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Formula SAE Data Acquisition and Detailed Analysis of a Lap

Georgia Southern University-Connor M. Ashford, Aniruddha Mitra
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0544
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Formula Society of Automotive Engineers (FSAE) International is a student design competition organized by SAE. The student design involves engineering and manufacturing a formula style racecar and evaluating its performance. Testing and validation of the vehicle is an integral part of the design and performance during the competition. At the collegiate level the drivers are at the amateur level. As a result, the human factor plays a significant role in the outcome of the dynamic events. In order to reduce the uncertainty factor and improve the general performance, driver training is necessary. Instead of overall performance of the driver based on individual lap, our current research focuses on the more detailed components of the driver’s actions throughout different sections of the lap. A complete lap consists of several components, such as, straight line acceleration and braking, max and min radius cornering, slalom or “S” movements, and bus stops or quick braking and turning. In order to evaluate the performance of each driver in each of these components, an AiM data acquisition system is mounted in…
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Drivable area detection and vehicle location based on multi-sensor information fusion

Suzhou Haomibo Technology Co. Ltd.-Panpan Tong
Tongji University-Jie Bai, Sen Li, Jinzhu Wang, Libo Huang, Lianfei Dong
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1027
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Multi-sensor information fusion framework is the eyes for unmanned driving and Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) to perceive the surrounding environment. In addition to the perception of the surrounding environment, real-time vehicle location is also the key and difficult point of unmanned driving technology. The disappearance of high-precision GPS differential signal and the defect of lane line will bring much more difficult for vehicle self-locating. In this paper, a road boundary feature extraction algorithm is proposed based on multi-sensor information fusion of automotive radar and vision to realize the auxiliary locating of vehicles. Firstly, we designed a 79GHz (78-81GHz) Ultra Wide Band(UWB)millimeter wave radar, which can obtain the point cloud information of road edge features such as guardrail or green belt and so on. Secondly, the pixel semantic information of the drivable area of road can be obtained by the pixel semantic segmentation of image information through deep learning. Then, the road boundary equation in vehicle coordinate system is obtained by clustering and fusion of the road boundary point cloud information and the boundary semantic…
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LiDAR and Camera-based Convolutional Neural Network Detection for Autonomous Driving

National Research Council Canada-Ismail Hamieh, Ryan Myers, Hisham Nimri, Taufiq Rahman
University of Windsor-Aarron Younan, Brad Sato, Abdul El-Kadri, Selwan Nissan, Kemal Tepe
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0136
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Autonomous vehicles are currently a subject of great interest and there is heavy research on creating and improving algorithms for detecting objects in their vicinity. Object classification and detection are crucial tasks that need to be solved accurately and robustly in order to achieve higher automation levels. Current approaches for classification and detection use either cameras or light detection and ranging (LiDAR) sensors. Cameras can work at high frame-rate, and provide dense information over a long range under good illumination and fair weather. LiDARs scan the environment by using their own emitted pulses of laser light and they are only marginally affected by the external lighting conditions. LiDARs provide accurate distance measurements. However, they have a limited range, typically between 10 and 100 m, and provide sparse data. A ROS-based deep learning approach has been developed to detect objects using point cloud data. With encoded raw camera and LiDAR data, several basic statistics such as elevation and density are generated. The system leverages simple and fast convolutional neural network (CNN) solution for object classification and…
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Quantifying Engine Braking for Various Common Street Motorcycles

Collision and Injury Dynamics, Inc.-Henricus Jansen, Beau LeBlanc, Christopher Wilhelm, Tyler Shaw, Alvin Lowi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0880
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Motorcycle engine braking will be measured in each forward gear for a cross-section of typical street motorcycles. Using GPS data acquisition and video, curves will be developed showing deceleration relative to engine speed, ground speed, distance, and time. Motorcycle characteristics will include low, middle, and high displacement sport, V-twin two-cylinder cruiser, single-cylinder adventure, three-cylinder, and shaft-driven. Motorcycles will be accelerated to approximately 70 mph when achievable in the respective gear, and throttle will be abruptly closed. The motorcycles will cruise unbraked until 15 to 30 kilometers per hour. For control, each motorcycle will be accelerated to the test speed and shifted to neutral to measure combined wind and rolling resistance. Tests will be performed on level ground and in opposing compass directions to account for wind. The data acquired will give more insight to what extent engine braking is a factor for accident reconstruction. Further, it will show the variability between frictional losses for different types of motorcycle powertrains and drivetrains.
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Driving Safety Performance Assessment Metrics for ADS-Equipped Vehicles

Exponent Inc., Arizona State University-Jeffrey Wishart, Steven Como
Intel-Maria Elli, Jack Weast
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1206
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The driving safety performance of automated driving system (ADS)-equipped vehicles (AVs) must be quantified using metrics in order to be able to assess the driving safety performance and compare it to that of human-driven vehicles. In this research, driving safety performance metrics and methods for the measurement and analysis of said metrics are defined and/or developed.A comprehensive literature review of metrics that have been proposed for measuring the driving safety performance of both human-driven vehicles and AVs was conducted. A list of proposed metrics, including novel contributions to the literature, that collectively, quantitatively describe the driving safety performance of an AV was then compiled, including proximal surrogate indicators, driving behaviors, and rules-of-the-road violations. These metrics, which include metrics from on- and off-board data sources, allow the driving safety performance of an AV to be measured in a variety of situations, including crashes, potential conflicts, and near misses. These measurements enable the evaluation of temporal flows and the quantification of key aspects of driving safety performance. The identification and exploration of metrics focusing explicitly on AVs…
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Portable In-cylinder Pressure Measurement and Signal Processing System for Real-time Combustion Analysis and Engine Control

