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Research on Factors to Influence Coasting Resistance for Electric Vehicles

Changan Mazda Auto Company-Yong Ren
Chongqing Changan New Energy Auto Co., Ltd.-Guan Gong, Chen Zhao, Xiaohang Zhou, Chenghao Deng, Cheng Yu, Fuyong Yu, Anjian Zhou
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1068
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The research on coasting resistance is vital to electric vehicles, since the smaller the coasting resistance, the longer the coast-down distance. Vehicle coast resistance consists of rolling resistance, vehicle inner resistance and the aerodynamic drag. The vehicle inner resistance is mainly caused by driveline’s friction loss and oil splash loss. The rolling resistance is decided by tire resistance coefficient, which is influenced by tires and road conditions. And the aerodynamic drag is affected by vehicle’s shape and air. In this paper, four factors including tire pressure, road surface condition, atmosphere temperature, and recirculation on or off are examined. Experimental tests have been conducted on three different vehicles: one subcompact sedan, one compact sedan and one subcompact SUV. Then experimental results have been imported to simulation model to investigate the corresponding influence on NEDC range. The outcome shows that, when the tire pressure is 20% less, the average coasting resistance is increased by 1% to 3% depending on vehicle types, which indicates a decrease in NEDC range by around 2%. And with atmosphere temperature in 6…
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A Method for Simultaneous State of Charge, Maximum Capacity and Resistance Estimation of a Li-Ion Cell Based on Equivalent Circuit Model

Auburn University-Saurabh Gairola, Yang Hu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1182
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Accurate estimation of the State of Charge (SOC), maximum capacity (Qmax) and internal resistance are critical for battery monitoring, i.e., determining the status, health, and performance figures of a battery. SOC is a key indicator of the instant status for battery systems, while Qmax and internal resistance are related to the capacity fade (SOHQ) and power fade (SOHP) respectively, which represent the abilities of a battery to store energy, retain charge over extended periods and provide the required power for acceleration, etc. Traditional methods using complex models and look-up tables have high computation requirements which makes them unsuitable for online applications. In this paper, we propose a simple method for simultaneous SOC, Qmax and internal resistance estimation based on a second-order equivalent circuit model (ECM). A Variable Model framework based Adaptive Extended Kalman filter (VM-AEKF) is implemented for joint SOC and model parameter estimation where the VM framework is designed specifically to improve the stability and accuracy of parameter estimation under conditions when the system is not sufficiently excited by the input signal. Simultaneously, a…
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Sensitivity Analysis of Aerodynamic Drag Coefficient to EPA Coastdown Ambient Condition Variation

FCA US LLC-Todd Lounsberry, John Tripp, Gregory Fadler
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0666
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The test cycle average drag coefficient is examined for the variation of allowable EPA coastdown ambient conditions. Coastdown tests are ideally performed with zero wind and at SAE standard conditions. However, often there is some variability in actual ambient weather conditions during testing, and the range of acceptable conditions is further examined in detail as it pertains to the effect on aerodynamic drag derived from the coastdown data. In order to “box” the conditions acceptable during a coastdown test, a sensitivity analysis was performed for wind averaged drag ((CDW ) ̅) as well as test cycle averaged drag coefficients (CDWC) for the fuel economy test cycles. Test cycle average drag for average wind speeds up to 16 km/h and temperatures ranging from 5C to 35C, along with variation of barometric pressure and relative humidity are calculated. The significant effect of ambient cross winds on coastdown determined drag coefficient is demonstrated.
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Optimization of the Aerodynamic Lift and Drag of LYNK&CO 03+ with Simulation and Wind Tunnel Test

Dassault Systemes(Shanghai) Information Technology Co.-Weiliang Xie, Bo Li, Xiaowei Zhao
Geely Automobile Research Institute-Qian Feng, Biaoneng Luo, Huixiang Zhang, Hong Peng, Zhenying Zhu, Zhi Ding, Ling Zhu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0672
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Based on the first sedan of the LYNK&CO brand from Geely, the high-performance configuration equipped with an additional aerodynamic package was developed. The aerodynamic package including front wheel deflectors, front lip, side skirts, rear spoiler, and rear diffuser, was required to be upgraded to generate enough aerodynamic downforce for better handling stability, without compromising the aerodynamic drag of the vehicle too much to keep a low fuel consumption.Starting from the baseline configuration of the aerodynamics package provided by the design studio, the components were optimized for aerodynamic drag and lift using the simulation approach with PowerFLOW in combination with a design space exploration method. As a result, the targets for the aerodynamic coefficients of the vehicle and in particular a good trade-off between lift and drag were achieved. Wind tunnel testing was involved to calibrate the simulation results at the beginning and to validate the optimized design at the end of the aerodynamic development. A consistently good agreement between the simulation and experiment was achieved.
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Analysis of Various Vehicle Dynamic Simulations Software Packages Using Design of Experiments (DOE)

Engineering Systems Inc.-R. Matthew Brach, Emmanuel Jay Manuel, Robert Bailey, Joshua Rogers, Shawn P. Capser
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0639
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A previous paper on this topic presented the use of design of experiments (DOE) to evaluate the sensitivity of vehicle dynamics simulation of the postimpact motion of a vehicle that included high initial rotational rates. That investigation involved only one software package and thus was confined to one simulation model for the purposes of developing and refining the analysis method rather than including a variety of simulation models for broader application. This paper expands the application of the method to investigate the comparative behavior and sensitivity of several other vehicle dynamic simulation models commonly used in the field of crash reconstruction. The software packages included in the studies presented in this paper are HVE (Simon and EDSMAC4), PC-Crash and VCRware. This paper will present the results of the study, conducted using DOE, using these models. The eleven factors selected for the study presented here were chosen based largely on the results of the prior study. The experimental design was expanded from 16 trials to 32 trials to provide additional insight into the interactions between the…
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Scenario Analysis and Control Comparison for a High Speed Autonomous Vehicle

