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Identification of Automotive Cabin Design Parameters to Increase Electric Vehicles Range, Coupling CFD-Thermal Analyses with Design for Six Sigma Approach

FCA ITALY S.p.A.-Andrea Alessandro Piovano, Giuseppe Scantamburlo, Massimo Quaglino, Matteo Gautero
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0032
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
The ongoing global demand for greater energy efficiency plays an essential role in the vehicle development, especially in case of electric vehicles (EVs). The thermal management of the full vehicle is becoming increasingly important, since the Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) system has a significant impact on the EV range. Therefore the EV design requires new guidelines for thermal management optimization. In this paper, an advanced method is proposed to identify the most influential cabin design factors which affect the cabin thermal behavior during a cool down drive cycle in hot environmental conditions. These parameters could be optimized to reduce the energy consumption and to increase the robustness of the vehicle thermal response. The structured Taguchi’s Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) approach was coupled with CFD-Thermal FE simulations, thanks to increased availability of HPC. The first control factors selected were related to the thermal capacity of panel duct, dashboard, interior door panels and seats. Surface IR emissivity and solar radiation absorptivity of these components were then added to the study. Car glass with absorptive…
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On-Board Post-Combustion CO2 Capture in Light-Duty and Heavy-Duty transport

Politecnico di Milano-Davide Bonalumi, Stefano Campanari
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0012
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
The European Union set the CO2 emission limit in the transport sector that will decrease in the next years. The purpose of this work is to assess through technical analysis, a system that captures part of the CO2 from the exhaust gases of duty vehicles. Two distinct categories of vehicles are considered, those with a mass lower than 3.5 tons and those with a higher mass. For the light-duty category, the analysis is developed estimating the consumptions and emissions based on the WLTP homologation cycle by means of the software Excel. For the heavy-duty category, the consumptions and the emissions are determined by means of the software specifically developed by the European Union for heavy-duty vehicles named VECTO (Vehicle Energy Consumption calculation Tool). From a literature review, different technologies are considered. The most suitable technology is selected. A possible way is based on the adsorption through the metal-organic framework (MOF). A dedicated review to select the most promising material indicates which can assure the best performance. The performances are evaluated based on the features of…
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Pixelated-LEDs Car Headlight Design for Smart Driving and CO2 Reduced Emissions.

University of Versailles-Sidahmed Beddar, Jean-Baptiste Millet, Yasser Alayli
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0018
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
The advent of Electroluminescent Diode (LED) technologies has been one of the major sources of energy reduction in the domestic lighting sector as well as in the automotive and aerospace fields. In vehicles, the use of LEDs allows a reduction of 110W to 40W useful for the function Dipped-beam is a gain of about 350W in energy consumption of the vehicle with a combustion engine (from 2 to 5g of CO2 per kilometer). In 2010, Adaptive Dipped Beam (ADB (also called glare-free high beam) appeared. The objective of the ADB is to adapt the beam to the presence of vehicles in both directions to improve the driver's long-range visibility without causing discomfort, distraction or glare to other road users. The ADB is a lighting function with high added value in terms of comfort and road safety. The new lighting technologies make this function more and more efficient and effective with a resolution and the number of pixels that increases Pixelated LEDs, by offering various advantages over other architectures, are gaining market shares. They are more…
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A Theoretical and Experimental Analysis of the Coulomb Counting Method and Estimation of the Electrified-Vehicles Electricity Balance Over the WLTP

European Commission Joint Research-Alessandro Tansini, Georgios Fontaras
Politecnico di Torino-Federico Millo
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0020
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
The energy storage devices of electrified vehicles (Hybrid Electric Vehicles and Battery Electric Vehicles) are required to operate with highly dynamic current and power outputs, both for charging and discharging operation. When calculating the vehicle CO2 emissions and electrical energy consumption from a trip, the change in electrical energy content at vehicle-level has to be accounted for. This quantity, referred to as the electricity balance in the WLTP regulation, is normally obtained through a time-integration of the current or power supplied by the vehicle batteries during operation and the efficiency factor is often assumed to be unitary (as in the official type-approval procedure). The Joint Research Centre has collected experimental data from different electrified vehicles with regards to electrical energy use and battery State Of Charge (SOC) profile; the latter was used as a reference to quantify the actual vehicle electricity balance from a trip or driving cycle. In this work, the approach of using a simple Coulomb counting method with unitary efficiency for charging and discharging for the quantification of the vehicle electricity balance…
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Natural Gas: Meeting CO2 Emission Targets Here and Now

Westport Fuel Systems-David Mumford
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-37-0024
To be published on 2020-06-23 by SAE International in United States
Global energy consumption trends are running counter to the need to rapidly and drastically reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The increasing demand for energy and associated growth in emissions means that we must deploy market-ready, commercially-available solutions now. Europe’s recently enacted heavy-duty CO2 regulations require truck OEMs to achieve a fleet average CO2 reduction of 15% (by 2025) and 30% (2030) from the 2019 industry baseline, with significant fines for missing these targets. OEMs are under considerable pressure to abandon the internal combustion engine (ICE) and move toward fuel cells and battery electric solutions. This drive away from ICEs has gathered considerable momentum, but also misses the short term reality – the infrastructure and overwhelming mass of existing product is built on the ICE, and it will take time and considerable investment to replace. In the automotive sector, the path to electric vehicles is already starting to evolve, however cost-competitive, commercially available production solutions are still in their infancy for the commercial heavy-duty trucking sector. This paper will focus on alternative fuel options for heavy-duty…
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Innovative Rear Air Blower Design Application for Improving Cabin Thermal Comfort with improved Air Distribution and Air Quality.

