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The effective use of ethanol for greenhouse gas emissions reduction in a diesel engine

Brunel University London-Wei Guan, Hua Zhao
General Motors-Ian May
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0157
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Regulations have been established for the monitoring and reporting of greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and fuel consumption from the transport sector. Low carbon fuels combined with new powertrain technologies have the potential to provide significant reductions in GHG emissions while decreasing the dependence on fossil fuel. In this study, a lean-burn ethanol-diesel dual-fuel combustion strategy has been used as means to improve upon the efficiency and emissions of a conventional diesel engine. Experiments have been performed on a 2.0 dm3 single cylinder heavy-duty engine equipped with port fuel injection of ethanol and a high-pressure common rail diesel injection system. Exhaust emissions and fuel consumption have been measured at a constant engine speed of 1200 rpm and various steady-state loads between 0.3 and 2.4 MPa net indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP). Compared to a baseline diesel-only operation, the ethanol-diesel dual-fuel engine yielded up to 57% lower well-to-wheels GHG emissions. Moreover, the dual-fuel combustion strategy attained higher net indicated efficiency than the conventional diesel mode from 0.6 to 2.4 MPa IMEP, with a maximum value of 47.2%…
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Methodology to Determine the Fast Burn Period Inside a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Converted to Natural Gas Lean-Burn Spark Ignition Operation

West Virginia University-Jinlong Liu, Cosmin Dumitrescu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2220
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
The conversion of existing diesel engines to natural-gas operation can reduce the dependence on petroleum imports and curtail engine-out emissions. A convenient way to perform such conversion is by adding a gas injector in the intake manifold and replacing the diesel fuel injector with a spark plug to initiate and control the combustion process. However, challenges may appear with respect to engine’s efficiency and emissions as natural-gas spark-ignition combustion inside a diesel combustion chamber is different to that in conventional spark ignition engines. For example, major difference is the phasing and duration of the fast burn, defined as the period in which the rate of heat release increases linearly with crank angle. This study presents a methodology to investigate the fast burn inside a diesel geometry using heat release data. The algorithm was applied to experimental data from a single-cylinder research engine that operated at several lean-burn conditions that changed spark timing, equivalence ratio, and engine speed. More, a 3D CFD RANS engine simulation was used to validate the developed methodology. As results showed that…
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Regulated Emissions and Detailed Particle Characterisation for Diesel and RME Biodiesel Fuel Combustion with Varying EGR in a Heavy-Duty Engine

DTU Nanolab, Fysikvej 307, 2800 Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark-Kirsten I. Kling, Jens Kling, Martin Tuner
Division of Combustion Engines, Lund University, Box 118, 22-Maja Novakovica, Sam Shamun, Per Tunestal
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2291
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
This study investigates particulate matter (PM) and regulated emissions from renewable rapeseed oil methyl ester (RME) biodiesel in pure and blended forms and contrasts that to conventional diesel fuel. Environmental and health concerns are the major motivation for combustion engines research, especially finding sustainable alternatives to fossil fuels and reducing diesel PM emissions. Fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), including RME, are renewable fuels commonly used from low level blends with diesel to full substitution. They strongly reduce the net carbon dioxide emissions. It is largely unknown how the emissions and characteristics of PM get altered by the combined effect of adding biodiesel to diesel and implementing modern engine concepts that reduce nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions by exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Therefore, the exhaust from a single-cylinder Scania D13 heavy-duty (HD) diesel engine fuelled with petroleum-based MK1 diesel, RME, and a 20% RME blend (B20), was sampled while the inlet oxygen concentration was stepped from ambient to very low by varying EGR. Regulated gaseous emissions, mass of total black carbon (BC) and organic aerosol (OA), particle…
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Research of Fuel Characteristic of Dimethyl ether / High Viscosity & Incombustible matter Blend for Marine Diesel Engine

Graduate School of Maritime Sciences, Kobe University-Yu MIHARA, Daiki KURO-OKA, Tomoki SHIRAHAMA, Kenta KUWAOKA, Takashi SUZUKI, Ichiro ASANO, Tomohisa DAN
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2229
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Diesel engine has fuel combustion capability in various high density oil such as residual fuels or biofuels derived from fossil or living matter. But for commercial use, these fuels except bio diesel fuel (BDF) should be heated, separated and filtered by equipment and dosed or mixed with additive or distillate oil etc. before being supplied to the engine in order to improve combustibility.This study aims to illuminate fuel characteristic of blend contained woody pyrolysis oil (WPO) which is high viscosity and incombustible, and dimethyl ether (DME) whose emission of combustion has no soot particle. This paper describes thermo-physical property of neat WPO and the blend on the basis of the evaluation of fuel fluidity by measurement and calculation of viscosity.According to the result, it was confirmed that the fluidity of WPO was improved by mixing DME and the approximate viscosity expressions at any temperature of WPO and the blend were good accuracy.
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Study of Nozzle Fouling: Deposit Build-Up and Removal

KTH Royal Institute of Technology-Hanna Bernemyr, Botond Csontos
Scania CV AB-Henrik Hittig, Oscar Forsberg
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2231
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
The global demand for decreased emission from engines and increased efficiency drives manufactures to develop more advanced fuel injection systems. Today's compression-ignited engines use common rail systems with high injection pressures and fuel injector nozzles with small orifice diameters. These systems are highly sensitive to small changes in orifice diameters since these could lead to deteriorations in spray characteristics, thus reducing engine performance and increasing emissions. Phenomena that could create problems include nozzle fouling caused by metal carboxylates or biofuels. The problems increase with extended use of biofuels. This paper reports on an experimental study of nozzle hole fouling performed on a single-cylinder engine. The aim was to identify if the solubility of the fuel has an effect on deposit build-up and, thus, the reduction in fuelling with associated torque loss, and if there is a probability of regenerating the contaminated injectors. Additionally, the influence of the nozzle geometry was tested by using injectors of various designs. In the experiments, high-load engine operation was used to create the effect of fouling in the presence of…
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Effects of Piston Bowl Diameter on Combustion Characteristics of a Natural gas/Diesel Dual Fuel Engine

