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Optimization of vehicle side panel to improve crashworthiness.

Kichumon Haldus
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2573
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The front of a car, though susceptible to the biggest impacts in terms of magnitude, has space and additional reinforcement to incorporate various safety measures. The rear has considerable amount of space to contain a proper crash box. The side of the car, though, doesn’t have this flexibility in design, the main limiting parameter being space. Any intrusion into the passenger cabin can result in serious injury or even death. The objective of this work is to improve the crashworthiness of a vehicle’s side so as to reduce intrusion into the passenger cabin. The work is focused on optimizing the door and B pillar. The optimized side panel is compared with the baseline model as per standard. ANSYS solver is used for the simulation. The optimized design applied to the door and B pillar will significantly improve crashworthiness of the vehicle side panel as a whole.
 
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Next Steps for the IIHS Side Crashworthiness Evaluation Program

Insurance Institute for Highway Safety (IIHS)-Raul A. Arbelaez, Becky C. Mueller, Matthew L. Brumbelow, Eric R. Teoh
Published 2019-07-08 by The Stapp Association in United States
Abstract - IIHS has been conducting side impact crash tests since 2003. To understand how the side crashworthiness program can be enhanced, an ongoing research effort is focused on understanding the correlation between IIHS ratings and driver death rate. In addition, the performance of good-rated late-model vehicles has been assessed in higher severity side crash tests. The purpose of this short communication is to summarize the ongoing work and potential next steps toward developing a new crash test procedure or updating ratings criteria to further advance side crashworthiness.
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Constructing a Concept Vehicle Structure Optimized for Crashworthiness

Dassault Systemes Simulia Corp.-Yangwook Choi, Shawn Freeman, Fabien Letailleur
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Multi-disciplinary optimization (MDO) of a vehicle structure at the earliest stages of design is critical as OEMs are pressed to reduce the design time in order to respond to various demands from the market. MDO for the three essential areas of performance of the vehicle structure (NVH, Crash, and Durability) needs the throughput for each of the major disciplines to be approximately in the same range of turn-around time. However, crashworthiness simulation typically takes significantly longer than the others, making it difficult to include crashworthiness in the MDO. There have been many approaches to address crash simulation in a shorter time. The lumped mass-spring method is one of the approaches but has not been widely accepted since there are many difficulties in modeling and replicating the existing structure. It required physical or Finite Element tests for all structural components to get the spring properties, and then it is hard to convert the optimized spring properties into the real design of the structural components. In this paper, a reversed workflow is presented to construct the structure…
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Structural Optimization of Thin-Walled Tubular Structures for Progressive Collapse Using Hybrid Cellular Automaton with a Prescribed Response Field

Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis-Andres Tovar
Purdue University-Homero Valladares, Joel Najmon
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The design optimization of thin-walled tubular structures is of relevance in the automotive industry due to their low cost, ease of manufacturing and installation, and high-energy absorption efficiency. This study presents a methodology to design thin-walled tubular structures for crashworthiness applications. During an impact, thin-walled tubular structures may exhibit progressive collapse/buckling, global collapse/buckling, or mixed collapse/buckling. From a crashworthiness standpoint, the most desirable collapse mode is progressive collapse due to its high-energy absorption efficiency, stable deformation, and low peak crush force (PCF). In the automotive industry, thin-walled components have complex structural geometries. These complexities and the several loading conditions present in a crash reduce the possibility of progressive collapse. The Hybrid Cellular Automata (HCA) method has shown to be an efficient continuum-based approach in crashworthiness design. All the current implementations of the HCA method use a scalar set point to design structures with a uniform distribution of a field variable, e.g., stress, strain, internal energy density (IED), mutual potential energy. For example, using IED and mutual potential energy as the field variable result in high…
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Has Electronic Stability Control Reduced Rollover Crashes?

Toyota Motor Corp.-Rini Sherony
Virginia Tech-Luke Riexinger, Hampton Gabler
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle rollovers are one of the more severe crash modes in the US - accounting for 32% of all passenger vehicle occupant fatalities annually. One design enhancement to help prevent rollovers is Electronic Stability Control (ESC) which can reduce loss of control and thus has great promise to enhance vehicle safety. The objectives of this research were (1) to estimate the effectiveness of ESC in reducing the number of rollover crashes and (2) to identify cases in which ESC did not prevent the rollover to potentially advance additional ESC development.All passenger vehicles and light trucks and vans that experienced a rollover from 2006 to 2015 in the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Database System (NASS/CDS) were analyzed. Each rollover was assigned a crash scenario based on the crash type, pre-crash maneuver, and pre-crash events. The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety ESC availability database was matched to each NASS/CDS case vehicle by the vehicle make, model, and model year. ESC effectiveness was computed using the quasi-induced exposure method.From 2006-2015, control loss was a factor in 29.7%…
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Design for Crashworthiness of Vehicle Structures Using an Extended Hybrid Cellular Automaton Method