University of California, Irvine-Vatche Donikian, Joseph Bell, Gregory Washington
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0710
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper studies the simulation and control of an autonomous dragster. Four scenarios are provided that are critical to vehicle and driver safety in drag racing. Equations are then created to model the behavior during these safety scenarios. The use of a kinematic bicycle model and a Newtonian wheel stand model are discussed for plane-of-motion and out-of-plane vehicle movement, respectively. A separate controller is designed for each model by comparing different control methods. Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) control, optimal control, and model predictive control (MPC) are presented and applied to the models. The models are simulated from a speed of 75 m/s, being the estimated top speed of the research vehicle, up to a top speed of 150.5 m/s which is in alignment with the highest recorded speed of a dragster. The comparison of the control techniques yields MPC as superior for the bicycle model and PID as sufficient for the wheel stand model. Latency of the system is also discussed and accounted for in the system.
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Volume of Fluid vs. Cavitation CFD-Models to Calculate Drag Torque in Multi-Plate Clutches

SIMERICS GmbH-Rudi Niedenthal
Technical University of Munich-Daniel Groetsch, Katharina Voelkel, Hermann Pflaum, Karsten Stahl
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0495
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Wet running multi-plate clutches and brakes are important components of modern powershift gearboxes and industrial powertrains. In the open stage, drag losses occur due to fluid shear. Identification of drag losses is possible by experiment or CFD-simulation. For calculation of the complex fluid flow of an open clutch CFD-approaches such as the Volume of Fluid (VoF) method or the Singhal cavitation model are applicable. Every method has its own specific characteristics. This contribution sets up CFD-calculation models for different clutches with diverse groove designs. We present results of calculations in various operating conditions obtained from the Singhal cavitation model and the VoF-method. Despite the high spatial resolution of the calculation models the usage of a modern commercial CFD-solver and mesher (Simerics MP+) results in very short calculation times. The developed CFD-models consider the geometry of a complete clearance consisting of the friction plate, the gap between the plates, the steel plate and the flow conditions arising from the design of the inner and outer plate carrier. The full 360-degree modeling makes it possible to take…
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Impact of Rim Orientation on Road Vehicles Aerodynamics Simulations

Graz University of Technology-Wolfgang von der Linden, Günter Brenn
Magna Steyr Fahrzeugtechnik AG & Co KG-Gernot Bukovnik
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0674
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Aerodynamic CFD simulations in the automotive industry based on the steady-state RANS (Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes) approach typically utilize approximate numerical methods to account for rotating wheels. In these methods, the computational mesh representing the rim geometry remains stationary, and the influence of the wheel rotation on the air flow is modelled. As the rims are considered only in one fixed rotational position (chosen arbitrarily in most cases), the effects of the rim orientation on the aerodynamic simulation results are disregarded and remain unquantified. This paper presents a numerical sensitivity study to examine the impact of the rim orientation position on the aerodynamic parameters of a detailed production vehicle. The simulations are based on the steady-state RANS approach. These investigations are carried out for three rim geometries, and for simulation cases with stationary and rotating wheels for comparison, where the Moving Wall (MW) and the Moving Reference Frame (MRF) methods, as well as combinations of the two approaches are used to model the wheel rotation. For the test vehicle, alterations in the flow field, and subsequently an…
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Parametric Study of Reduced Span Side Tapering on a Simplified Model with Wheels

Jaguar Land Rover-Adrian Gaylard
Loughborough University-Max Varney, Martin Passmore, Ryan Swakeen
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0680
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Many modern vehicles have blunt rear end geometries for design aesthetics and practicality; however, such vehicles are potentially high drag. The application of tapering; typically applied to an entire edge of the base of the geometry is widely reported as a means of reducing drag, but in many cases, this is not practical on real vehicles. In this study side tapers are applied to only part of the side edge of a simplified automotive geometry, to show the effects of practical implementations of tapers.The paper reports on a parametric study undertaken in Loughborough University’s Large Wind Tunnel with the ¼ scale Windsor model equipped with wheels. The aerodynamic effect of implementing partial side edge tapers is assessed from a full height taper to a 25% taper in both an upper and lower body configuration. These were investigated using force and moment coefficients, pressure measurements and planar particle image velocimetry (PIV). These geometries showed that the drag reductions are maximised with a 50% span, generating a vertically symmetric wake and less taper drag contribution when compared…
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Active Grille Shutters Control and Benefits in Medium to Large SUV: A System Engineering Approach

Jaguar Land Rover-Nilabza Dutta, Mark Spenley, Paul Cromback-Dugeny, Benjamin Stegmann, Wilko Jansen, Megan Parfitt
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0945
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Whilst the primary function of the active grille shutters is to reduce the aerodynamic drag of the car, there are some secondary benefits like improving the warm up time of engine and also retaining engine heat when parked.In turbocharged IC engines the air is compressed (heated) in the turbo and then cooled by a low temperature cooling system before going into the engine. When the air intake temperature exceeds a threshold value, the engine efficiency falls - this drives the need for the cooling airflow across the radiator in normal operation. Airflow is also required to manage the convective heat transfer across various components in the engine bay for its lifetime thermal durability. Grill shutters can also influence the aerodynamic lift balance thus impacting the vehicle dynamics at high speed. The vehicle HVAC system also relies on the condenser in the front heat exchanger pack disposing the waste heat off in the most efficient way. These requirements of maintaining optimal engine intake charge air temperature, managing condenser heat load, engine bay heat and aerodynamic lift…