cowl geometry was modified for providing better guidance to flow over engine surfaces and to get…
 
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Creation of an Icephobic Coating using Graphite Powder and PTFE Nanoparticles

University of Notre Dame-Joseph Gonzales, Hirotaka Sakaue
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Ice accretion can cause numerous inefficiencies, structural stresses, and failures in applications ranging from building design to power generation and aerospace applications. Currently, some of the leading de-icing technologies, such as the ICE-WIPS system, utilize a heating element coupled with a superhydrophobic surface. The high power consumption inherent in these systems can make them expensive and impractical, especially when coupled with power generating systems. Reduced power consumption in these de-icing technologies can be achieved through increased absorption of solar radiation in the visible range while maintaining hydrophobic performance of a coating. In this work, a Polytetrafluorethylene (PTFE) and graphite-based superhydrophobic surface is proposed, which maintains similar hydrophobic performance to standard superhydrophobic surfaces. The novel coating demonstrates contact angles of upwards of 130o and sliding angles of less than 4o, while increasing solar radiation absorption in the visible range by approximately 139% over PTFE-based hydrophobic coatings. Icing wind tunnel tests where the coatings were exposed to visible light in order to simulate solar radiation were performed in a variety of different conditions in order to verify…
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A Novel Heating-Coating Hybrid Strategy for Wind Turbine Icing Mitigation

Iowa State University-Linyue Gao, Liqun Ma, Yang Liu, Hui Hu
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
The electro-thermal method is most commonly used for wind turbine anti-/de-icing. The upmost drawback of such systems is the high power consumption. In the present study, we proposed to use a durable slippery liquid-infused porous surface (SLIPS) to effectively reduce the power requirement of the heating element during the anti-/de-icing process. The explorative study was conducted in the Icing Research Tunnel at Iowa State University (ISU-IRT) with a DU91-W2-250 wind turbine blade model exposed under severe icing conditions. During the experiments, while a high-speed imaging system was used to record the dynamic ice accretion process, an infrared (IR) thermal imaging system was also utilized to achieve the simultaneous surface temperature measurements over the test model. In comparison to the traditional electrical heating strategies to brutally heat massive area of entire turbine blades, a novel heating-coating hybrid strategy, i.e., combining a leading-edge (LE) heating element to cover the first 30% of the chord length (C) along with using SLIPS to coat entire blade surface, was found to be able to keep the entire blade surface completely…
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Advanced Nanocomposite Low Adhesion Icephobic Coating for Aerospace Applications

Oceanit Laboratories Inc.-Vinod Veedu, Sumil Thapa, Ganesh Kumar Arumugam
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Icing is a major safety issue for flight operations in the civil, defense and space sectors. Ice can form on critical components during takeoff/landing, or while in service, depending on prevailing weather conditions. Aircraft manufacturers relies on two different approaches to prevent ice buildup using an active anti-icing system to melt ice buildup or deicing chemicals/ice repellent surface to minimize the buildup ice. The use of active anti-icing systems offers good protection, however can add significant penalty to overall weight, energy consumption and cost. Aerospace industry is in need for an advanced ice repellent surface to effectively minimize ice buildup on critical components with no modification to existing design can provide significant relief to ice prone systems. In this paper, Oceanit will present its most advanced nanocomposite low ice adhesion icephobic coating technology that was developed and demonstrated for application on metallic surfaces to provide the lowest ice adhesion to significantly reduce ice buildup. Oceanit’s advanced icephobic coating was tested to be one of the lowest ice adhering coating (ice adhesion strength = 5.1kPa) ever…
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An Experimental Study to Evaluate Hydro-/Ice-Phobic Coatings for Icing Mitigation over Rotating Aero-engine Fan Blades

Iowa State University-Linchuan Tian, Yang Liu, Linkai Li, Hui Hu
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Ice accretion on aero-engines, especially on the fan blades, is the very hazardous icing incident due to the potential performance degradation of jet-engines. In the present study, an experimental investigation was conducted to examine the performance of ice-phobic coatings for jet-engine fan icing mitigation. The experimental study was performed in the unique Icing Research Tunnel at Iowa State University (ISU-IRT) with a scaled engine fan model operated under wet glaze and dry rime ice conditions. To evaluate the effects of anti-icing coatings and to acquire the important details of ice accretion and shedding process on fan blade surfaces, a “phase-locked” imaging technique was applied with a high-resolution imaging system. The power input required to drive the engine fan model rotating at a constant prescribed speed was also measured during the ice accretion experiment. It was found that both super-hydrophobic surface (SHS) and ice-phobic coating have its advantage in engine anti-icing. SHS facilitated the blades surface with much less ice, under both glaze icing and rime icing conditions, while ice-phobic coating prevents the large ice chunk…
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Electromechanical Resonant Ice Protection Systems: How to Favour Fractures Propagation

INSA Toulouse-Marc Budinger
ISAE-SUPAERO-Pierrick Rouset, Valérie Pommier-Budinger
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Many researches focus on piezoelectric ice protection systems with the objectives to develop light and low consumption resonant electromechanical systems for de-icing. These systems use the vibrations generated by piezoelectric actuators at resonance frequencies to produce shear stress at the interface between the ice and the support or to produce tensile stress in the ice. This article presents experimental results of de-icing tests performed with resonant piezoelectric systems that generate amplitudes of vibrations to exceed ice tensile strength or ice/support adhesive shear strength. The tests show that fractures are initiated but that the ice is not always completely detached. A methodology based on the energy release rate is presented to enable a better understanding of fractures initiation and propagation. The last section part of the article is dedicated to the study of a substrate made of a sandwich structure with a honeycomb panel in order to maximize fractures propagation while minimizing energy consumption.
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Towards a Quiet Vehicle Cabin Through Digitalization of HVAC Systems and Subsystems Aeroacoustics Testing and Design

Dassault Systèmes SIMULIA-Vincent Vidal, Adrien Mann, Jonas Verriere, Minsuk Kim
Valeo Thermal Systems-Fabrice Ailloud, Manuel Henner, Olivier Cheriaux
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
With the rise of electric autonomous vehicles, it has become clear that the cabin of tomorrow will drastically evolve to both improve ride experience and reduce energy consumption. In addition, autonomy will change the transportation paradigm, leading to a reinvention of the cabin seating layout which will offer the opportunity to climate systems team to design quiet and even more energy efficient systems.Consequently, Heat and Ventilation Air Conditioning (HVAC) systems designers have to deliver products which perform acoustically better than before, but often with less development time. To success under such constraints, designers need access to methods providing both assessment of the system (or subsystems) acoustic performance, and identification of where the designs need to be improved to reduce noise levels. Such methods are often needed before a physical prototype is requested, and thus can only be achieved in a timely manner through digital testing. Previous studies have demonstrated the ability of a CFD/CAA approach based on the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM) to predict HVAC system noise including real and complex ducts, registers, mixing unit…
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Improved Directed Flux Motor

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34617
Published 2019-06-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Electromagnetic motors typically convert electrical energy into rotational mechanical energy and are employed across a wide array of applications. While motors represent relatively mature technology, practitioners continue to seek ways to enhance motor operation including a decrease in cost, drop in size/weight, reduction in power consumption, increase in reliability, and enhanced degrees of freedom (i.e., the number of ways a machine can move within three-dimensional space).