General Motors-Chandan Mozumder, Simon Xu
Indiana University; Purdue University-Prasad Tapkir, Andres Tovar
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This paper introduces a design methodology to tailor the acceleration and displacement responses of a vehicle structure subjected to a dynamic crushing load. The proposed approach is an extension of the hybrid cellular automaton (HCA) method, through which the internal energy density is uniformly distributed within the structure. The proposed approach, referred here to as an extended HCA (xHCA) method, receives the suitable combinations of volume fraction and a finite element meta-parameter for which the algorithm synthesizes the load paths that allow the desired crash response. Lower meta-parameter values lead designs obtained by traditional optimizers, while larger values lead to designs obtained by the HCA method. Simultaneous implementation of multiple values of meta-parameters is presented here as a further development of xHCA method. Numerical examples of vehicle components under the side and the frontal impact are demonstrated to assess the xHCA capabilities of tailoring the crash responses.
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Dynamic Crushing Behaviors of Four Kinds of Auxetic Structures

Chinese University of Hong Kong-Qiang Gao
Nanjing University of Science & Technology-Ge Cheng Qiang, Liangmo Wang
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Auxetic structures/materials with the negative Poisson’s ratio (NPR) properties can contract when compressed and expand when stretched, different from the conventional structures/materials. Due to the unique properties, it can have higher stiffness and better impact resistance with lightweight. Therefore, the auxetic structures/materials have been applied in various engineering field, such as automobile crash box, suspension mount etc. For auxetic structures/materials with negative Poisson’s ratio, there are four typical configurations (re-entrant hexagonal, double-V, tetra star-shaped and tetra-chiral). However, comparisons on the dynamic behaviors and crashworthiness between the four auxetic structures have not been studied. In this paper, the finite element models were developed for four typical auxetic structures. The deformation modes and energy absorption properties of four different auxetic structures were explored under different impact velocities. Some interesting conclusions can be obtained to guide the engineers to how to choose and utilize the four typical auxetic structures.
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Simulation and Experimental Study on Crashworthiness of CFRP Body Electric Vehicle

RDC, China FAW Group Co.,Ltd.-Zhou Yao, Xuewu Zhu, Hongjian Li, Zhenglin Cao, Fangming Lou
ShareFEA Engineering Technology Co.,Ltd.-Yaohui Zhu
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP) composite materials typically have a high strength-to-weight ratio, which is the one of excellent solutions to develop the next generation of lightweight vehicles in automotive engineering, especially for electric vehicles. However, the process of acquiring mechanics properties under quasi-static and dynamic loading, construction of the constitutive model, building and validating crashworthiness model of CFRP materials remain research worthiness. The purpose of this study is to establish the passive safety model, connection, analysis and related methods of CFRP materials body, and to understand its crashworthiness. Based on the explicit numerical algorithm of LS-DYNA, the composite constitutive model *MAT_54 and adhesive constitutive model *MAT_169 are chosen. Three different models of CFRP and adhesive materials are constructed by simple piece test, then a simulation model of battery electric vehicle crashworthiness is built with CFRP composite material body, aluminum alloy frame, wheel hub motor and power battery, steel closures, chassis. The research focuses on the modeling method of zone, lay-up, overlap joint and adhesion. To give a proof of practicability, crash test (front sled…
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Design and Optimization of Crash-Box of Passenger Vehicle to Enhance Energy Absorption

ARAI Academy-Shreyas Sarage
Automotive Research Association of India-Mohammad Rafiq B. Agrewale, K.C. Vora
Published 2019-03-25 by SAE International in United States
Frontal crash is the most common type of accidents in passenger vehicles which results in severe injuries or fatalities. During frontal crash, some frontal vehicle body has plastic deformation and absorbs impact energy. Hence vehicle crashworthiness is important consideration for safety aspect. The crash box is one of the most important parts in vehicle frontal structure assembly which absorb crash energy during impact. In case of frontal crash accident, crash box is expected to be collapsed by absorbing crash energy prior to the other parts so that the damage to the main cabin frame and occupant injury can be minimized. The main objective of this work is to design and optimize the crash box of passenger vehicle to enhance energy absorption. The modeling of the crash box is done in CATIA V5 and simulations are carried out by using ANSYS. The results show significant improvement in the energy absorption with new design of the crash box and it is validated experimentally on UTM. Further numerical analysis of bumper beam assembly is performed with consideration of…
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Safety Testing for AVs is Just Beginning

Autonomous Vehicle Engineering: March 2019

Christopher O'Connor
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AVEP03_09
Published 2019-03-01 by SAE International in United States

There is much work to be done in creating accurate, reliable tests for occupant crashworthiness tailored to new AV designs and seating configurations.

NHTSA's plan to eventually update its New Car Assessment Program (NCAP) with new crash-test protocols is good news for both consumers and the mobility safety-systems industry. A revised NCAP will likely feature enhanced occupant safety testing as well as testing of active-safety features such as adaptive cruise control and automatic braking.

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