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Evaluation of On-board Heat Loss Prediction Model and Polytropic Index Prediction Model for CI Engines Using Measurements of Combustion Chamber Wall Heat Flux

Sophia University-Mitsuhisa Ichiyanagi, Zhiyuan Liu, Haoyu Chen, Koki Asano, Koki Otsubo, Emir Yilmaz, Takashi Suzuki
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0543
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Diesel engines need to optimize the fuel injection timing and quantity of each cycle in the transient operation to increase the thermal efficiency and reduce the exhaust gas emissions through the precise combustion control. The heat transfer from the working gas in the combustion chamber to the chamber wall is a crucial factor to predict the gas temperature in the combustion chamber to optimize the timing and quantity of fuel injection. Therefore, the authors developed both the heat loss and the polytropic index prediction models with the low calculation load and high accuracy. In addition, for the calculation of the heat loss and the polytropic index, the wall heat transfer model was also developed, which was derived from the continuity equation and the energy equation. The present study used a single cylinder diesel engine under the condition of engine speed of 1200 and 1500 rpm, and measured the local wall temperature and the local heat flux of the combustion chamber. The measured data were compared with the prediction results of the heat loss and the…
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A Study on the Decay Process in the Time-Frequency-Dependent Combustion-Noise-Generation Model for Diesel Engines

Graduate School of Sciences and Technology for Innovation, Y-Hitoshi Oguchi, Masato Mikami
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0512
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
We experimentally investigated the process of decay of engine noise from a single-cylinder diesel engine considering the time-frequency-dependent combustion-noise-generation model. In this model, the vibration energy of each frequency component is assumed to accumulate in the engine structure excited by the combustion impact during the combustion period in a cycle and decay over time, and the combustion noise is assumed to radiate from the engine surface. We used wavelet transform analysis as a time-frequency analysis of the sound pressure to obtain the decay rate, c, of the engine noise power. In order to investigate the dependence of the decay rate, c, on the sound-source location, we placed eight microphones in different positions near the engine. In order to investigate the dependence of the decay rate on the maximum in-cylinder pressure rise, we conducted experiments under three different operating conditions. The shape of the temporal variation of the engine-noise power depended on the sound-source location while the value of the engine noise power depended on the maximum in-cylinder pressure rise. Based on the time-frequency-dependent combustion-noise-generation model,…
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Effect of Thermal Barrier Coating on Performance and Emissions of a DI Diesel Engine

CSIR- Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology, Bhuban-Debidutta Debasish
Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of-Yogeshwar Paik, Chinmaya Ranjan Sahu, Krishna Kumar Pandey, Saroj Kumar Barik, S. Murugan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0526
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Recycling is an attractive solution to problems associated with the disposal of industrial and municipal wastes that are significantly available worldwide. Plastic in different forms is used in many applications day-to-day life. Some plastics can be converted into fuel or energy by thermal and catalytic degradation of plastic waste through pyrolysis processes. The oil obtained from pyrolysis of waste plastic can be used as an alternative fuel for CI engines. Most of the cases, it is reported by many researchers that the engine performance of a CI engine would be inferior when it is run on plastic pyrolysis oil (PPO) or its diesel blends than the diesel-fueled diesel engine operation. Reducing heat loss from engine components may improve the thermal efficiency and reduce fuel consumption of a CI engine. The heat loss can be reduced in CI engines by introducing thermal barrier coating (TBC). In this investigation, the effect of TBC on the performance and emissions of a CI engine run on PPO and its diesel blends was studied. For the investigation, a single cylinder,…
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Improvement of On-board In-cylinder Gas Flow Model and Wall Heat Transfer Prediction Model for CI Engines Using CFD Analysis and PIV Measurements under Motoring and Firing Conditions

