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Development of PCX HEV

Honda Motor Co., Ltd.-Atsuo Ota
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2454
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
In the fourth-generation model of the 2018 PCX, the basic structure of frame was reviewed to make it lighter and rigid. Weight reduction was also adapted to its wheels. These enhancements contributed to its increased dynamic performances. The engine performances were enhanced as well, and all these features made it possible to provide a high-quality riding with composure of rider’s mind. In addition, we developed hybrid model PCX HYBRID that uses an ACG starter directly connected to a crankshaft as a drive assist system and realized pleasurable ride feeling with a more direct drive response.
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Development of Idling Stop System for 125 cm3 Scooters with Fuel Injection

Honda Motor Co., Ltd.-Atsuo Ota
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2449
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The idling stop system for scooters employs an ACG-starter connected directly to the crankshaft without reduction gears; therefore, it is possible to start the engine silently. The system is designed to stop the engine automatically when the scooter stops, and the engine restarts simply by opening the throttle. Scooters with 50 cm3 engines have already been employing the idling stop system. This system for 125 cm3 engines was developed to enlarge the application range of the idling stop system. It needs a large ACG starter because the cranking torque is higher than that of 50 cm3 engines, so the cranking torque was reduced by using a decompression device. The ACG starter was designed with a thin and large diameter construction in order to minimize the increase in engine width. The new idling stop system was developed with an integrated control of the fuel injection system and the ACG starter.
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Feasibility of Multiple Piston Motion Control Approaches in a Free Piston Engine Generator

West Virginia University-Mehar Bade, Nigel Clark, Parviz Famouri, PriyaankaDevi Guggilapu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2599
Published 2019-10-22 by SAE International in United States
The control and design optimization of a Free Piston Engine Generator (FPEG) has been found to be difficult as each independent variable changes the piston dynamics with respect to time. These dynamics, in turn, alter the generator and engine response to other governing variables. As a result, the FPEG system requires an energy balance control algorithm such that the cumulative energy delivered by the engine is equal to the cumulative energy taken by the generator for stable operation. The main objective of this control algorithm is to match the power generated by the engine to the power demanded by the generator. In a conventional crankshaft engine, this energy balance control is similar to the use of a governor and a flywheel to control the rotational speed. In general, if the generator consumes more energy in a cycle than the engine provides, the system moves towards a stall. If the generator consumes less energy, then the effective stroke, compression ratio and maximum translator velocity must rise steadily from cycle-to-cycle until the heat transfer losses stop the…
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Design of a Hybrid Power Unit for Formula SAE Application: Packaging Optimization and Thermomechanical Design of the Electric Motor Case

University of Modena and Reggio Emilia-Valerio Mangeruga, Matteo Giacopini, Saverio Giulio Barbieri, Fabio Berni, Enrico Mattarelli, Carlo Rinaldini
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents the development of a parallel hybrid power unit for Formula SAE application. In particular, the system is made up of a brand new, single-cylinder 480 cc internal combustion engine developed on the basis of the Ducati “959 Superquadro” V90 2-cylinders engine. The thermal engine is assisted by a custom electric motor (30 kW), powered by a Li-Ion battery pack. The performance of the ICE has been optimized through CFD-1D simulation (a review of this activity is reported in a parallel paper). The main design goal is to get the maximum amount of mechanical energy from the fuel, considering the car typical usage: racing on a windy track. The Ducati “959 Superquadro” engine is chosen because of its high power-to-weight ratio, as well as for its V90 2-cylinder layout. In fact, the vertical engine head is removed and it is subsequently replaced by the electric motor directly engaged to the crankshaft using the original valvetrain transmission chain, thus achieving a very compact package. The mechanical behaviour of the original chain is investigated for…
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The Szorenyi Three-Chamber Rotary Engine Concept

Partner Rotary Engine Development Agency-Peter King
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
Currently automotive engines are reciprocating or Wankel rotary engine types. Reciprocating engines are bulky, heavy and complex, mainly due to the intake and exhaust valves and their associated cam-train. Wankel engines have a low rotor rev limit, and have inefficient sealing of the apex seals leading to poor economy and undesirable emission gases. The Rotary Engine Development Agency (REDA) has designed a new three-chamber rotary internal combustion engine concept using an adaptation of the patented Szorenyi Curve. The new design is an evolution of the design which was the subject of SAE Technical Paper 2017-01-2413 and SAE publication ‘So You Want to Design Engines: UAV Propulsion Systems’. This paper describes the features of the new three-chamber engine concept and includes an analysis of the major shortcomings of the Wankel engine. The Wankel engine’s geometry results in excessive crankshaft deflection at high engine revs due to the centrifugal force of the rotor which is eccentric to the crankshaft. This results in a low rotational speed limit. Analysis of the Wankel design reveals that the rotational speed…
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A Comprehensive Hybrid Vehicle Model for Energetic Analyses on Different Powertrain Architectures

