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Oxidation of Soybean Biodiesel Fuel in Diesel Engine Oils

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Ford Motor Company, USA-James C. Ball, Dairene Uy, Timothy J. Wallington
Michigan State University, USA-Jacob A. Duckworth
  • Journal Article
  • 04-12-03-0015
Published 2019-12-05 by SAE International in United States
During diesel engine operation, some fuel is entrained in engine oil, particularly as a consequence of strategies to regenerate NOx traps or particle filters. This “fuel dilution” of oil can adversely affect engine oil properties and performance. Compared to diesel fuel, biodiesel is more prone to fuel dilution and more susceptible to oxidation. Oxidation stability experiments were conducted at 160°C using a modified Rapid Small-Scale Oxidation Test (RSSOT) and a Rancimat instrument with 0, 5, 10, and 20 wt% biodiesel in four fully formulated engine oils, two partially formulated engine oils, and two base oils. These experiments showed decreasing oxidation stability with increasing biodiesel content. An exception was noted with the least stable oils (two base oils and one engine oil) in which 5 wt% biodiesel improved the oxidation stability relative to oil without biodiesel. Experiments with biodiesel distillation fractions identified this stability enhancement within the least volatile biodiesel fraction, consistent with natural antioxidants in the biodiesel. Omission of two engine oil additives, antioxidants and zinc dialkyldithiophosphates (ZDDP), led to an unexpected increase in oxidation…
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Computerized Experimental Investigation on Performance & Exhaust Emission of Twin Cylinder Adiabatic Diesel Engine Coated with YSZ

SVMIT Bharuch-Dr. Dipakkumar C. Gosai
SVNIT Surat-Anil Kumar Gillawat
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2548
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The fuel consumption and performance of the Internal Combustion (IC) engine is improved by adopting concepts of an adiabatic engine. An experimental investigation for different load conditions is carried out on a water-cooled, constant-speed, twin-cylinder diesel engine. This research is intended to emphasize energy balance and emission characteristic for standard uncoated base engine and adiabatic engine. The inner walls of diesel engine combustion chamber are thermally insulated by a top coat of Metco 204NS yttria-stabilized zirconia (Y2O3ZrO2) powder (YSZ) of a thickness of 350 mm using plasma spray coating technology. The same combustion chamber is also coated with thermal barrier coating (TBC) bond coats of AMDRY 962 Nickle chromium aluminum yttria of thickness of 150 mm. The NiCrAlY powder specially designed to produce coating’s resistance to hot corrosion. The combination of this ceramic material produces excellent high-temperature thermal barrier coating (TBC) resistant to thermal cycling stresses and strains. The engine valves, engine heads, and engine pistons were thermal barrier ceramic coated and computerized experimental results were compared to the base engine. Experimental results justified TBC…
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Comparative Experimental Investigation of Thumba and Argemone Oil Based Dual Fuel Blend in a Diesel Engine for Its Performance and Emission Characteristics

Lovely Professional University-Sumit Kanchan
University of Kashmir-Shahid Qayoom
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2375
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
An experimental investigation was conducted to explore the possibility of using the Thumba oil (Citrullus colocyntis) and Argemone Mexicana (non-edible and adulterer to mustard oil) as a dual fuel blend with diesel as an alternative of using pure diesel for its performance and emission characteristics.The work was carried on a single cylinder, four strokes, In-line overhead valve, direct injection compression ignition engine. The argemone and Thumba biodiesel were produced using the transesterification process and thereafter the important physio-chemical properties of produced blends were investigated. Four dual biodiesel blends like B10 (5% Argemone, 5% Thumba and 90% Diesel), B20, B30 and B40 were prepared for investigation process. The operating conditions adopted for the study was the entire range of engine loads and speed (1000-1500 r/min) keeping the injection pressure and injection timing at the OEM settings.In this exertion, performance and emission parameters were evaluated. The performance parameters like brake thermal efficiency (BTE), indicated power, brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), brake mean effective pressure, indicated mean effective pressure and indicated thermal efficiency were studied and compared with…
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Development of Diesel Particulate NOx Reduction DPNR System for Simultaneous Reduction of PM and NOx in Diesel Engines

