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PHEV Real World Driving Cycle and Energy and Fuel Consumption Reduction Potential for Connected and Automated Vehicles

Michigan Technological Univ.-Darrell Robinette, Eric Kostreva, Alexandra Krisztian, Anthony Lackey, Christopher Morgan, Joshua Orlando, Neeraj Rama
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0307
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents real world driving energy and fuel consumption results for the second-generation Chevrolet Volt plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV). A drive cycle, local to Michigan Technological University, was designed to mimic urban and highway driving test cycles in terms of distance, transients and average velocity, but with significant elevation changes to establish an energy intensive real world driving cycle for assessing potential energy savings for connected and automated vehicle control. The investigation began by establishing baseline and repeatability of energy consumption at various battery states of charges. It was determined that drive cycle energy consumption under a randomized set of boundary conditions varied within 3.4% of mean energy consumption regardless of initial battery state of charge. After completing 30 baseline drive cycles, a design for six sigma (DFSS) L18 array was designed to look at sensitivity of a range of parameters to energy consumption as related to connected and automated vehicles to target highest return on engineering development effort. The parameters explored in the DFSS array that showed the most sensitivity, in order…

Analysis of Passive Low Power Phase Change Heat Dissipation Method for Electric Vehicle Motor

Suizhou-WUT Industry Research Institute-Gangfeng Tan
Wuhan Univ. of Technology-Shiping Huang, Yishi Wang, Jianjie Kuang, Jiakang Quan, Xiaofei Ma
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1256
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The electric vehicle motor is developing toward high power density, at the same time brings serious temperature rise problem, which affect the motor performance, efficiency, and useful life. Liquid cooling is usually used to solve the problem, but it’s energy consumption is large and the reliability is poor. In order to solve above problems, a heat dissipation method based on a heat pipe is proposed, and the heat pipe cold end is cooled by vehicle facing the wind. The purpose is to improve the reliability and energy efficiency of the motor thermal management system under the condition of ensuring the normal temperature of the motor. Firstly, the motor heating model is established to analyze the position of the high temperature region when the motor is working, and the influence of the motor speed and torque on the temperature rise of the motor. Then the heat transfer model between the motor winding and the heat pipe cold end is established, and the influence of the working condition change of the heat pipe hot and cold end…

Research on Key Factors for Range and Energy Consumption of Electric Vehicles

Chongqing Changan New Energy Auto Co.Ltd-Chen Zhao, Guan Gong, Cheng Yu, Ying Liu, Shu Zhong, Yanxing song, Chenghao Deng, Anjian Zhou, Honglu Ye
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0723
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Investigations have been carried out to examine the potential to optimize the energy consumption and drive range of the Electric Vehicles (EV). Theoretically, the energy consumption is strongly influenced by system efficiency, coasting resistance and energy recovery technology. In this paper, these three aspects have been studied in detail through both simulation tool and experimental test. Research has been conducted on a Changan sedan EV to explore the influence of each factor on the energy consumption and drive range. The most paramount factor is the vehicle coasting resistance, followed by the power-train system efficiency. To reduce the coasting resistance, interests can be drawn to the application of tire with low resistance coefficient, low friction brake clamp and the modification of vehicle styling. The drive-train efficiency includes the motor efficiency, inverter efficiency and the gearbox efficiency. Interestingly, the effect of energy recovery technology is sensitive to the driving conditions. The I-pedal technology which can supply deceleration up to 0.2g has little influence over NEDC but can extend the range over real-world driving by up to 10%…

Analysis of Power Pack for Autonomous Underwater Vehicle: Potential of Super-critical Carbon-Dioxide Brayton Power Cycle

