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Correlation of Cylinder Head Gasket Sealing Analysis Results Between Gasket Element and 3D Continuum Element

Cummins Engine Co., Ltd.-Amit Ozarde
Cummins Inc.-Gene McNay
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0049
To be published on 2020-03-10 by SAE International in United States
A head gasket is a component that sits between the engine block/liner and cylinder head(s) in an internal combustion engine. Its purpose is to seal high pressure combustion gasses in the cylinders, seal coolant and engine oil transfer ports between the block and head and to ensure no leakage of gasses or fluids out of the block to head joint; as such, it is the most critical sealing application in an engine. In general practice, the load deflection(L/D) characteristic is generated by the gasket manufacturer for edge molded or composite gasket types. In the case of a solid-sheet metallic gasket, where the gasket is expected to undergo local yielding to provide adequate conformance and sealing, supplier is usually not able to provide the required L/D curve due to difficulties experimentally separating the large loads and small displacements from the elastic loads and deflections of the experimental apparatus. In absence of L/D curve the current analysis approach is to model gasket as 3D continuum elements with considering nonlinear material and contacts. The focus of the procedure…
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Study for Higher Efficiency and Lower Emissions in Turbo Charged Small Gas Engine Using Low Caloric Biomass Model Gas

Doshisha University-Kenta Shiomi, Ryogo Kato, Eriko Matsumura, Jiro Senda
Yanmar Co.,Ltd-Ryoichi Hagiwara, Yuta Watanabe, Toru Nakazono
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0620
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
In recent years, depletion of energy resources and increasing CO2 emission have been concerned. As this solution, the use of biofuels from garbage is focused. In this research, higher efficiency and lower emissions in the gas engine for power generation using biomass gas are aimed. However, the biomass gas is low caloric value and the output is low and the combustion is unstable. Therefore, a turbocharged spark ignition gas engine is used as the test institution. As a result, it is found that combustion stability and high efficiency of biomass gas can be realized.
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Development of a Novel Hybrid-Piston for Application in High Performance Two-Stroke Engines

Fraunhofer IWS, 01277 Dresden, Germany-Axel Jahn, Frieder Zimmermann, Uwe Stamm
Mahle König Kommanditgesellschaft GmbH & Co KG, 6830 Ran-Christian Bechter, Thomas Herb
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0508
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
The current development trends for high performance two-stroke engines have been identified in raising combustion pressures and therefore higher cylinder temperatures [1] [2]. Thus, the requirements on piston assembly are increased in such a way that pistons based on aluminium-silicon alloys – as most commonly used in high performance two-stroke engines - reach their application limit. A suitable solution has been shown by research work such as that conducted by Mahle König, by using a piston consisting of different materials. With this approach, the higher stressed piston crown consists of steel, while the lower stressed piston skirt is made out from aluminium. Previous basic examinations showed the high potential of the hybrid piston concept in terms of pressure and temperature increase, while also showing the need for a temperature-stable and pressure-tight joint between crown and skirt.This paper will focus on the development of two novel hybrid-piston concepts, where the piston crown and the piston skirt are connected in different ways. The first hybrid concept presented uses the piston pin in order to realize a plugconnection…
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RANS simulation of a multicomponent underexpanded gaseous jet mixing – effects of composition and injection conditions

Technion - Israel Institute of Technology-Andy Thawko, Leonid Tartakovsky
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0515
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Fuel injection and mixing processes determine quality of the subsequent combustion in a DI engine, and description of these processes is vital to optimize the engine performance. Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes approach was applied as a cost-effective tool to simulate the mixing process of a multicomponent gaseous fuel jet of various compositions typical for alcohol reformates. To learn about the physics of reformate mixing, a hydrogen-rich multicomponent jet behavior in a constant-volume chamber was investigated at conditions typical for ICE. The CFD model was validated using a reference case from the published literature. Various Impact of the gaseous jet composition, injection pressure and nozzle diameter on its behavior were studied. The important new finding shows that rising the injection pressure or increasing the nozzle diameter won't affect the jet wall impingement timing for bore sizes typical for light-duty vehicle ICEs. Furthermore, it is shown that the integral parameters of a multicomponent gaseous jet in ICE are mainly determined by the molar weight of the injected gas mixture even with high molecular diffusivity species in the mixture like…
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Design and Development of a High-Efficiency Single Cylinder Natural Gas-Fueled Jet Ignition Engine

Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E), United St-David Tew
Booz Allen Hamilton-Gokul Vishwanathan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0565
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
The current energy climate has created a push toward reducing consumption of fossil fuels and lowering emissions output in power generation applications. Combined with the desire for a more distributed energy grid, there is currently a need for small displacement, high efficiency engines for use in stationary power generation. An enabling technology for achieving high efficiencies with spark ignited engines for such applications is the use of jet ignition which enables ultra-lean (λ > ~1.6) combustion via air dilution.This paper provides a comprehensive review of the development of a 390cc, high efficiency single cylinder natural gas-fueled jet ignition engine operating ultra-lean. The engine was developed as part of the Department of Energy’s Advanced Research Projects Agency–Energy (DOE ARPA-E) GENSETS program. Design choices for minimizing friction are highlighted as well as test results showing further friction reduction through downspeeding. Extensive hardware optimization of the combustion system has been performed and results are presented for air-flow path optimization and the jet igniter. The efficiency benefits related to enleanment and downspeeding are analyzed using an efficiency loss breakdown…
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Effects of shape of ion probe on flame detecting characteristics in 2-stroke gasoline engine