Sophia University-Mitsuhisa Ichiyanagi, Gerard Ndizeye, Yuji Sawamura, Reina Saito, Kotaro Takahashi, Koki Otsubo, Haoyu Chen, Suzuki Takashi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0542
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
For the improvement of the transient driving performance and the thermal efficiency for diesel engines, it is effective to control the fuel injection by model-based control (MBC) on ECU with cycle-by-cycle calculation, and MBC requires six models; gas flow, spray development, mixture formation, combustion, ignition delay, and heat loss. The authors previously developed on-board in-cylinder gas flow and wall heat transfer prediction models to estimate the heat loss. However, the developed gas flow model has an undetermined coefficient called the turbulence intensity coefficient (TIC), which significantly influences the prediction accuracy of the wall heat transfer prediction model. The present study improved the gas flow model and the wall heat transfer prediction model by applying TICs obtained using the PIV and CFD analysis. In-cylinder gas flow in an optical single-cylinder diesel engine was measured by PIV under both motoring and firing conditions, and TICs were calculated and applied to the wall heat transfer prediction model. The heat flux values obtained from the model were compared with those from the experiments using heat flux sensors. It was…
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Effects of Stepped-Lip Combustion System Design and Operating Parameters on Turbulent Flow Evolution in a Diesel Engine

SAE International Journal of Engines

Ford Motor Company, USA-Eric Kurtz
USA-Stephen Busch
  • Journal Article
  • 03-13-02-0016
Published 2020-01-16 by SAE International in United States
Interactions between fuel sprays and stepped-lip diesel piston bowls can produce turbulent flow structures that improve efficiency and emissions, but the underlying mechanisms are not well understood. Recent experimental and simulation efforts provide evidence that increased efficiency and reduced smoke emissions coincide with the formation of long-lived, energetic vortices during the mixing-controlled portion of the combustion event. These vortices are believed to promote fuel-air mixing, increase heat-release rates, and improve air utilization, but they become weaker as main injection timing is advanced nearer to the top dead center (TDC). Further efficiency and emissions benefits may be realized if vortex formation can be strengthened for near-TDC injections. This work presents a simulation-based analysis of turbulent flow evolution within a stepped-lip combustion chamber. A conceptual model summarizes key processes in the evolution of turbulent flow for main injections starting after TDC. Differences in turbulent flow evolution are described for a near-TDC main injection, and potential variations in combustion system design and operating parameters to enhance vortex formation under these conditions are hypothesized. The parametric studies executed to…
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Hierarchical Predictive Control of a Combined Engine/SCR System with Limited Model Knowledge

SAE International Journal of Engines

Friedrich-Alexander University Erlangen Nuremberg, Germany-Knut Graichen
MTU Friedrichshafen, Germany-Jens Niemeyer, Jörg Remele
  • Journal Article
  • 03-13-02-0015
Published 2020-01-16 by SAE International in United States
In this article, the problem of minimizing the overall operational cost of a heavy-duty off-highway diesel engine combined with a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst is considered. Here, we propose a hierarchical model-based scheme described as an optimal control problem. The sequence of resulting optimal control values are setpoints for the underlying engine controller, applied in a model predictive control (MPC) fashion. The presented scheme meets several demands. While minimizing the overall costs, it handles box constraints for the control variables as well as a nonlinear NOx-conversion rate constraint ensuring that a given emission target is met. The approach makes use of Gaussian process models for the input-output behavior of the underlying components and a technique for online adaptation. Thus, the presented hierarchical scheme is able to compensate model uncertainties and aging effects of engine, air path, and SCR catalyst. Moreover, in comparison to the literature, our approach doesn’t require detailed models of the underlying components, and the hierarchical, modular design allows the applicability to different engines and SCR controllers. We illustrate the proposed approach…
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Comparison Between MCC and MZCM Combustion Models

Pontifícia Universidade Católica de Minas Gerais-Paulo Ricardo da Penha, Rogério Jorge Amorim
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0133
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
This paper evaluates the ability of two combustion models to predict a small HSDI diesel engine operation after changing its operational parameters. Both Multi-Zone Combustion Model (MZCM) and Mixing Controlled Combustion (MCC) are inherently coupled to the fuel injection process allowing great freedom of simulation for multistage injection engines but also requiring consistent calibration of the model parameters. In the present work, two operating conditions of a reference research engine are modelled and tuned in the AVL Boost® software using both MCC and MZCM to model the combustion process. The operational conditions evaluated are defined by changes in EGR rate, fuel injection start and distribution, boost pressure, and injection pressure. The predictive ability of each model is assessed by comparing the output results accuracy and the number of parameters changes needed to tune the model for a given change of operation. The novelty of this work resides in the comparison of the two models, as built in the software, in a practical simulation process. Both models have a similar amount of base parameters to be…
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The impacts of Diesel cycle engines on the operating costs of the Cessna 172 Skyhawk and JT-A aircraft.

Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais-Samuel Cunha Diniz, Eduardo Henrique de Assis Coelho, Gabriel Rodrigues de Oliveira, Lucas de Cardoso Oliveira, Samuel Renan Costa Morais, Victor Britto Vasques, Luiz Henrique Jorge Machado
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0321
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Diesel engines have been used on the aeronautical market for a long time. Despite this fact, there are few studies showing the potential cost savings of using this type of technology. In this way, the goal of this paper is to find out whether or not it is advantageous to use an Otto or Diesel cycle engine on general aviation light aircraft. It is well known that both of them have pros and cons, however, the possibility of using Jet A-1 (kerosene) as fuel gives the Diesel engine a clear advantage in a market like Brazil, where the price of the regular piston fuel (AvGas) keeps rising to astonishing values. Throughout this paper, a detailed study of the fixed and variable costs of two similar aircraft, both Cessnas 172 equipped with Otto and Diesel cycle engines is conducted, comparing fuel consumption, performance levels, and other factors. Even though the latter engine has a higher fixed operating cost, the advantages found in this study makes the Diesel motor a step forward of its competitor, whether concerning…
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Chemical kinetic mechanisms for HCCI combustion of wet ethanol with exhaust gas recirculation

Chemical Engineering Department – UFSM-Jean L. S. Fagundez, Nina P. G. Salau
Mechanical Engineering Department – UFSM-Filipe A. Herzer, Mario E. S. Martins
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0293
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
This work compares the accuracy of in-cylinder pressure and apparent heat release rate (AHRR) diagrams to the experimental data and the use of different chemical kinetics models applied to the GT-Power® software. The engine computational model is based on a naturally aspirated diesel engine with three cylinders, one of them modified to operate with hydrous ethanol with port fuel injection and HCCI combustion achieved with hot exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) of the Diesel cylinders. Operating points chosen to perform the comparison to experimental tests were 1800 rpm, 300 kPa of indicated mean effective pressure and fuels with 10% and 20% of water-in-ethanol by volume. The kinetic mechanisms for ethanol oxidation evaluated were the detailed NUI Galway and a Skeletal model based on it. With either model, cylinder pressure diagrams were not very different from the experimental values. The detailed mechanism was, on average, 9 times slower to process each case than the Skeletal mechanism. The quality of data obtained with the Skeletal mechanism and its lower computational cost makes it a good solution for a…
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Analysis of the Technical Viability of Biogas Utilization in Compression Ignition Engines for Electric Power Generation

Federal University of Santa Maria - UFSM-Italo Rosa Policena, Rafael Vogt, Geovane Alberto Frizzo Prante, Roberto Antônio Garlet, Mário Eduardo Santos Martins
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0245
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
Increased energy demand and security of energy supply have become a concern in recent decades due to strong industrial growth. The high cost of fossil fuels and the need to reduce the emission of greenhouse gases have made renewable energy sources an attractive object. In this context, biomass becomes interesting and is the second largest source of renewable energy in Brazil, possessing many characteristics similar to fossil fuels. Energy can be obtained by direct burning or by conversion into biofuels, such as biogas, which is composed primarily of carbon dioxide and methane. Methane released directly into the atmosphere has 21 times the greenhouse effect potential of CO2. In this way the importance of the development and improvement of this fuel and of the converter machines, which play a fundamental role in the transformation of biomass into other forms of energy, is justified.This study aims at analyzing the technical viability of application of biogas in compression ignition engines for electric power generation in RCCI operation mode (Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition) and dualfuel by fumigation. The experimental…
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