Mech. Engg. Deptt. NIT Jamshedpur, INDIA-Anand Shankar Singh, MD WASIM AKRAM, Prashant Kumar, Sanjay S
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1260
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Autonomous vehicles are being designed to operate on land, air as well as underwater. The autonomous-underwater-vehicles (AUV) have off late caught the attention of various developers .These AUV can be designed to be small, efficient and more productive. These autonomous-underwater vehicles can utilize a variety of power packs as a source of power. Amongst the various options available to power the AUV, new source of power is being proposed in this article. The proposed power pack is based on super-critical CO2 cycle which can be selectively sized to meet the requirements of AUV of various capabilities. As per literature theoretically the source of heat for this cycle may be solar, nuclear or fossil fuel. Keeping in mind the intended application a micro nuclear reactor of 150KW capacity is planned to be used as the source of heat for super-critical CO2 cycle. A nuclear reactor has also been chosen, keeping in mind the range it will provide to the proposed AUV. By the use of nuclear energy as a source of power, the endurance and range…

Features of modeling of processes of thermal preparation of the transport engine on the basis of thermal accumulators of a phase transition

Belarusian National Technical University-Heorgi Kukharonak
Donbassnation.acad.of civil eng. arch-Valery Aleksandrov
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0906
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The utilization of different types of energy in phase-transitional thermal accumulators and its further use for thermal development of different subsystems of hybrid vehicles enables to significantly increase their operational efficiency. The system of the combined utilization of thermal and electrical energy in phase-transitional thermal accumulators (TA) is offered. To charge TA, it uses thermal energy of exhaust gas, a coolant and motor oil of the internal combustion engine and electrical energy which is utilized by energy recovery system when braking the vehicle. It consists of consecutive stages of heat accumulation when charging TA from different energy sources of the hybrid vehicle, its storage and use for rapid heating of vehicle separate subsystems. The main heat and power characteristics of system components and heat accumulating materials used in phase-transitional TA have been justified. Schemes and designs of a physical model to utilize electrical energy using high-capacity condensers for charging phase-transitional TA have been offered. The results of experimental and computational studies show theoretical comparison of the main indicators of the developed system in charging phase…

The 6-inlet Single Stage Axial Turbine Concept for Pulse-Turbocharging: A Numerical Investigation

Scania CV AB-Nicholas Anton, Per Birkestad
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0323
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The demand for high-efficiency engines has never been greater as energy consumption and emission reductions are key components for continued competitiveness in today’s transportation industry. A main contributor to recent and future improvement of the internal combustion engine is the gas exchange process. By utilizing the exhaust energy in the turbine stage of an exhaust turbocharger, the pumping work can be improved resulting in significant gains of engine system efficiency. Two main aspects can be identified with regards to the turbine design that are crucial: The level of exhaust pulse separation and turbine efficiency at high pressure ratios. For a pulse-turbocharged engine both aspects need to be considered in order to gain full benefit of the exhaust energy utilization process. In this study, a novel axial turbine stage concept with divided inlets is considered. The turbine stage is part of a prototype turbocharger for a performance-optimized Scania 13 liter heavy-duty diesel engine with focus on exhaust energy utilization. The concept design makes it possible to combine both high efficiency levels and pulse separation. At “on-engine”…

Evaluating a Heavy-duty Truck Climate Control System using Thermal Comfort-focused Testing and Simulation Techniques

ThermoAnalytics Inc.-Mark Hepokoski, Steven Patterson, Allen Curran
Volvo Trucks North America-Steven Adelman, Miguel Javier
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0696
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The design of efficient vehicle climate control systems involves reconciling two competing objectives: Maximizing the thermal comfort of occupants while simultaneously reducing the vehicle’s energy usage. Given the energy expenditure of traditional HVAC systems, efforts have been directed toward reducing their weight and power requirements. Consequently, vehicle manufacturers are increasingly investigating the use of thermal comfort as a design metric, rather than air temperature, which requires heating or cooling of the entire cabin air volume. Thermal comfort-focused technologies, such as localized heating and cooling strategies, have the potential to elicit favourable subjective responses to thermal environments even when the ambient air temperature in the cabin would otherwise fall outside of established acceptability guidelines. These technologies can be especially relevant for heavy-duty truck manufacturers since the cabin is relatively large, with an HVAC system sized accordingly, and often occupied by a single driver for long durations. Thermal comfort-focused testing and simulation techniques previously employed for automobiles have been applied to scenarios involving heavy-duty trucks. A set of human subjects and a test system comprised of a…

