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A Novel Metaheuristic for Adaptive Signal Timing Optimization Considering Emergency Vehicle Preemption and Tram Priority

SAE International Journal of Transportation Safety

Universite Mohammed V de Rabat Ecole Mohammadia d'Ingenieurs, Morocco-Maryam Alami Chentoufi, Rachid Ellaia
  • Journal Article
  • 09-07-02-0007
To be published on 2019-11-29 by SAE International in United States
In this article, a novel hybrid metaheuristic based on passing vehicle search (PVS) cultural algorithm (CA) is proposed. This contribution has a twofold aim: First is to present the new hybrid PVS-CA. Second is to prove the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm for adaptive signal timing optimization. For this, a system that can adapt efficiently to the real-time traffic situation based on priority signal control is developed. Hence, Transit Signal Priority (TSP) techniques have been used to adjust signal phasing in order to serve emergency vehicles (EVs) and manage the tram priority in a coordinated tram intersection. The system used in this study provides cyclic signal operation based on a real-time control approach, including an optimization process and a database to manage the sensor data from detectors for real-time predictions of EV and tram arrival time. Then, a simulation model is developed using Arena Simulation Software to evaluate best timing plans at the intersection.
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SMART HONKING

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Priyanka Marudhavanan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2463
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Smart Honking Keywords-Safety, Connectivity, GPS M. Priyanka, Mahindra&Mahindra, India Sai Himaja Nadimpalli, Mahindra&Mahindra,India Keywords-Honking , Infotainment , GPS Research and/or Engineering Questions/Objective: In India unnecessary vehicular honking is the main reason for noise pollution. The problem is worst at traffic signals where drivers start honking without waiting for the signal to turn green or for traffic to move. Drivers show no respect to the law that prohibits the use of horn at traffic signals and other silent zones such as areas near hospitals, schools, religious places and residential areas. Vehicular honking in cities has reached at an alarming level and contributes approximately 70% of the noise pollution in our environment.The unwanted sound can affect human health and behavior, causing annoyance, depression, hypertension, stress, hearing loss, memory loss and panic attacks. Most of the drivers try to release their frustration and tension by blowing horns, possibly due to lack of awareness regarding the negative effects of noise but most likely it is because of the lack of civic sense.. Limitations: There is a provision of sign…
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Proposed Model to Implement a Blockchain for Secure Vehicle to Vehicle Communication

General Motors Technical Center India-Surya P. Palavalasa
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2433
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
This paper proposes a model to implement a blockchain network that can host a system of autonomous vehicles which communicate through generic V2V protocols like DSRC and CV2X. The blockchain will be designed to function like a global database for V2V communication. The purpose behind the proposal of this model was to ensure a transparent and secure network between all autonomous vehicles which indirectly leads to reduced traffic congestion and takes us a step closer to zero crashes. This is made possible by the blockchain ledger’s enhanced encryption systems.
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A Self-Intelligent Traffic Light Control System based on Traffic Environment using Machine Learning

Maharaja Agrasen Institute of Technology-Ananya Bansal, Shubham Upadhyaya
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2459
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, we will detect and track vehicles on a video stream and count those going through a defined line and to ultimately give an idea of what the real-time on street situation is across the road network. Our major objective is to optimize the delay in transit of vehicles in odd hours of the day. It uses YOLO object detection technique to detect objects on each of the video frames And SORT (Simple Online and Realtime Tracking algorithm) to track those objects over different frames. Once the objects are detected and tracked over different frames a simple mathematical calculation is applied to count the intersections between the vehicles previous and current frame positions with a defined line. At present, the traffic control systems in India, lack intelligence and act as an open-loop control system, with no feedback or sensing network. Present technologies use Inductive loops and sensors to detect the number of vehicles passing by. This is a very inefficient and expensive way to make traffic lights adaptive. Using a simple CCTV camera…
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RDS Phrase Lists

V2X Core Technical Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2540/1_201906
  • Current
Published 2019-06-11 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Standard provides a table of textual messages meeting the requirements for expressing “Radio Data Systems” (RDS) phrases commonly used in the ITS industry. They can be used both over the RDS subcarrier transmission media as part of a 37-bit long “Group 8a message” as well as being used to provide a common content list of phrases used in a wide number of other media and applications. This document SHALL define the normative index values to be used, extending the CEN established list to provide phrases needed by US practitioners. This standard provides non-normative textual phrases which MAY be used by implementers to ensure intelligible results. This document SHALL follow the formats and rules established in SAE J2540 in the expressions, manipulations, and use of such tables. It should be pointed out that within the rules established by this document a variety of final table are all considered “compliant” with the document, and may vary as fits the needs of implementers.
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An Investigation of Aerodynamic Characteristics of Three Bluff Bodies in Close Longitudinal Proximity