ARAI Academy-E. Parthiban, Aatmesh Jain, Kamalkishore Chhaganlal Vora
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2554
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The Diesel Particulate NOx Reduction (DPNR) system is used for simultaneous reduction of PM and NOx in diesel engine. DPF is used to trap particulate matter in diesel engines. NOx absorber technology removes NOx in a lean (i.e. oxygen rich) exhaust environment for both diesel and gasoline lean-burn GDI engines. The NOx storage and reduction catalyst is uniformly coated on the wall surface and in the fine pores of a highly porous filter substrate. Combination of these two components in the DPNR results in a compact size of the system. The base diesel engine model validated with pressure crank angle diagram and performance parameters such as Indicated mean effective pressure. This base engine’s exhaust emission is given as an input to the DPNR system. The surface reaction is connected to the DPF through chemcon template. The surface reaction is NOx storage and reduction chemical kinetics like Lean NOx Trap. The modelling of DPNR and Base engine is done using GT-SUITE. This paper describes about the 1D simulation of DPNR system with base diesel engine model…
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Modelling for Collective Effect of Muffler Geometric Modifications and Blended Microalgae Fuel Use on Exhaust Performance of a Four-Stroke Diesel Engine: A Computational Fluid Dynamics Approach

Lovely Professional University-Sumit Kanchan, Rajesh Choudhary, Chavagani Brahmaiah
University of Kashmir-Shahid Qayoom
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2377
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Engine performance significantly depends on the effective exhaust of the combustion gases from the muffler. With stricter BSVI norms more efficient measures have to be adopted to reduce the levels of emissions from the exhaust to the atmosphere. Muffler along with reducing the engine noise is intended to control the back pressure as well. Back pressure change has a significant effect on muffler temperature distribution which affects the NOx emission from the exhaust. Many research communications have been made to reduce the exhaust emissions like HC, CO and CO2 from the exhaust by using different generation biofuels as an alternative fuel, yet they have confronted challenges in controlling the NOx content from the exhaust.This work presents the combined effect of Muffler geometry modifications and blended microalgal fuel on exhaust performance with an aim to reduce NOx emission form a four-stroke engine. In this exertion, the computational fluid dynamics model is developed to analyze the effect of muffler geometry modification on vital exhaust parameters of an engine. The engine is powered with a blend of chlorella…
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Combustion Optimization and In-Cylinder NOx and PM Reduction by Using EGR and Split Injection Techniques

ARAI Academy-Madhan Kumar, Aatmesh Jain, Kamalkishore Chhaganlal Vora
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2560
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Nowadays, the major most challenge in the diesel engine is the oxides of nitrogen (NOx) and particulate matter (PM) trade-off, with minimal reduction in Power and BSFC. Modern day engines also rely on expensive after-treatment devices, which may decrease the performance and increase the BSFC. In this paper, combustion optimization and in-cylinder emission control by introducing the Split injection technique along with EGR is carried out by 1-D (GT- POWER) simulation. Experiments were conducted on a 3.5 kW Single-cylinder naturally aspirated CRDI engine at the different load conditions. The Simulation model incorporates detailed pressure (Burn rate) analysis for different cases and various aspects of ignition delay, premixed and mixing controlled combustion rate, the injection rate affecting oxides of nitrogen and particulate matter. The predictive combustion model (DI-PULSE) has been developed for the calibration of an engine under multiple injections and the detailed injection rates with EGR rates. Split injection with higher fuel quantity injected in the 1st pulse, helped to significantly reduce PM emissions. This reduction is due to the restraint in the premixed phase…
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Utilization of treated waste engine oil -butanol blends as fuel for CI engine operated under an optimal engine parameters