Hiroshima Institute of Technology-Tomoaki Yatsufusa, Rio Kamei, Hu Wentao
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0571
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Multiple-ion probe method is one of the beneficial method to obtain the detailed information about explosive combustion such as knocking. Our group has been trying to expand the measurement ability on multiple ion probe method from highly-controlled combustion in combustion test tube studied by previous studies to highly-unstable combustion such in spark ignition engines. The previous studies showed that multiple-ion probe method was able to capture the movement of propagating flame in 2-stroke gasoline engine in limited conditions. It requires that more reliable detection of propagating flame in the engine to capture the flame movement more stably.In the present study, the effects of the shape of the ion probe on flame detection characteristics in 2-stroke gasoline engine was investigated. Tested parameters of the shape in the ion probe were projection length and diameter of an ion probe wire. Projection length was changed as 0, 0.5, 1.0, 1.5mm. Test results say that the projection length has positive effects for flame detection. Longer projection length has a higher sensitivity for flame detection. Diameter of ion probe wire…
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Study on the decision process of basic specification in development of general purpose engine

Honda R&D Co., Ltd.-Takayuki Aoki, Takahiro Tsuchiyama
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0580
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
Social interest in global environmental issues has remained in the forefront during recent years, and as a result, internal combustion engines are expected to have further improved fuel efficiency and reduced exhaust emissions. General purpose engines are demanded for reduced cost in addition to various types of displacement developments. If optimum specifications are examined for each engine displacement and incorporated in the parts shapes, the number of dedicated parts for each engine displacement would increase, which is not desirable from a development/production cost-wise standpoint. It is considered important during the development of engines to efficiently and economically cope with market needs including improved specific power and fuel consumption. Therefore, it was considered necessary to improve combustion performance by enhanced in-cylinder flow and to commonize parts. Then, this study was designed to establish an approach for decision of engine specifications with the perspective of multiple displacement development after satisfying the target performance by combustion improvement. The long stroke and valve angle were adjusted so as to examine specifications that enable enhanced in-cylinder flow with multiple displacements.…
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An Analysis of Diesel Spray Characteristics with Small Injection Amount under Similarity Law Condition

Graduate School of Engineering, Hiroshima University, Higash-Yu JIN, Chang ZHAI, Keiya NISHIDA, Yoichi OGATA
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0590
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
In this paper, the Diesel spray characteristics were studied by HS video camera and the Laser Absorbing Scattering (LAS) technique means of the combustion deterioration problem caused by the engine downsizing based on the geometrical similarity was investigated. In the experiments, three Diesel injectors with the hole diameters of 0.07mm, 0.101mm and 0.133mm were used. The injection pressures of the injectors with three different diameters were 45MPa, 93MPa and 160MPa, respectively. The Diffused Background Illumination (DBI) method was employed for the nonevaporating spray experiment to obtain spray tip penetration and spray angle at room temperature. The LAS technique was employed for the evaporating spray experiment to obtain the equivalence ratio distributions, evaporation rate, and vapor phase tip penetration. Moreover, the Wakuri Momentum Theory was applied to analyze the data obtained by both the non-evaporating and the evaporating spray experiments. The non-evaporating results show that the spray tip penetrations scaled by the similarity law matched well from the injectors of different hole diameters. However, the scaled spray angle of the injector with smaller hole diameter is…
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A Study on the Decay Process in the Time-Frequency-Dependent Combustion-Noise-Generation Model for Diesel Engines

Graduate School of Sciences and Technology for Innovation, Y-Hitoshi Oguchi, Masato Mikami
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0512
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
We experimentally investigated the process of decay of engine noise from a single-cylinder diesel engine considering the time-frequency-dependent combustion-noise-generation model. In this model, the vibration energy of each frequency component is assumed to accumulate in the engine structure excited by the combustion impact during the combustion period in a cycle and decay over time, and the combustion noise is assumed to radiate from the engine surface. We used wavelet transform analysis as a time-frequency analysis of the sound pressure to obtain the decay rate, c, of the engine noise power. In order to investigate the dependence of the decay rate, c, on the sound-source location, we placed eight microphones in different positions near the engine. In order to investigate the dependence of the decay rate on the maximum in-cylinder pressure rise, we conducted experiments under three different operating conditions. The shape of the temporal variation of the engine-noise power depended on the sound-source location while the value of the engine noise power depended on the maximum in-cylinder pressure rise. Based on the time-frequency-dependent combustion-noise-generation model,…
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Investigation of The Effect of Enhanced In-Cylinder Flow on HCCI Combustion in a Rapid Compression and Expansion Machine

Chiba University-Yiwen Zhong, Kazuya Ogawa, Tatsuya Kuboyama, Yasuo Moriyoshi
SUZUKI MOTOR CORPORATION-Kei Yoshimura
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0528
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
The purpose of this paper is to find a way to extend the high load limit of homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) combustion. A newly developed rapid compression and expansion machine (RCEM) was employed to reproduce the typical HCCI high load condition. The in-cylinder turbulence was created by the special piston which equipped with a flow guide plate. Meanwhile, the ambient temperature distribution in the cylinder was determined by the wall temperature controlling system which was controlled by the independent coolant passages. In addition, the numerical simulation by using large eddy method coupled with a detailed chemical reaction was conducted as well. The results show that HCCI mode is potential to be improved at high load condition in full consideration of in-cylinder temperature, flow, and turbulence.