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A Study on the Design and Development of an Integrated 48V Motor with Motorized Internal Combustion Engine

Hyundai Motor Company-Jongwon Lee, Kyoung-Pyo Ha, Kihoon Nam
Korea Electronics Technology Institute-Jeongjong Lee
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0446
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The electrification of the internal combustion engine is an important item of future automotive technology. By using a motorized internal combustion engine, it is possible to recover waste energy by regeneration technology and to reduce various losses that reduce the efficiency of the internal combustion Engine. This paper summarizes the results of the development of an engine-integrated motor that can be applied to a 48V mild hybrid system for motorization of an internal combustion engine. Like the 48V MHSG-mounted mild hybrid system designed to replace the generator, the motorized internal combustion engine is designed with the scalability as the top priority to minimize the additional space for the vehicle and to mount the same engine in various models. The addition of an integrated motor to the crankshaft instead of the motor of a belt-driven mild hybrid system that replaces the generator will allow the removal of components with redundant functions, starters, etc. and the accessory belt system. The motor mounted on the crankshaft also helps to effectively overcome the disadvantages of the engine, which was…
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The Study on Combustion Information Feedback based on the Combination of Virtual Model and Actual Parameter Measurement

Tianjin University-lichun Shi, Tao Chen
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1151
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Combustion closed-loop control is now being studied intensively for engineering applications to increase fuel economy. Currently, combustion closed-loop feedback control is usually based on the cylinder pressure signal, which is the most direct and exact signal that reflect engine working process. Although there were some relatively cheap types of in-cylinder pressure sensors, cylinder pressure sensors have not been widely applied because of their high price now. Moreover, the combustion analysis based on cylinder pressure imposes high requirements on the information acquisition capability of the current ECU, such as high acquisition and analog-digital conversion frequency and so on . For developing an low price and feasible technology, a new engine information feedback method based on model calculation and crank angular velocity measurement was proposed. A simplified combustion model was operated in ECU for the real-time calculation of cylinder pressure and combustion parameters. At the same time, the angular velocity of the crankshaft was measured by the crankshaft flywheel end sensor for the indication of real-time cylinder pressure. The first derivative can indicate the peak phase of…
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Material model selection for numerical crankshaft deep rolling process simulation

Instituto Tecnológico de Aeronáutica-Luiz Aun Fonseca, Alfredo Rocha de Faria
University of Waterloo-Hamid Jahed, John Montesano
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1078
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Residual stress prediction arising from manufacturing processes provides paramount information for the fatigue performance assessment of components subjected to cyclic loading. The determination of the material model to be applied on the numerical model should be taken carefully. This study focus on the estimation of residual stresses generated after deep rolling of cast iron crankshafts. The researched literature on the field employs the available commercial material codes without closer consideration on their reverse loading capacities. To mitigate this gap, a single element model was used to compare potential material models with tensile-compression experiments. The best fit model was then applied to a previously developed crankshaft deep rolling numerical model. In order to confront the simulation outcomes, residual stresses were measured in two directions with real crankshaft specimens that passed through the same modeled deep rolling process. Electrolytic polishing was used to etch the region of interest and enable in-depth residual stress analysis through X-ray diffraction method. The comparison revealed the model’s ability to follow the residual stress state tendency, predicting compressive stresses at the surface,…
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Robust and optimum design selection for crank train dampers

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Anup Bhattacharya, Vivek Yadav, Abhijit Londhe
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0603
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Reduced engine noise and vibrations is a key challenge in product development which leads to better comfort for end customer. Cranktrain is a major contributor in the transfer path of gas oscillations. The noise and vibrations induced by cranktrain torsional resonances are reduced by providing torsional dampers. Dampers are also important for avoiding resonant failures. The requirements from dampers is high reliability, lesser sensitivity for manufacturing variability in rubber properties with respect to desired performance. The requirement from a cranktrain damper is to achieve minimum crankshaft vibratory torque. Also, damper heat dissipation and torsional oscillations need to be within acceptable limits. This depends on selection of damper dimensions, damper hub inertia, ring inertia and rubber stiffness. There is a non-linear dependence of these parameters on damper performance. Hence, it needs an optimizer with better design space exploration capabilities. This paper presents, reliability based optimization process starting with generation of RSM followed by NSGA-II evolutionary search algorithm to achieve robust optimum damper design in early phase of product development through simulation. The process reduced number of…
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Analysis for Dynamic Performances of Engine Front End Accessory Drive System under Accelerating Condition

Ningbo Fengmao Far-East Rubber Co.,Ltd-Weijun Zhao
South China University of Technology-Chujian Lin, Shangbin Long, Yi Sun, Wen-Bin Shangguan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0399
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
A model for a generic layout of an engine front end accessory drive system was established. The dynamic performance of the system were obtained via a numerical method. The dynamic performance consisted of the oscillation angle of tensioner arm, the slip ratio of each pulley and the dynamic belt tension. In modeling the system, the hysteretic behavior of an automatic tensioner, the loaded torque of the accessory pulley versus the engine speed, the torsional vibration of crankshaft and the creep of the belt were considered. The dynamic performance of the system at steady state and under accelerating condition were analyzed. An example was provided to validate the established models. The result shows that the torsional vibration of crankshaft is larger under accelerating conditions and the dynamic performance of the system is different, though the acceleration is small. In the end, the dynamic performance of the system using different belt with different Young’s modulus is studied by using the established model.
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Establishing Flex Plate optimization using hybrid technique for SUV Automatic transmission

Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd.-Vadivazhagan Gandhi, Vivek Yadav, Karthikeyan K, Anand Bidre
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0916
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
For Automatic transmission application, crankshaft torque is transferred to torque converter through flex plate. As the flex plate design has no functionality of storing energy as in case of MT flywheel, flex plate design can be optimized to great extent. Flex plate structure must have compliance to allow the axial deformation of torque convertor due to ballooning pressure generated inside the converter. Flex plate experiences dynamic torque and centrifugal forces due to high rotational speed. It should have compliance to accommodate the assembly misalignments with torque convertor in both axial and radial directions. In this paper, hybrid optimization technique is described used to optimize the flex plate design with stress, stiffness and mass as design criteria. The load path, corrugation length and axial stiffness of flex plate captured accurately using this hybrid optimization. The variation of shape, size, orientation and number of holes are based on the load path and axial stiffness of flex plate. The results show that 35 % of weight reduction is achieved with original design and it meets all design requirements…
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The Isochoric Engine

University of Stuttgart-Benjamin Burger, Michael Bargende
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0796
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
At the Institute for Internal Combustion Engines and Automotive Engineering at the University of Stuttgart, a single-cylinder gasoline engine with an actually isochoric combustion was developed and experimentally investigated regarding its thermodynamic behaviour. The constant-volume cycle is the most efficient in terms of thermodynamics. In this case, heat is supplied isochorously, which means at a constant volume. Due to the kinematics of the crank drive of a conventional reciprocating piston engine, combustion would have to take place infinitely fast. However, the conversion of the air-fuel mixture into heat actually requires a certain amount of time. Therefore, the approach taken in the research project was to eliminate the volumetric change during the combustion period. By superimposing the displacement functions of two counter-rotating crankshafts with different speeds and strokes, a variable stagnation of the piston movement around the top dead center is realized. For this purpose, a crankcase with appropriate mechanics was developed, designed and manufactured. By using different kinematic configurations, the dwell time of the piston can be up to 70 degrees crank angle. In the…
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Design and Development of Ultra-Low Friction High-Power Density Diesel Engine for the Indian Market

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Vikraman Vellandi, Prasad Namani, Suresh Bagavathy, Madhu Kishore Chalumuru
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0834
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Diesel engines are known for their excellent low-end torque, drivability, performance and fuel economy. The ever-increasing customer demands push the diesel engines continuously to deliver higher torque and power. However, the requirement of higher power and torque puts a great challenge on the mechanical friction which can greatly influence the vehicle level fuel economy in a negative way. This paper explains the methodology to design a high power-density diesel engine capable of 180 bar peak firing pressure yet achieving the lowest level of mechanical friction. The base engine architecture consists of 8mm crank-offset which is an optimized value to have the lowest piston side forces. The honing specification is changed from a standard plateau honing to an improved helical slide honing with optimized Rz, Rpk and Rvk values. The cumulative tangential force of the piston rings are reduced to an extreme value of 24 N. A rectangular special coated top ring and a low-friction architecture oil ring is used to reduce the friction without increasing the blow-by and oil consumption. A special low-friction coating is…
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Connecting Rod Durability and Big End Distortion Study

Royal Enfield-Nabeel Thekke Kolayath, Sreenivasulu T, Rod Giles
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0184
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The prediction of the connecting rod behaviour is one of the most important aspects of the engine design to estimate the engine life and its NVH behaviour. Connecting rod is usually simulated as a stand-alone component replacing the connected members with boundary conditions. These kinds of simulation usually underestimate the life of the connecting rod and overestimate the crankpin distortion. This unreal behaviour of simulation can result in over design of the crankshaft and wrong crankpin bearing selection, which can result in a noisy engine. The current Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is modelled by considering crankshaft, bearings and crankcase substructure along with the connecting rod to predict the fatigue life and bearing distortion. A multibody dynamics (MBD) simulation of the Cranktrain has been carried out to predict the forces and accelerations on the connecting rod by including the combustion force with a constant crankshaft speed for different conditions. Journal bearing crushing and bolt preload are the initial steps to the simulation. The extracted loads from MBD simulation at different conditions are imported into the FEA…
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Simulation Methodology to Analyze Overall Induction Heat Treatment Process of a Crank Shaft to Determine Effects on Structural Performance

General Motors LLC-Nilankan Karmakar, Anoop Retheesh, Pankaj Kumar Jha, Michael D. Nienhuis
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0506
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Steel crankshaft are subjected to an induction heat treatment process for improving the operational life. Hence, to predict the structural performance of a crankshaft using Computer Aided Engineering early in the design phase, it’s very important to simulate the overall induction heat treatment process. Metallurgical phase transformations during the heat treatment process have direct influence on the hardness and residual stress. The objective of this study is to establish the overall analysis procedure, starting from capturing the eddy current generation in the crank shaft due to rotating inductor coils to the prediction of resultant hardness and the induced residual stress. In the proposed methodology, an electromagnetic analysis is performed first to capture the Joule heating due to the surrounding inductor coil carrying high frequency alternating current. Then coupling is done between the electromagnetic and thermal analysis to capture the resultant temperature distribution due to the rotation of the inductor coil by a novel approach. Subsequent quenching operation is simulated then to capture the metallurgical phase changes and hardness using a python subroutine based on continuous…