Southwest Research Institute-Yilun Luo, Siying Liu, Devon Adair
University of Michigan-Bryan Maldonado, Charles Solbrig, Anna Stefanopoulou
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1144
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
To meet ever strict emissions regulations, cycle-to-cycle combustion control based on statistical processing and model-based prediction has attracted considerable attention from academia and industry. Feedback combustion control typically adjusts ignition-related parameters (spark advance, injection timing, cam timing, etc.) in a cycle-by-cycle manner based on the combustion characteristics measured from previous events. Cycle-to-cycle control guarantees a tight control at steady state and fast response during transients, enforcing an optimal combustion process over a wide variety of engine speed/load conditions. However, these control strategies are constrained by the combustion cycle duration, usually in the order of tens of milliseconds. Therefore, high-speed data acquisition and real-time processing is required. This paper describes a portable in-cylinder pressure measurement and processing system (P-BOT) that enables such a feedback control application to be used on an engine control unit (ECU). This system measures high-speed cylinder pressure signals and engine position, performs real-time heat release analysis, and sends the combustion results to the ECU for engine control at the end of each combustion event. This system is implemented on a Xilinx Zynq…
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Sensorless Individual Cell Temperature Measurement by Means of Impedance Spectroscopy Using Standard Battery Management Systems of Electric Vehicles

Ruhr-University Bochum-Peter Haussmann, Joachim Melbert
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0863
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Lithium ion technology is state of the art for actual hybrid and electrical vehicles. It is well known that lithium ion performance and safety characteristics strongly depend on temperature. Thus, reliable temperature measurement and control concepts for lithium ion cells are mandatory for applications in electrical cars. Temperature sensors for all individual cells increase the battery complexity and cost of a battery management system. Normally, temperature is measured on module level in current battery packs, without observation of the individual cell temperature. Sensorless cell impedance-based temperature measurement concepts have been published and are validated in laboratory studies. Dedicated test equipment is usually applied, which is not useful for automotive series application. This work describes a practical approach to enable impedance-based sensorless internal temperature measurement for all individual cells using state-of-the art battery management system components. Excitation is generated by DC to DC converters of a standard commercial active balancing systems. For data acquisition, also an established commercial battery monitoring circuit unit is used. To overcome bandwidth limitations, a sub-sampling scheme is presented, which allows to…
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Experimental Investigation of Automotive Vehicle Transient Aerodynamics with a Reduced-Scale Moving-Model Crosswind Facility

FKFS-Andreas Wagner, Jochen Wiedemann
German Aerospace Center (DLR)-James R. Bell, Henning Wilhelmi, Daniela Heine, Klaus Ehrenfried, Claus Wagner
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0671
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Automotive vehicles operate in complex, transient aerodynamic conditions that can potentially influence operational efficiency, performance and safety. A moving-model facility combined with a wind-tunnel is an experimental methodology that can be utilized to model some of these transient aerodynamic conditions. This methodology is an alternative to wind-tunnel experiments with actively yawing models or active flaps, and has the added benefit of modelling the correct relative motion between the vehicle and the ground/infrastructure. Experiments were performed at the moving-model facility at DLR, Göttingen. A 1:10 scale VW Golf 7 (geometry provided by VW) model was equipped with 24 surface pressure taps. The model was accelerated by a hydro-pneumatic driven catapult over a 60 m long track, through a 25 m long test-section, and decelerated in a braking tank of polystyrene balls. Crosswinds were generated by a closed-loop, open-jet wind-tunnel with four 30 kW fans perpendicular to the track, 5 m long and 1 m high, with a maximum velocity of 25 m/s. The moving-model facility was adapted from its standard high-speed train configuration to a new…
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Validation of Telemetry Data Acquisition using GoPro Cameras

Explico Engineering Co.-Karla Petroskey, Charles Funk, Ivan A. Tibavinsky
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0875
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Several GoPro camera models contain Global Positioning System (GPS) and accelerometer instrumentation and are capable of measuring and recording position, velocity and acceleration data. This study evaluates the accuracy of data obtained from GoPro cameras through a series of controlled tests. A test vehicle was instrumented with several GoPro camera units and a Racelogic VBOX data acquisition unit and driven on a road course. The raw data collected with the GoPro cameras and the translations of this data provided by the GoPro desktop software application were compared to data collected with the validated VBOX data acquisition unit. The results demonstrate that position, velocity and acceleration data recorded with GoPro cameras is consistent with VBOX data and is useful for applications related to accident reconstruction.
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ACOUSTC CHARACTERISTICS OF AUTOMOTIVE DAMPER DURING FLUID STRUCTURE AND STRUCTURAL INTERACTIONS

Gabriel India Ltd.-Ravi B
VIT ARAI-Swapnil S. Kulkarni
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0989
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Acoustic characteristics of hydraulic dampers used in passenger cars are investigated. Experimentation work is carried out with servo hydraulic machine. Semi-anechoic chamber is used to isolate damper, in order to study noise source in damper. Noise and vibration data analysis is performed with the help of OROS software which is specifically used for noise and vibration data acquisition and analysis. Noise and vibration tests are performed by various frequencies and amplitude excitation inputs given to damper. As a part of low to mid frequency excitation, the amplitude of damper excitation is 20 mm in rebound and 10 mm in compression stroke of damper with data contains multiple input frequencies namely 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2 Hz. This test condition ensured that the noise is perceived to car cabin by means of damper rather than filtration unit attached to damper. As a part of high frequency excitation, damper is stroked at low amplitude and high frequency typically ±5 mm in rebound and compression stroke of damper, respectively where 5, 10 and 12 Hz are the input…