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Searching for Optimal Solutions for Motor Performance Design

Honda R&D Co.,Ltd.-Yuko Miyabe, Masahito Kakema, Toshihiro Saito
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0460
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Because strength and the torque/rotational speed characteristic play a considerable role in determining the maximum speed and the acceleration force of a vehicle, they have been taken up as optimization issues. By contrast, loss and torque ripple have not necessarily been focused on in the initial search for optimal solutions. They are both linked to efficiency, comfortability, and the cost of development of the cooling system and supporting structures, however, it is necessary to reduce both parameters. For this reason, it is important to search for the Pareto front for strength, the torque/rotational speed characteristic, loss, and torque ripple at the initial stage of design. The strength constraint was set that von Mises stress in the rotor core in relation to the centrifugal force load at maximum speed would not exceed the breaking strength of a standard electromagnetic steel sheet material. The torque/rotational speed characteristic employed the maximum torque for each rotational speed when maximum torque per ampere control and field weakening control are applied, with consideration of maximum input voltage and current. Maximum torque…
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Effects of n-Butanol Additions on Combustion and Emission Characteristics of HTL and Diesel blends

Beijing Institute of Technology-Ziming Yang
Univ of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign-Timothy Lee
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0393
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Biocrude diesel converted from wet biowaste via hydrothermal liquefaction (HTL) is drawing increased attention in recent years due to its wide range of raw materials (algae, swine manure, and food processing waste). However, from the previous experiments done in a constant volume chamber, it was observed that the presence of 20% of HTL in the blend produced as much soot as pure diesel at the ambient oxygen ratio of 21%, and even more soot at low oxygen ratios. It was also observed that n-butanol additions could reduce the soot emissions of diesel significantly under all tested conditions. In this work, the spray and combustion characteristics of HTL and diesel blends with n-butanol added were investigated in a constant volume chamber. The ambient temperature and oxygen ranged from 800 to 1200 K and 13% to 21%, respectively, covering both conventional and low-temperature combustion (LTC) regimes. Time-resolved images of the spray and natural flame luminosity (an indicator of soot) were captured by a high-speed camera coupled with a copper vapor laser beam. The experiments revealed that n-butanol…
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Elucidation of Mechanism of Piston Pin Bushes Sulfidation Corrosion

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Ryuta Motani, Kazuki Maeyama, Kenta Yoshii, Shinji Oshida, Hiroki Masuda, Tomohiro Ikeda, Tatsuya Okayama, Shinichi Takahashi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1079
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Today, downsizing is realizing lighter and more compact engines, but at the same time, the use of turbochargers and other supercharging devices in order to supplement power and torque is increasing their power density, resulting in higher thermal and mechanical loads. In such environment, corrosion of the copper alloy bushes (piston pin bushes) that are press-fitted into the small ends of the conrods is becoming an issue. It is known that automotive bearing materials such as bushes suffer sulfidation corrosion as a result of reacting with an extreme-pressure additive (Zn-DTP) in the lubricating oil, but the reaction paths remain unclear. The research discussed in this paper therefore tried to elucidate the reaction paths in the reaction between Zn-DTP and copper in actual vehicle environments. Unit corrosion tests were conducted in order to identify the effect of the state of degradation of the oil and its temperature and copper content on corrosion. The results of these tests suggested that the direct reaction between copper and Zn-DTP was not the main factor in the corrosion under study,…
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Investigation on Tribological Performance of Nano Zno and Mixed Oxide of Cu – Zn as Additives in Engine Oil.

Hindustan Institute of Technology & Scie-Bharadwaj Ramakrishnan, Jaikumar Mayakrishnan, INDUJA SARAVANAN, S Jenoris Muthiya
Hindustan Institute of Technology & Science-Sangeethkumar Elumalai
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1095
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Lubrication plays an essential role in wear reduction of various mechanisms, eliminating surface to surface contact of components. In the automotive field the lubricants, in the form of oils or greases, are presented in motors, gearboxes, distributors, differentials, pumps, bearings etc. The quality and the condition of lubricants influence the performance through the properties as high pressure resistance, viscosity and viscosity index, anti-wear and anti-corrosion resistance etc. The Proper lubrication augments the efficiency and the reliability of engines and protects against corrosion and wear. In an internal combustion engine, almost 33% of the energy produced by the fuel during combustion was wasted due to very high friction between the moving parts in the engine because the engine oil could not play a effective role during in different operating condition. Nanoparticles used as additives in the engine oil can exhibit good friction reduction and anti-wear behavior. The present study aims to enhance the tribological performance of engine oil SAE(20W-40) by employing nano zinc oxide and mixed oxides of copper and zinc as additives. The zinc oxide…
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Plating, Silver, Copper Strike, Low Bake

AMS B Finishes Processes and Fluids Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS2412L
  • Current
Published 2020-01-16 by SAE International in United States

This specification covers the requirements for silver deposited on metal parts with a copper strike between the basis metal and the silver deposit.

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Wire, Electrical, Polyvinyl Chloride Insulated, Nylon Jacket, Tin-Coated Copper Conductor, Medium Weight, 600-Volt, 105 °C

AE-8D Wire and Cable Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS50861/7A
  • Current
Published 2019-12-05 by SAE International in United States

Scope is unavailable.

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WIRE, ELECTRICAL, POLYVINYL CHLORIDE INSULATED, POLYAMIDE JACKET, TIN-COATED COPPER CONDUCTOR, 600-VOLT, 105 °C

AE-8D Wire and Cable Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS50861/1A
  • Current
Published 2019-12-05 by SAE International in United States

Scope is unavailable.

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WIRE, ELECTRICAL, POLYVINYL CHLORIDE INSULATED, PVC-GLASS-POLYAMIDE, TIN-COATED COPPER CONDUCTOR, 600-VOLT, 105 °C

AE-8D Wire and Cable Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • AS50861/2A
  • Current
Published 2019-12-05 by SAE International in United States

Scope is unavailable.

Superconductivity in a Nickel Oxide Material

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-35689
Published 2019-12-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Scientists have made the first nickel oxide material that shows clear signs of superconductivity — the ability to transmit electrical current with no loss. Also known as a nickelate, it's the first unconventional superconductor that is very similar to copper oxides, or cuprates, which indicated that superconductors could someday operate at near-room-temperature and revolutionize electronic devices, power transmission, and other technologies. Those similarities may show that nickelates could also superconduct at relatively high temperatures.

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Determine Thermal Fatigue Requirements for PEPS Antenna Copper Wire over Vehicle Lifetime with Defined Reliability Requirements

GMTCI-Abhinav Jauhri
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2582
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Reliability states the degree to which the result of a measurement, calculation, or specification can be depended on to be accurate. And, tests according to GM specifications represents a minimum of 15 years of vehicle life time with defined Reliability and Confidence level.In this work, actual number of thermal cycles for Thermal Fatigue tests (Thermal Shock and Power Temperature Cycle) are calculated for Copper Wire whose Coffin Manson exponent is 5.Overstressing the PEPS Antenna under thermal fatigue requirement (defined number of thermal cycles based on Reliability and Confidence requirements) will lead to broken Copper wire which will result in component’s functional failure and thus impossible to continue reliability testing.The objective of this paper is to determine thermal fatigue requirements for Antenna’s Copper wire whose Coffin Manson exponent is 5. Testing with exact number of thermal cycles will reduce the validation failures owing to broken Copper wire and thus save incurred revalidation cost.The current study is limited to only adjusting the thermal fatigue requirements (Number of Thermal Cycles) for only specific E/E components having Copper wire…
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