Universita degli Studi di Salerno-Davide Cervone, Bernardo Sessa, Ivan Arsie, Cesare Pianese, Pierpaolo Polverino
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0064
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
In the global quest for preventing fossil fuel depletion and reducing air pollution, hybridization plays a fundamental role to achieve cleaner and more fuel-efficient automotive propulsion systems.While hybrid powertrains offer many opportunities, they also present new developmental challenges. Due to the many variants and possible architectures, development issues, such as the definition of powertrain concepts and the optimization of operating strategies, are becoming more and more important.The paper presents model-based fuel economy analyses of different hybrid vehicle configurations, depending on the position of the electric motor generator (EMG). The analyses are intended to support the design of powertrain architecture and the components sizing, depending on the driving scenario, with the aim of reducing fuel consumption and CO2 emissions.The analyses are performed making use of a comprehensive vehicle model, based on a hybrid (black-box and lumped parameters) approach, of a medium passenger car equipped with a turbocharged Diesel engine. The model has been enhanced to account for the additional components of two different powertrain configurations: one with the EMG directly coupled to the crankshaft and the…
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A Mild Hybrid SIDI Turbo Passenger Car Engine with Organic Rankine Cycle Waste Heat Recovery

Volvo Car Corporation-Fredrik B. Ekström, Ola Rolandson, Soren Eriksson, Christer Odenmarck, Mattias Svensson, Andreas Eriksson, Hans Olsen
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
While striving for more fuel-efficient vehicles, all possible measures are considered to increase the efficiency of the combustion engine powertrain. 48V mild hybrid technology is one such measure, SIDI (Spark Ignited Direct Injection) engines with Miller technology are another, while recovering energy from the engine’s waste heat (WHR) is yet another option.In this paper, results will be published from an advanced engineering project at Volvo Cars including all of these components. An ethanol based Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) WHR-system was successfully built around a 4-cylinder, 2.0 litre SIDI-engine, including 48V mild hybrid technology, with vehicle packaging considered. A dedicated control system was also developed for the ORC system including communication between it and the engine. The ORC system uses the engine exhaust as the heat source, for which a purpose-built evaporator was designed and built to fit in the vehicle tunnel. The expansion of the ethanol vapour occurs in an axial piston expander coupled both electrically to the hybrid system and mechanically to the engine crankshaft via a belt-drive. This dual power output from the…
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Friction Reduction by Optimization of Local Oil Temperatures

University of Kassel-Oemer Oezdemir, Adrian Rienäcker
University of Stuttgart-Kevin Huttinger, Michael Bargende
Published 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
The reduction of engine-out emissions and increase of the total efficiency is a fundamental approach to reduce the fuel consumption and thus emissions of vehicles driven by combustion engines. Conventional passenger cars are operated mainly in lower part loads for most of their lifetime. Under these conditions, oil temperatures are far below the maximum temperature allowed and dominate inside the journal bearings. Therefore, the objective of this research was to investigate possible potentials of friction reduction by optimizing the combustion engine’s thermal management of the oil circuit.Within the engine investigations, it was shown that especially the friction of the main and connecting rod bearings could be reduced with an increase of the oil supply temperature. Furthermore, on a journal bearing test rig, it was shown that no excessive wear of the bearings is to be expected in case of load increase and simultaneous supply of cooler oil. In addition to the test investigations, MBS-(T)EHL simulation models were built up to investigate the behavior of the crankshaft bearings. Different driving profiles were simulated using GT-Suite to…
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Optimization Approach to Passive Engine Mounting System for Reducing Automotive Vibrations

K. N. Toosi University of Technology-Reza Abedi, Amir H. Shamekhia
Shahid Beheshti University-Abbas Rahi
Published 2019-07-08 by SAE International in United States
Improvised noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH) performance of vehicle implies better comfort for passengers. Apart from road inputs, engine vibration is one of the major contributors to interior vibrations in automotive. The aim of this paper is to optimize specifications and locations of engine mounts to reduce vehicle vibration without affecting engine performance and to provide better ride comfort. This paper also includes the challenges involved in the analysis of engine vibration on critical conditions such as movement on the road surface or braking action. Therefore, a fully numerical simulation expands to a four-cylinder engine by considering piston side force. In this model, the mass distribution in the connecting rod and crankshaft, outside of the center pin, and friction between the cylinder and piston have been considered. Furthermore, simulation analysis is implemented for an engine in vehicle movement with constant speed on the road class B roughness and braking conditions. Engine location, the angle of placement, and dynamic characteristics of mounts are the important parameters to reduce vibrations transferred to the vehicle frame. The optimization…
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Machine Learning Algorithm for the Prediction of Idle Combustion Uniformity

Xiaoqi Li
Ford Motor Company-Abdelkrim Zouani
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Combustion stability is a key contributor to engine shake at idle speed and can impact the overall perception of vehicle quality. The sub-firing harmonics of the combustion torque are used as a metric to assess idle shake and are, typically, measured at different levels of engine break mean effective pressure (BMEP). Due to the nature of the combustion phenomena at idle, it is clear that predicting the cycle-to-cycle and cylinder-to-cylinder combustion pressure variations, required to assess the combustion uniformity, cannot be achieved with the state of the art simulation technology.Inspired by the advancement in the field of machine learning and artificial intelligence and by the availability of a large amount of measured combustion test data, this paper explores the performance of various machine learning algorithms in predicting the idle combustion uniformity. The algorithms that are explored include Neural Network (NN), Support Vector Machine (SVM), Ensembles of Trees (EOT) and Gaussian Process (GP). The variables selected as inputs to these algorithms include BMEP, indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP), pumping mean effective pressure (PMEP), spark timing, crank…
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