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Cooperative Mandatory Lane Change for Connected Vehicles on Signalized Intersection Roads

Clemson University-Zhiyuan Du, Bin Xu, Pierluigi Pisu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0889
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a hierarchical control architecture to coordinate a group of connected vehicles on signalized intersection roads, where vehicles are allowed to change lane to follow a prescribed path. The proposed hierarchical control strategy consists of two control levels: a high level controller at the intersection and a decentralized low level controller in each car. In the hierarchical control architecture, the centralized intersection controller estimates the target velocity for each approaching connected vehicle to avoid red light stop based on the signal phase and timing (SPAT) information. Each connected vehicle as a decentralized controller utilizes model predictive control (MPC) to track the target velocity in a fuel efficient manner. The main objective in this paper is to consider mandatory lane changes. As in the realistic scenarios, vehicles are not required to drive in single lane. More specifically, they more likely change their lanes prior to signals. Hence, the vehicle decentralized controllers must prepare to cooperate with the vehicle that has a mandatory lane change request (host vehicle). The cooperative mandatory lane change is accomplished…
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Data-Driven Framework for Fuel Efficiency Improvement in Extended Range Electric Vehicle Used in Package Delivery Applications

University of Minnesota-Pengyue Wang, William Northrop
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0589
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Extended range electric vehicles (EREVs) are a potential solution for fossil fuel usage mitigation and on-road emissions reduction. The use of EREVs can be shown to yield significant fuel economy improvements when proper energy management strategies (EMSs) are employed. However, many in-use EREVs achieve only moderate fuel reduction compared to conventional vehicles due to the fact that their EMS is far from optimal. This paper focuses on in-use rule-based EMSs to improve the fuel efficiency of EREV last-mile delivery vehicles equipped with two-way Vehicle-to-Could (V2C) connectivity. The method uses previous vehicle data collected on actual delivery routes and machine learning methods to improve the fuel economy of future routes. The paper first introduces the main challenges of the project, such as inherent uncertainty in human driver behavior and in the roadway environment. Then, the framework of our practical physics-model guided data-driven approach is introduced. For vehicles with small amounts of prior data, a Bayesian method is used to adjust a control parameter in the EMS offline for each vehicle with introduced prior information derived from…
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Utilization of Vehicle Connectivity for Improved Energy Consumption of a Speed Harmonized Cohort of Vehicles

Michigan Technological University-Christopher Morgan, Darrell Robinette, Pruthwiraj Santhosh, John Bloom-Edmonds
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0587
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Improving vehicle response through advanced knowledge of traffic behavior can lead to large improvements in energy consumption for the single isolated vehicle. This energy savings across multiple vehicles can even be larger if they travel together as a cohort in harmonization. Additionally, if the vehicles have enough information about their immediate path of travel, and other vehicles’ in that path (and their respective critical forward-looking information), they can safely drive close enough to each other to share aerodynamic load. These energy savings can be upwards of multiple percentage points, and are dependent on several criteria. This analysis looks at criteria that contributes to energy savings for a cohort of vehicles in synchronous motion, as well as describes a study that allows for better understanding of the potential benefits of different types of cohorted vehicles in different platoon arrangements. The basis of this study is a precursor to developing a connected vehicle application that safely allows for fully controlled platooning on open highway for multi-destination vehicles.In this study, a set of light duty plug-in hybrid electric…
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A Connected Controls and Optimization System for Vehicle Dynamics and Powertrain Operation on a Light-Duty Plug-In Multi-Mode Hybrid Electric Vehicle

Michigan Technological University-Joseph Oncken, Joshua Orlando, Pradeep K. Bhat, Brandon Narodzonek, Christopher Morgan, Darrell Robinette, Bo Chen, Jeffrey Naber
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0591
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents an overview of the connected controls and optimization system for vehicle dynamics and powertrain operation on a light-duty plug-in multi-mode hybrid electric vehicle developed as part of the DOE ARPA-E NEXTCAR program by Michigan Technological University in partnership with General Motors Co. The objective is to enable a 20% reduction in overall energy consumption and a 6% increase in electric vehicle range of a plug-in hybrid electric vehicle through the utilization of connected and automated vehicle technologies. Technologies developed to achieve this goal were developed in two categories, the vehicle control level and the powertrain control level. Tools at the vehicle control level include Eco Routing, Speed Harmonization, Eco Approach and Departure and in-situ vehicle parameter characterization. Tools at the powertrain level include PHEV mode blending, predictive drive-unit state control, and non-linear model predictive control powertrain power split management. These tools were developed with the capability of being implemented in a real-time vehicle control system. As a result, many of the developed technologies have been demonstrated in real-time using a fleet of…
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AR projection for driver assistance in autonomous vehicles

Automotive Accessories-Nalinikanth Yerram, Balasubramanian Achuthan
Embedded Systems Software & Security-Srinivas Chandupatla
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1035
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Augmented Reality (AR), which involves the integration of digital information with our physical environment in real-time, has been steadily growing over the past few years, finding its way into multiple areas of our lives. Augmented Reality (AR) in automotive vehicles has contributed to revolutionizing the way passengers and drivers access information, acquire knowledge and integrate into the physical spaces and destinations visited. The studies produced concerning this field are still limited, particularly in the perception of how users adopt technology and what use they make of it. On the other hand, even more limited are the studies that consider the role of stakeholders in the implementation of AR technology. In this paper, we discuss and propose solutions for following ADAS applications using projection unit mounted on board projecting on the windshield. • 5G in your route (signal strength - android applications on HU to detect the signal strength and display it on projection unit)). 5G connectivity help to realize the future of connected cars through higher speeds (up to 10 Gbps), better coverage (capacity expansion…
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Benchmarking Computational Time of Dynamic Programming for Autonomous Vehicle Powertrain Control

