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Leveraging real-world driving data sets for design and impact evaluation of energy efficient control strategies.

General Motors LLC-Bharatkumar Hegde, Steven E. Muldoon
National Renewable Energy Laboratory-Michael O'Keefe, Jeffrey Gonder
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0585
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Modeling and simulation are crucial in the development of advanced energy efficient control strategies. Utilizing real-world driving data as the underlying basis for control design and simulation lends veracity to projected real-world energy savings. Standardized drive cycles are limited in their utility for evaluating advanced driving strategies that utilize connectivity and on-vehicle sensing, primarily because they are non-causal and are typically intended for evaluating emission and fuel economy under controlled conditions. Real-world driving data, because of its scale, is a useful representation of various road types, driving styles, and driving environments. The scale of real-world data also presents challenges in effectively using it in simulations. A fast and efficient simulation methodology is necessary to handle the large number of simulations performed for design analysis and impact evaluation of control strategies. In this study, we present two methods of leveraging real-world data in both design optimization of energy efficient control strategies and in evaluating the real-world impact of those control strategies upon large-scale deployment. Through these methodologies, strategies with highest impact on energy savings were selected…
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Data-driven framework for fuel efficiency improvement in extended range electric vehicle used in package delivery applications

University of Minnesota-Pengyue Wang, William Northrop
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0589
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Extended-range electric vehicles (EREVs) are a potential solution for fossil fuel usage mitigation and on-road emissions reduction. EREVs can be shown to yield significant fuel economy improvements when the proper energy management strategies (EMSs) are employed. However, many in-use EREVs achieve only moderate fuel reduction compared to conventional vehicles due to the fact that their EMS is far from optimal. This paper focuses on rule-based optimization methods to improve the fuel efficiency of EREV last-mile delivery vehicles equipped with two-way Vehicle-to-Could (V2C) connectivity. The method uses previous vehicle data collected on actual delivery routes and a machine learning method to improve the fuel economy of future routes. The paper first introduces the main challenges of the project such as inherent uncertainty in human driver behavior and in the roadway environment. Then, the framework of our practical physics-model guided data-driven approach is introduced. For vehicles with small amounts of previous data, a Bayesian method is used to adjust a control parameter in the EMS offline for each vehicle with introduced prior information derived from large numbers…
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Utilization of vehicle connectivity for improved energy consumption of a speed harmonized cohort of vehicles.

Michigan Technological University-Christopher Morgan, Darrell Robinette, Pruthwiraj Santhosh, John Bloom-Edmonds
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0587
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Improving vehicle response through advanced knowledge of traffic behavior can lead to large improvements in energy consumption for the single isolated vehicle. This energy savings across multiple vehicles can even be larger if they travel together as a cohort in harmonization. Additionally, if the vehicles have enough information about their immediate path of travel, and other vehicles’ in that path (and their respective critical forward looking information), they can safely drive close enough to each other to share aerodynamic load. These energy savings can be upwards of multiple percentage points, and are dependent on several criteria. This analysis looks at criteria that contributes to energy savings for a cohort of vehicles in synchronous motion, as well as describes a study that allows for better understanding of the potential benefits of different types of cohorted vehicles in different platoon arrangements. The basis of this study is a precursor to developing a connected vehicle application that safely allows for fully controlled platooning on open highway for multi-destination vehicles. In this study, two types of light duty passenger…
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AR projection for driver assistance in autonomous vehicles

Automotive Accessories-Nalinikanth Yerram, Balasubramanian Achuthan
Embedded Systems Software & Security-Srinivas Chandupatla
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1035
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Augmented Reality (AR), which involves the integration of digital information with our physical environment in real-time, has been steadily growing over the past few years, finding its way into multiple areas of our lives. Augmented Reality (AR) in automotive vehicles has contributed to revolutionizing the way passengers and drivers access information, acquire knowledge and integrate into the physical spaces and destinations visited. The studies produced concerning this field are still limited, particularly in the perception of how users adopt technology and what use they make of it. On the other hand, even more limited are the studies that consider the role of stakeholders in the implementation of AR technology. In this paper, we discuss and propose solutions for following ADAS applications using projection unit mounted on board projecting on the windshield. • 5G in your route (signal strength - android applications on HU to detect the signal strength and display it on projection unit)). 5G connectivity help to realize the future of connected cars through higher speeds (up to 10 Gbps), better coverage (capacity expansion…
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In-vehicle diagnostic system for prognostics and OTA updates of automated / autonomous vehicles.

Softing Automotive Electronics GmbH-Peter Subke, Muzafar Moshref, Julian Erber
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1373
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The E/E architecture of a modern passenger car consist of a central connectivity gateway that comes with an interface to the legally required OBD connector (SAE J1978), to domain controllers and to a Telematic Control Unit (TCU). The TCU supports 4G or 5G and provides the wireless connection to the cloud. The domain controllers are connected to the gateway via 2-wire Ethernet with a star topology, whereby the domain controllers act as gateways to CAN FD bus systems. The interface to the wired OBD connector supports both OBD/UDS on CAN and UDS on IP. The new E/E system comes with increased self-diagnostic capabilities. They automatically perform tests, log diagnostic data and push such data for prognostics purposes to the cloud. They also support over-the-air (OTA) updates. This paper describes the components of an E/E system that is equipped with an in-vehicle diagnostic tester. The tester consists of standardized components, including MVCI D-Server (ISO 22900), ODX (ISO 22901), OTX (ISO 13209) and UDS on IP (ISO 14229-5). The paper includes a description of cybersecurity measures to…
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Challenges in integrating Cybersecurity into existing development processes