Coventry University-Geoffrey Le Good, Peter Boardman, Max Resnick, Brian Clough
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The potential benefit for passenger cars when travelling in a ‘platoon’ formation results from the total aerodynamic drag reduction which may result from the interaction of bluff bodies in close-proximity. In the 1980s this was considered as an opportunity to alleviate congestion and also for fuel-saving in response to the oil crises of the 1970s. Early interest was limited by the availability of suitable systems to control vehicle spacing. However, recent developments in communication and control technologies intended for connected and autonomous driving applications has provided the potential for ‘platooning’ to be incorporated within future traffic management systems. The study described in this paper uses a systematic approach to changes in vehicle shape in order to identify the sensitivity of the benefits of platooning to vehicle style. The Windsor bluff-body model with its’ interchangeable rear-end geometry was chosen as the test subject because of its similarity to the approximate proportions of typical mid-sized European passenger cars. Three small-scale models were manufactured so as to be accommodated in-line within the working section of the Coventry University…
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Cooperative Collision Avoidance in a Connected Vehicle Environment

Ohio State University-Sukru Yaren Gelbal, Sheng Zhu, Gokul Arvind Anantharaman, Bilin Aksun Guvenc, Levent Guvenc
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Connected vehicle (CV) technology is among the most heavily researched areas in both the academia and industry. The vehicle to vehicle (V2V), vehicle to infrastructure (V2I) and vehicle to pedestrian (V2P) communication capabilities enable critical situational awareness. In some cases, these vehicle communication safety capabilities can overcome the shortcomings of other sensor safety capabilities because of external conditions such as 'No Line of Sight' (NLOS) or very harsh weather conditions. Connected vehicles will help cities and states reduce traffic congestion, improve fuel efficiency and improve the safety of the vehicles and pedestrians. On the road, cars will be able to communicate with one another, automatically transmitting data such as speed, position, and direction, and send alerts to each other if a crash seems imminent. The main focus of this paper is the implementation of Cooperative Collision Avoidance (CCA) for connected vehicles. It leverages the Vehicle to Everything (V2X) communication technology to create a real-time implementable collision avoidance algorithm along with decision-making for a vehicle that communicates with other vehicles. Four distinct collision risk environments are…
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Determining the Greenhouse Gas Emissions Benefit of an Adaptive Cruise Control System Using Real-World Driving Data

General Motors LLC-William Dvorkin, Joshua King, Marc Gray, Shyhyeu Jao
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Adaptive cruise control is an advanced vehicle technology that is unique in its ability to govern vehicle behavior for extended periods of distance and time. As opposed to standard cruise control, adaptive cruise control can remain active through moderate to heavy traffic congestion, and can more effectively reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Its ability to reduce greenhouse gas emissions is derived primarily from two physical phenomena: platooning and controlled acceleration. Platooning refers to reductions in aerodynamic drag resulting from opportunistic following distances from the vehicle ahead, and controlled acceleration refers to the ability of adaptive cruise control to accelerate the vehicle in an energy efficient manner. This research calculates the measured greenhouse gas emissions benefit of adaptive cruise control on a fleet of 51 vehicles over 62 days and 199,300 miles. To our knowledge, the greenhouse gas emissions benefit of an advanced vehicle technology has never been demonstrated in this manner, and no automaker has published such extensive data pertaining to adaptive cruise control. These results highlight the opportunity to further reduce consumer fuel use and…
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Analysis and Mathematical Modeling of Car-Following Behavior of Automated Vehicles for Safety Evaluation

National Highway Traffic Safety Administration-Garrick Forkenbrock
Ohio State University-Venkata Raghava Ravi Lanka
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
With the emergence of Driving Automation Systems (SAE levels 1-5), the necessity arises for methods of evaluating these systems. However, these systems are much more challenging to evaluate than traditional safety features (SAE level 0). This is because an understanding of the Driving Automation system’s response in all possible scenarios is desired, but prohibitive to comprehensively test. Hence, this paper attempts to evaluate one such system, by modeling its behavior. The model generated parameters not only allow for objective comparison between vehicles, but also provide a more complete understanding of the system. The model can also be used to extrapolate results by simulating other scenarios without the need for conducting more tests.In this paper, low speed automated driving (also known as Traffic Jam Assist (TJA)) is studied. This study focused on the longitudinal behavior of automated vehicles while following a lead vehicle (LV) in traffic jam scenarios. The automated vehicle behavior is modeled using three car-following models. The models are then used to predict the behavior of the vehicle in a randomized scenario. This also…
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A Semi-Cooperative Social Routing System to Reduce Traffic Congestion

Ford Motor Co., Ltd.-Xiangrui Zeng, Amit Mohanty
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
One of the ways to reduce city congestion is to balance the traffic flow on the road network and maximally utilize all road capacities. There are examples showing that, if the drivers are not competitive but cooperative, the road network usage efficiency and the traffic conditions can be improved. This motivates the idea of designing a cooperative routing algorithm to benefit most vehicles on the road. This paper presents a semi-cooperative social routing algorithm for large transportation network with predictive traffic density information. The goal is to integrate a cooperative scheme into the individual routing and achieve short traveling time not only for the traveler itself, but also for all vehicles in the road network. The most important concept of this algorithm is that the route is generated with the awareness of the total travel time added to all other vehicles on the road due to the increased congestion. Based on the macroscopic fundamental diagrams of different road segments in the road network, this impact can be quantified as the marginal social time cost. This…
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