Subros Ltd-Ravi Garg, Suraj maske, Yogendra Singh Kushwah
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-28-0034
To be published on 2020-04-30 by SAE International in United States
In recent times, overall thermal comfort and air quality requirement have increased for vehicle cabin by multifold. To achieve increased thermal comfort requirements, multiple design innovation has happened to improve HVAC performance. Most of the advance and add on features like Multizone HVAC, dedicated rear HVAC, Automatic climate control, Advance Air filters, and Ionizers etc lead to increase in cost, power consumption, weight, and integration issues. Besides this in the vehicle with only front HVAC, airflow is not enough to meet rear side comfort for many cars in the B/C/SUV segment. This study aims to analyze the various parameters responsible for human thermal comfort inside a car with the focus on lightweight, low power consumption, compact Rear Blower to make passengers more comfortable by providing optimum airflow inline of mean radiant temperatures and cabin air temperature. The new design of Rear blower external surfaces has a set of air modifier surfaces in the direction of flow outlet. The second set of air modifier surfaces & an air deflator portion provided just upstream of outlet portion.…
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Refrigerant Valves in AC- and Heat Pump systems for Electric Vehicles

Otto Egelhof GmbH & Co. KG-Eike Willers
Otto Egelhof GmbH&Co. KG-Stephan Wild
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-28-0038
To be published on 2020-04-30 by SAE International in United States
Abstract The Thermal Management of Electric Vehicles differs strongly from the Thermal Management in IC engine driven vehicles. The Air Conditioning Circuit itself has comparable requirements, however, the electric components and their properties lead to new architectures. Essential is at least a chiller for the conditioning of the battery, which needs to be cooled down to the range of summer ambient temperatures. The respective control devices need to fulfill different basic requirements - Small package - Lightweight - Low noise - Low energy consumption - High control accuracy to play an important role in the Refrigeration architecture of Electric and Hybrid Vehicles. For conventional systems, optimization of package and weight will be achieved by a 75g TXV with a 28 mm thermal head. As soon as a battery also has to be cooled, Shut-Off valves will be implemented in the system in order to manage the respective heat loads according to the needs. For some system configurations, it is important to have a precise electronic control, which is not following the usually fixed superheat characteristic…
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UDM Tip Temperature Control using Thermosyphon Principle

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Samson Solomon, Rajesh Thiyagarajan, Parvej Khan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-28-0040
To be published on 2020-04-30 by SAE International in United States
In today’s automobile industry where BS6 is posing a high challenge and with limited timeline. The main target is to provide the cooling system to have less impact on the in terms of cost, weight and meeting challenging engineering requirement. Thus, the frugal engineering comes into the picture. An important technology that has come into highlight in recent years is the application of thermosyphon principle for UDM injector cooling thereby reducing the rotation parts and power consumption such as an electric pump. Thermosyphon is a method of passive heat exchange and is based on natural convection, which circulates a fluid without the necessity of a mechanical or electric pump. The natural convection of the liquid commences when heat transfer to the liquid gives rise to a temperature difference from one side of the loop to the other. The Flow through the UDM is maintained by changing Temperature (hence density) of the fluid at one end using the force airflow. The main objective of the UDM cooling is to keep the UDM tip temperature below 120…
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Thermal management of electrified vehicle by means of system simulation

Gamma Technologies, LLC-Sanket Shah, Dig Vijay, Marek Lehocky
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-28-0033
To be published on 2020-04-30 by SAE International in United States
With an objective of improving the range as well as other safety and comfort aspects, thermal management becomes increasingly important in the development of electrified vehicles both at the component as well as system level. The considerable increase in complexity of the thermal management system and its tighter interactions with the complete vehicle is driving an increasing trend towards system simulation compared to expensive testing. At the system level, different sub-systems interact with each other at varying extents. An example of one such strong interaction is between the coolant and AC circuits using battery chillers. Thermal management system simulation models must be capable of running such interactive systems. At the component level, ensuring the efficacy of the several components used in these intricately linked systems becomes increasingly important. An accurate prediction of temperature distribution inside the battery pack is essential to avoid damaging situations such as thermal runaway. An integrated approach of 1D-flow inside the cooling plates combined with 3D-thermal analysis of battery cells and cooling plates in GT-SUITE is described in this study. Also,…
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Application of Phase Change Materials (PCM) for reducing cabin heat load

Tata Motors Ltd-Mayank Manoj Dubey, Suresh Tadigadapa, Abhijit DUBE, Ankit Shukla, Anurag Maurya, Y.S.Sarath Reddy
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-28-0037
To be published on 2020-04-30 by SAE International in United States
In regions like Indian Subcontinent, Gulf or Saharan & Sub-Saharan Africa, where the sunshine is abundant almost all year round, air-conditioning is an important aspect of vehicles (passenger cars, buses etc). Higher heat means higher cooling demand which means bigger AC system which in turn. Now AC compressor is a parasitic load on the engine like other auxiliaries. Upcoming emission norms will result in more stringent constraints on the power that can be made available to auxiliaries by engine. Moreover, one of the most frequent customer complaint in JD Power rating survey results of passenger vehicles is "AC cooling not fast enough". Hence, the proposed idea suggests a way reduce the air conditioning power consumption, without compromising on the cool-down performance by eliminating the heat load source itself. The best way to beat the heat and reduce cabin heat load is the stop the heat build-up itself. The present paper explores one such mean of reducing cabin heat build-up by leveraging latent heat properties of phase change materials and thus improving the air condition performance.With…