Kyoto University-Keigo Takizawa, Hidetake Tanaka, Naoto Horibe, Takuji Ishiyama
Osaka Gas Co., Ltd.-Takahiro Sako
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2173
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Natural gas/diesel dual fuel engines have potential for a high thermal efficiency and low NOx emissions. However, they have the disadvantages of high unburned species emissions and lower thermal efficiencies at low loads (at low equivalence ratio). A way to solve this problem is to properly distribute the pilot fuel vapor in a natural-gas premixture. The combustion chamber geometry affects the combustion process since it influences the distribution of the pilot fuel vapor. This study investigates the influence of injection conditions and the piston bowl geometry on the performance and emissions of a dual fuel engine. Experiments were carried out using two pistons with different bowl diameters, 52 mm and 58 mm, at single-and two-stage diesel-fuel injection. The results show that the larger bowl provides lower hydrocarbon emissions at a lower equivalence ratio in the case of single-stage injection. For two-stage injection, the influence of the bowl diameter depends on the timing of the first injection. To elucidate the effects of pilot fuel distribution, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) calculations were conducted for non-reacting pilot fuel…
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Investigation of the High-Pressure-Dual-Fuel (HPDF) combustion process of natural gas on a fully optically accessible research engine

Technical University of Munich-Stephan Gleis, Stephanie Frankl, Dominik Waligorski, Dr.-Ing. Maximilian Prager, Prof. Dr.-Ing. Georg Wachtmeister
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2172
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
In the “high-pressure-dual-fuel” (HPDF) combustion process, natural gas is directly injected into the combustion chamber with high pressure at the end of the compression stroke, and burned in a diffusion flame similar to conventional diesel combustion. As natural gas does not self-ignite when injected into hot air, a small amount of diesel fuel is injected directly before the gas injection to provide an ignition source for the gas jets. The HPDF combustion process has the potential to substantially reduce methane slip compared to today’s state of the art premixed lean burn gas engines, and furthermore, phenomena like knocking or misfire can be avoided completely. In this paper, the influences of in-cylinder air density and swirl motion on HPDF combustion is studied via high-speed recordings in a fully optically accessible 4.8 Liter single-cylinder research engine.
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A Study on PCCI Combustion Control in Medium Speed Dual-Fuel Engine

Yanmar Co., Ltd.-Kazuteru Toshinaga, Masaki Kuribayashi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2176
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
To achieve simultaneous reduction of CO2 and NOx emission from the Dual-Fuel (DF) engine using natural gas and diesel fuel, Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) type combustion is a promising technology. However, to apply this technology to the practical operation of the DF engine, combustion control is key challenge because the ignition of PCCI type combustion is governed by chemical reaction of natural gas/air and diesel fuel premixture and not controlled by direct control parameter such as spark timing of spark-ignition natural gas engine or diesel fuel injection timing of micro-pilot type DF engine. The focus of this study is to understand the effect of engine control parameters on DF-PCCI combustion characteristics to establish the combustion control strategy in medium speed DF engine. Engine experiments using a 4-stroke medium speed single cylinder engine were carried out. Firstly, early two stage diesel pilot injection was applied to realize DF-PCCI combustion. As a result, brake thermal efficiency was successfully improved by 2%pt compared with conventional micro-pilot combustion while achieving low NOx emission to meet the stringent emission…
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Precipitation Study of B30 Blended from FAME and/or HVO and Petro Diesel Fuel

Agency for Assessment and Application of Technology Kawasan-Hari Setiapraja, Imam Paryanto
Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering,-Misri Gozan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2190
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Indonesia has planned for the implementation of B30 fuel in 2020, and as a consequence, a large-scale production of biodiesel from palm oil will be significantly increased in the country. In application as public transportation fuel, biodiesel quality and blending composition play an important role for the success of the implementation of B30 program. Indonesia consists of highlands and lowlands as urban areas that have different temperature regions varying from 12 - 35°C. Cold temperature could accelerate the formation of precipitate of B30 fuels. Samples of B30 fuels were made by blending biodiesel and/or hydrogenated vegetable oil (HVO) with Euro 3 and Euro 4 petro diesel fuels. The precipitate composed of monoglycerol and FAME. Precipitation of the chemicals was caused by their higher melting point that crystallized and the solvency effect of petro diesel in cold temperature. It was found that the amount of precipitate formed in B30 blended from 30% FAME and 70% Euro 4 petro diesel fuel was the highest one. Therefore, the requirement for monoglycerol and moisture contents in biodiesel quality needed…
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Numerical Simulation of In-Cylinder Particulate Matter Formation in Diesel Combustion by CFD Coupled with Chemical Kinetics Model

Isuzu Advanced Engineering Center, Ltd.-Hiroaki Saito, Shinya Furukawa, Yoshinori Ishii, Naoki Shimazaki
Yokohama National University-Kazuhiro Ishii
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2277
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
A reduced chemical kinetic model of diesel fuel, which can be applied to computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation coupled with detailed chemistry using the CONVERGE software, is developed to simulate the particulate matter (PM) formation process. We analyzed the influence of varying intake oxygen concentrations and fuel composition on the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and soot formation processes. When the intake oxygen concentration was decreased, no significant difference was observed in PAH formation associated with soot formation, and the soot mass generated after the peak was high. When the fuel contained high levels of aromatics and naphthene, the PAH and soot formation mass increased. These tendencies were in good agreement with experimental results [1].
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