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Use of Butanol Blend Fuels on Diesel Engines - Effects on Combustion and Emissions

Berner Fachhochschule TI AFHB-Danilo Engelmann
University of Applied Sciences, Biel-Bienne-Jan Czerwinski, Hervé Nauroy lng, Pierre Comte, Andreas Hüssy lng
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0333
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Butanol, a four-carbon alcohol, is considered in the last years as an interesting alternative fuel, both for Diesel and for gasoline application. Its advantages for engine operation are: good miscibility with gasoline and diesel fuels, higher calorific value than ethanol, lower hygroscopicity, lower corrosivity and possibility of replacing aviation fuels. Like ethanol, butanol can be produced as a biomass-based renewable fuel or from fossil sources.In the research project, DiBut (Diesel and butanol) addition of butanol to Diesel fuel was investigated from the points of view of engine combustion and of influences on exhaust aftertreatment systems and emissions. One investigated engine (E1) was with emission class “EU Stage 3A” for construction machines, another one, engine (E2) was HD Euro VI.The most important findings are: with higher butanol content, there is a lower heat value of the fuel and there is lower torque at full load. With Bu30 the conversion rates of CO and HC in the oxidation catalyst (DOC) are slightly lower, light-off temperatures are a little higher and NO2 production is lower. The PM-emissions with…
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Los Alamos High-Energy Neutron Testing Handbook

Honeywell Aerospace-Laura Dominik
Los Alamos National Laboratory-Steve Wender
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0054
Published 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
The purpose of the Los Alamos High-Energy Neutron Testing Handbook is to provide user information and guidelines for testing Integrated Circuits (IC) and electronic systems at the Irradiation of Chips and Electronics (ICE) Houses at the Los Alamos Neutron Science Center (LANSCE) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Microelectronic technology is constantly advancing to higher density, faster devices and lower voltages. These factors may increase device susceptibility to radiation effects. The high-energy neutron source at LANSCE/LANL provides the capability for accelerated neutron testing of semiconductor devices and electronic systems and to simulate effects in various neutron environments.
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User’s Manual for Certification of Aircraft Electrical/Electronic Systems for the Indirect Effects of Lightning

AE-2 Lightning Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP5415B
  • Current
Published 2020-03-05 by SAE International in United States
This ARP provides detailed information, guidance, and methods in support of the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) Advisory Circular (AC) 20-136. AC 20-136 provides a means, but not the only means, for demonstrating compliance with Title 14 of the Code of Federal Regulations (14 CFR) 23.1306 (Amendment 23-61), 23.2515 (Amendment 23-64), 25.1316, 27.1316, and 29.1316. It is also intended for this ARP to provide the same information, guidance, and methods, to the European Aviation Safety Agency (EASA) certification specifications CS 23.1306 (Amendment 23/4), 23.2515 (Amendment 23/5), 25.1316, 27.1316, and 29.1316, and associated Acceptable Means of Compliance (AMC) 20-136. This ARP provides references relevant to identifying: (1) acceptance criteria for the indirect effects of lightning compliance approaches, (2) verification (analysis and test) methods including those associated with multiple stroke and multiple burst, (3) recommended design options to optimize needed system immunity to lightning indirect effects, and (4) provide guidance in the areas of continued airworthiness of the lightning protection. Equipment hazards due to the indirect effects on equipment mounted on the aircraft exterior, equipment located within the…
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Electronic Engine Control Design Guide for Electromagnetic Environmental Effects

E-36 Electronic Engine Controls Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR5060B
  • Current
Published 2020-02-26 by SAE International in United States
The purpose of this document is to provide reference material for establishing compatibility of electronic gas turbine engine control systems and associated components with the electromagnetic environment and achieving compliance with associated airworthiness requirements.
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Heterogeneous Integration Technology

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-36070
Published 2020-02-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

By definition, “heterogeneous integration” (HI) refers to the integration of dissimilar components on a common platform. The term is extensively used in very diverse applications to encompass efforts to make previously separate functions operate together by an intimate fusion of components. It can mean a seamless integration of previously incompatible software, database, drugs or machine parts. The particular definition that applies here is the integration of dissimilar sensor components onto a common substrate to make new compact components that provide enhanced characteristics.

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Terminal Junction System (TJS), Environment Resistant General Specification For

AE-8C2 Terminating Devices and Tooling Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS81714C
  • Current
Published 2020-01-31 by SAE International in United States
AS81714 covers Terminal Junction System (TJS) components which are used for interconnection of wiring and incorporation of passive components (see 6.1). These environment resistant components have in common the use of crimp type external pin contacts in accordance with AS39029/1 for Series I or crimp type external socket contacts in accordance with AS39029/22 for Series II. This family of TJS components is designed to operate continuously over a temperature range of -65 to 200 °C, using any combination of temperatures generated by the electrical load and ambient temperature so that the maximum internal hot spot, combined temperature, will not exceed the maximum specified for the class of TJS component, unless otherwise specified (1.2, 3.1). The maximum continuous temperature established by the electronic components in a component module (block) shall be limited to the block maximum continuous temperature. The components making up the system and covered by AS81714 include: a Terminal junction bussing blocks (6.12.2) 1 Feedback type (6.12.2.1) 2 Feedthrough type (6.12.2.2) b Racks (mounting holders) for blocks (6.12.3) c Brackets, block mounting (6.12.4) d…
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Design and Handling Guide Radio Frequency Absorptive Type Wire and Cables (Filter Line, AS85485)

AE-8A Elec Wiring and Fiber Optic Interconnect Sys Install
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR4465A
  • Current
Published 2020-01-31 by SAE International in United States
This document presents design and application information which will allow optimized utilization of filter line wire and cable purchased to AS85485. Filter line wire is defined and design information is presented. The electrical and mechanical performance characteristics of the wire, along with recommended harnessing methods and techniques, are also presented.
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Composite Electrical Connectors

AE-8C1 Connectors Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AIR4567B
  • Current
Published 2020-01-21 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Information Report (AIR) establishes guidelines for evaluating composite electrical connectors and accessories.
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Control Strategy for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Based on Online Driving Pattern Classification

SAE International Journal of Alternative Powertrains

University of Alabama, USA-Zhengyu Yao, Hwan-Sik Yoon
  • Journal Article
  • 08-08-02-0006
Published 2019-12-04 by SAE International in United States
Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) are gaining popularity these days mainly due to their high fuel economy. While conventional HEV controllers can be classified into rule-based control and optimization-based control, most of the production vehicles employ rule-based control due to their reliability. However, once the rule is optimized for a given driving pattern, it is not necessarily optimal for other driving patterns. In order to further improve fuel economy for HEVs, this article investigates the feasibility of optimizing control algorithm for different driving patterns so that the vehicle maintains a high level of optimality regardless of the driving patterns. For this purpose, a two-level supervisory control algorithm is developed where the top-level algorithm classifies the current driving pattern to select optimal control parameters, and the lower level algorithm controls the vehicle power flow using the selected control parameters in a similar way to conventional supervisory controllers. To study the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm, a HEV model with a rule-based control algorithm is modified such that the control parameters are optimized for different driving patterns, and…

Precision Low-Speed Motor Controller

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35613
Published 2019-12-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Precision motors are usually quite expensive and inefficient when operating at slow speeds. A method was developed for controlling precise motion of a brushless DC (BLDC) motor using relatively inexpensive components.