Invensity GmbH-Patric Lenhart, Paul Arndt, Jana von Wedel, Christian Beul, Jan Weldert
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0144
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
For an established development process and a team accustomed to this process, adding security features to the product initially means inconvenience and reduced productivity. Due to the progression towards a modern information society, connectivity is becoming a vital part of more and more systems. Increased connectivity especially of embedded devices and a rise of cyber-attacks lead to more risks which need to be acknowledged during the respective development processes to fulfil customers’ expectations. Dealing with these risks requires adapting development processes to take Cybersecurity into account. This introduces challenges not present in engineering divisions so far and strategies designed to deal with these challenges differ in the way in which added duties are assigned and security topics are integrated into the already existing process steps. Security requirements often clash with existing system requirements or established development methods and their importance is not easily understood. Due to this fact, their acceptance amongst developers can be low, making it even more important to have clear policies how differences between security and other fields are handled. Also, the…
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SelfTrust – A practical approach for trust establishment

Aptiv Components India Pvt., Ltd.-Ranjit Vinayak Abhyankar, Sreenath A
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0720
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In recent years, with increase in external connectivity (V2X, Telematics, mobile projection, BYOD) the automobile is becoming a target of cyberattacks and intrusions. Any such intrusion reduces customer trust in connected cars and negatively impacts brand image (like the recent Jeep Cherokee hack). To protect against intrusion, a number of mechanisms are available: which can vary from a simple scheme like secure CAN to specialized software like symbiote defense. Few systems (Like V2X) also plan to implement detection of an intrusion (defined as a misbehaving entity). However, most of the mechanisms require a system wide change, adds to the cost and negatively impacts the performance. In this paper, we are proposing a practical and scalable approach of intrusion detection. Use of existing security mechanisms like TrustZone® and watermarking, little or no impact on cost and performance are some of the benefits of our approach. In addition, our approach is scalable and does not require any system wide changes. To detect intrusions, we propose a combination of TrustZone® secure space approach along with a mechanism of…
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Concurrent Optimization of Vehicle Dynamics and Powertrain Operation Using Connectivity and Automation

University Of Delaware-A M Ishtiaque Mahbub, Andreas A. Malikopoulos
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0580
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Connected and automated vehicles (CAVs) provide the most intriguing opportunity to reduce energy consumption and travel delays. In this paper, we propose a two-level control architecture for CAVs to optimize (1) the vehicle's speed profile, aimed at minimizing stop-and-go driving, and (2) the powertrain efficiency of the vehicle for the optimal speed profile derived in (1). The proposed hierarchical control framework can be implemented onboard the vehicle in real time with minimal computational effort. We evaluate the effectiveness of the efficiency of the proposed architecture through simulation in Mcity using a 100% penetration rate of CAVs. The results show that the proposed approach yields significant benefits both in energy and travel time.
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Energy-optimal deceleration planning system for regenerative braking of electrified vehicles with connectivity and automation

Hyundai Motor Co.-Dohee Kim
Hyundai Motor Co. & KIA Motors Corp.-Jeong Soo Eo, Ryan Miller
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0582
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents an energy-optimal deceleration planning system (EDPS) to maximize regenerative energy for electrified vehicles on deceleration events resulted from map information and connected communication. The optimization range for EDPS is restricted within an upcoming deceleration event rather than the entire routes while considering vehicles driving in front of ego-vehicle. The EDPS is an ecological driver assistance system with level 2 or 3 automation since acceleration is operated by an adaptive cruising system or a human driver and deceleration is operated on a unit of deceleration events which are divided into static ones such as turning and warning as well as dynamic ones such as traffic light. The event-based optimal deceleration profile is obtained by a dynamic programming framework including a driving motor performance model and a gear box model, and with the detection of a front vehicle the profile is updated in real time by nonlinear model predictive control scheme which considers a connected configuration and a modified intelligent driver model. The performance of EDPS has been rigorously validated both based on real-world…
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A cybersecurity testbed for connected and autonomous vehicles

Ohio State University-Matthew Appel, Pradeep Sharma Oruganti, Qadeer Ahmed, Jaxon Wilkerson, Rubanraj Sekar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1291
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Connectivity and autonomy in vehicles promise improved efficiency, safety and comfort. The increasing use of embedded systems and the cyber element bring with them many challenges regarding cyberattacks which can seriously compromise driver and passenger safety. Beyond penetration testing, assessment of the security vulnerabilities of a component must be done through the design phase of its life cycle. This paper describes the development of a benchtop testbed which allows for the safety and security evaluations of components with all capabilities from Model-in-loop to Software-in-loop to Hardware-in-loop testing. Environment simulation is obtained using the AV simulator, CARLA which provides realistic scenarios and sensor information such as Radar, Lidar etc. MATLAB runs the vehicle, powertrain and control models of the vehicle allowing for the implementation and testing of realistic models. Real-time simulation and connectivity with external components is obtained through the use of a Speedgoat real-time machine. A fluid integration between the multiple software parts are realized using Robotic-Operating-System (ROS). Communication with external hardware can be achieved through different network protocols such as CAN, LIN, SAE J1939…