HyPACE – Hybrid Petrol Advanced Combustion Engine – Advanced Boosting System for Extended Stoichiometric Operation and Improved Dynamic Response

BorgWarner Turbo Systems-Andrew Taylor
Jaguar Land Rover-Jonathan Hartland, James Harris
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0325
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The HyPACE (Hybrid Petrol Advanced Combustion Engine) project is a part UK government funded research project established to develop a high thermal efficiency petrol engine optimised for hybrid vehicle applications. The project combines the capabilities of a number of partners (Jaguar Land Rover, Borg Warner, MAHLE Powertrain, Johnson Matthey, Cambustion and Oxford University) with the target of achieving a 10% vehicle fuel consumption reduction, whilst still achieving a 90 to 100 kW/litre power rating through the novel application of a combination of new technologies. The donor engine for the project was Jaguar Land Rover’s new Ingenium 4-cylinder petrol engine which includes an advanced continuously variable intake valve actuation mechanism. The new HyPACE boosting system utilises a Borg Warner 48V eTurbo™ featuring a variable geometry turbine which enables the capability to both provide electrical assistance, to improve dynamic response when required, as well as being able to utilise waste exhaust gas energy to generate electricity. This paper presents results from a testing programme which demonstrates the capability of the new boosting system to extend the stoichiometric…

Analysis and Research on Vibration Characteristics of Reclaiming Energy Suspension Based on Adjustable Load

Chongqing University-Zheng Ling, Wu Hang
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0453
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Wheel-side drive electric vehicle is electric vehicle that uses wheel motor to drive wheel directly. Because of the introduction of the hub motor, the quality of the vehicle's non-spring load increases obviously, not only affects the ride comfort, but also reduces the driving safety. Active suspension can significantly improve overall vehicle performance, but high energy consumption has been one of the main factors restricting its promotion in the market. The use of an electromagnetic linear motor as the actuator of the active suspension provides an opportunity for this contradictory solution. Using the principle of electromagnetic induction, the linear motor can transform the vibration energy of the vehicle into the electricity that can be directly used by the vehicle, and realize the purpose of improving the vehicle performance while reducing the energy consumption. In order to realize that purpose, a dynamic model of vehicle vertical 7-DOF active suspension is established in this paper. Based on optimal control theory, a load adjustable reclaiming energy suspension controller is designed. The relevant parameters of suspension are optimized by particle…

Full Protection Scheme and Energy Optimization Management of the Battery in Internal Combustion Engine Vehicles Based on Power Partitioning Model

Yongsheng Wang
Tsinghua Univ-Yugong Luo, Yunlong Qi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-1205
To be published on 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
As the only energy storage component in the internal combustion engine vehicles (ICEVs), the battery is lack of comprehensive supervision and effective protection. Excessive discharge or aging cannot be detected and dealt with, which may lead to damage of the battery, even startup failure of the vehicle. In this paper, a full protection and optimization management scheme of the battery is proposed, to achieve comprehensive protection of the battery and energy optimization. Firstly, power partitioning model of the battery is established to reveal the battery characteristics in different states, which divides the battery into several function zones. Then, based on the power partitioning model, over discharge protection and graded overcurrent protection method are proposed, to achieve full protection of the battery. Thirdly, energy optimization management strategy based on generator’s multimode operation is introduced. Finally, to verify the validity and feasibility of the proposed method, tests are performed on the vehicle and test bench. The results reveal that overcurrent protection and over discharge protection of the battery is achieved, and the vehicle start-up capability is assured.…