Ohio State University-Wilson Perez, Amit Ruhela, Punit Tulpule
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0968
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Dynamic programming (DP) has been used for optimal control of hybrid powertrain and vehicle speed optimization particularly in design phase for over a couple of decades. With the advent of autonomous and connected vehicle technologies, automotive industry is getting closer to implementing predictive optimal control strategies in real time applications. The biggest challenge in implementation of optimal controls is the limitation on hardware which includes processor speed, IO speed, and random access memory. Due to the use of autonomous features, modern vehicles are equipped with better onboard computational resources. In this paper we present a comparison between multiple hardware options for dynamic programming. The optimal control problem considered, is the optimization of travel time and fuel economy by tuning the torque split ratio and vehicle speed while maintaining charge sustaining operation. The system has two states - battery state of charge and vehicle speed, and two inputs namely, total torque and torque split ratio. First, we develop a Matlab® based program to solve the optimal control problem. The Matlab® code is optimized for performance and…
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Android Defense in Depth Strategy in an Automobile Ecosystem

Automotive Accessories-Nalinikanth Yerram
Embedded Systems Software & Security-Srinivas Chandupatla
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1365
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Android is becoming an environment of choice in the automotive sector because of near production grade open source stack availability and large developer community. With growing interest from Automotive OEMs for Android IVI (In-Vehicle Infotainment) solutions, we predict a similar growth trend in an automobile like in Mobile space. At another end, the need for more interconnected devices within the Automobile ecosystem is increasing, which leads to an increased threat to security. In sophisticated device interconnections, identifying the gateways and implementing the right security strategy is key to improve overall system security & stability. While Android is maturing for automotive and with growing interest from automotive OEMs, we spent time in analyzing current Android defense-in-depth concepts with the automotive perspective. The main aim of this paper is to examine the current defense-in-depth strategies available in Android and propose additional measures to meet automotive needs. This paper shall aid OEM’s to consider proposed strategies for their Android IVI solutions for increased security & safety.
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In-vehicle diagnostic system for prognostics and OTA updates of automated / autonomous vehicles.

Softing Automotive Electronics GmbH-Peter Subke, Muzafar Moshref, Julian Erber
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1373
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The E/E architecture of a modern passenger car consist of a central connectivity gateway that comes with an interface to the legally required OBD connector (SAE J1978), to domain controllers and to a Telematic Control Unit (TCU). The TCU supports 4G or 5G and provides the wireless connection to the cloud. The domain controllers are connected to the gateway via 2-wire Ethernet with a star topology, whereby the domain controllers act as gateways to CAN FD bus systems. The interface to the wired OBD connector supports both OBD/UDS on CAN and UDS on IP. The new E/E system comes with increased self-diagnostic capabilities. They automatically perform tests, log diagnostic data and push such data for prognostics purposes to the cloud. They also support over-the-air (OTA) updates. This paper describes the components of an E/E system that is equipped with an in-vehicle diagnostic tester. The tester consists of standardized components, including MVCI D-Server (ISO 22900), ODX (ISO 22901), OTX (ISO 13209) and UDS on IP (ISO 14229-5). The paper includes a description of cybersecurity measures to…
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Hardware-in-the-Loop and Road Testing of RLVW and GLOSA Connected Vehicle Applications

Camp LLC-Jayendra Parikh
Ford Motor Co., Ltd.-Alexander Katriniok
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1379
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents an evaluation of two different Vehicle to Infrastructure (V2I) applications, namely Red Light Violation Warning (RLVW) and Green Light Optimized Speed Advisory (GLOSA). The evaluation method is to first develop and use Hardware-in-the-Loop (HIL) simulator testing, followed by extension of the HIL testing to road testing using an experimental connected vehicle. The HIL simulator used in the testing is a state-of-the-art simulator that consists of the same hardware like the road side unit and traffic cabinet as is used in real intersections and allows testing of numerous different traffic and intersection geometry and timing scenarios realistically. First, the RLVW V2I algorithm is tested in the HIL simulator and then implemented in an On-Board-Unit (OBU) in our experimental vehicle and tested at real world intersections. This same approach of HIL testing followed by testing in real intersections using our experimental vehicle is later extended to the GLOSA application. The GLOSA application that is tested in this paper has both an optimal speed advisory for passing at the green light and also includes a…
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Selftrust - A Practical Approach for Trust Establishment

Aptiv Components India Pvt., Ltd.-Ranjit Vinayak Abhyankar, Sreenath A
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0720
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In recent years, with increase in external connectivity (V2X, telematics, mobile projection, BYOD) the automobile is becoming a target of cyberattacks and intrusions. Any such intrusion reduces customer trust in connected cars and negatively impacts brand image (like the recent Jeep Cherokee hack).To protect against intrusion, several mechanisms are available. These range from a simple secure CAN to a specialized symbiote defense software. A few systems (e.g. V2X) implement detection of an intrusion (defined as a misbehaving entity). However, most of the mechanisms require a system-wide change which adds to the cost and negatively impacts the performance.In this paper, we are proposing a practical and scalable approach to intrusion detection. Some benefits of our approach include use of existing security mechanisms such as TrustZone® and watermarking with little or no impact on cost and performance. In addition, our approach is scalable and does not require any system-wide changes.To detect intrusions, we propose a combination of TrustZone® secure space approach along with a mechanism of static and dynamic watermarks. The current scope of research is restricted…