Hindustan Institute of Tech. Science-Prabakaran B
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2383
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Butanol is an attractive alternative fuel to fuel diesel engine. Waste engine oil is causing land pollution and contamination to groundwater a lot. This experimental study is to investigate the performance of treated waste engine oil and butanol as fuel to diesel engine operated under optimal engine operating parameters. This study was conducted in four stages: Treating the waste engine oil; Preparation of blends and testing the properties; Arriving at an optimal injection timing, nozzle opening pressure, compression ratio, and intake air temperature to suit the possible blend of treated waste engine oil and butanol; Testing the possible blend under optimal operating parameters under various load conditions. The properties test indicated that 35% of butanol can be blended with treated engine oil with respect to the essential properties for fueling diesel engine. To optimize the parameters L16 orthogonal array with the Taguchi method was used. The engine test showed that the blend containing 35% butanol produced similar brake thermal efficiency, emissions of oxides of nitrogen, peak in-cylinder pressure, peak heat release rate, ignition delay and…
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Effect of Eccentric Imbalance of Various Crank Train Components on Vibrations in Single Cylinder Diesel Engines

Tafe Motors and Tractors Limited-Puneet Julaha, Vasundhara Arde, Remesan Chirakkal
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2417
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Diesel engine is the main source of power for many agricultural applications such as water pump sets, compressors and tractors. At the same time it is also the main source of vibrations. Mechanical vibrations have instantaneous and long term effects on human body. Kinds of effects depend upon duration of exposure and frequency of vibrations. The increasing demands of improved comfort levels of operators are putting pressures on tractor manufacturers on reducing the vibration levels which thereby resulting in improving diesel engine vibrations.Vibration is the movement or mechanical oscillations about an equilibrium position of a machine or component. A Vibration analysis is about the art of looking for changes in the vibration pattern and then relating those changes. Vibration always occurs when there is unbalanced body in reciprocating or rotary motion. In an internal combustion engine there are many parts in reciprocating and rotary motion such as pistons, connecting rod, crankshaft, flywheel etc.This paper explains the study carried out to evaluate combined effect of location of unbalance in individual components when they are assembled and…
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Bio diesel-an alternative fuel similar to conventional or ‘fossil’ diesel.

Tata Technologies, Ltd.-Gaurav Soni, Aashish Bhargava
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2385
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Currently Automotive industry is looking for sustainable alternate of Conventional fuels. Bio diesel is an alternative fuel similar to conventional or ‘fossil’ diesel. It is produced from vegetable oil, animal fats, tallow and waste cooking oil. Bio diesel is one of the most promising fuel which can not only replace the conventional fuels but also environment friendly in terms of Greenhouse gases emission. Bio diesel can be produced from various sources and can be sustainable fuel for automotive vehicles. In this paper, efforts have been taken to convert existing Diesel engine into Bio diesel compliant engine. For making suitable for Biodiesel operation, modification in Engine Fuel system, filter and Sealing were carried out. Further Engine performance and emission testing were done and results were compared with performance and emission of same configuration Diesel engine.
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Electric hybrid system Architecture & Functional component selection criteria for application based Off-Highway segment

Ajay Nain, Devendra Nene
Hybrid Vehicle-Jaipal Singh
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2495
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Hybridization continues to be growing trend in vehicular applications. Current study shows a holistic system approach for the design & integration of the powertrain in Off-Highway tractor applications. It includes study & benchmarking of system architecture of an all-electric and diesel-electric drive systems as per application requirement. Further comprehensive study was done on functional components for an electric powertrain, which includes electric drives, batteries & controllers. Selection & design of these components was studied & component selection approach was developed for typical Off-Highway tractor application. Current study was divided into three parts. 1.Study of different Off-Highway tractor applications & selection of all-electric, series & parallel hybrid architectures as per application requirement. For Parallel hybrid configuration, Comprehensive approach was developed for selection & optimization of degree of hybridization required as per Off-Highway tractor application requirement. Architecture selection approach considers the way to take care of % increase of cost price with conventional tractor, market availability of components, Integration constraints, fuel consumption, and efficiency of transmission & smooth delivery of power as required by operator. 2.For above…