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Modelling and control of a novel clutchless multiple-speed transmission for electric vehicles

Mecaprom SRL-Mauro Grandone, Alberto Lega, Michele Pennese
University of Salerno-Ludovica Malafronte, Cesare Pianese
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0063
To be published on 2019-08-15 by SAE International in United States
Conventional electric vehicles adopt either single-speed transmissions or direct drive architecture in order to reduce cost, losses and mass. However, the integration of optimized multiple-speed transmissions is considered as a feasible method to enhance EVs performances, (i.e. top speed, acceleration and grade climbing), improving powertrain efficiency, saving battery energy and reducing customer costs. Perfectly in line with these objectives, this paper presents a patented fully integrated electric traction system, as scalable solution for electrifying light duty passenger and commercial vehicles (1.5-4.2 tons), with a focus on minibuses (<20 seats). The adoption of high-speed motor coupled to multiple-speed transmission offers the possibility of a relevant efficiency improvement, a 50% volume reduction with respect to a traditional transmission, superior output torque and power density. The proposed clutchless four-speed transmission is specifically conceived and designed to have the good matching with the traction electric motor. Indeed, clutches and synchronizers are not required thanks to the small inertia of the traction motor and its fast regulation in both torque and speed mode (torque modulation process). Therefore, an advanced shifting…
 

The Methane Fuel based Turbocharged Direct Injection Engine in a Hybrid Powertrain – An Efficient Synergy

Continental Powertrain-Friedrich Graf, Stefan Lauer, Jan Ehrhard
Ford-Werke GmbH-Harald Stoffels, Carsten Weber
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0201
To be published on 2019-08-15 by SAE International in United States
There is no doubt that the modern internal combustion engine (ICE) is approaching its theoretical limits in terms of efficiency. Owed to the fact that the conversion of fuel-bound chemical energy into effectively usable power by combustion is largely defined by the fuel properties, the combustion process and the implicit phenomenon of abnormal combustion is a governing factor that limits further efficiency increases. However, the use of a knock-resistant fuel such as methane is leading to a significant raise in the average combustion pressure and total engine efficiency. In turn this requires a base engine architecture that is specially designed to cater the increased thermal and mechanical requirements so that the positive fuel properties can be fully exploited. Furthermore, an improvement of the energy balance is achieved by utilizing the kinetic energy stored in the vehicle by means of electrical recovery. In consequence, a positive synergy can be observed when mating this type of internal combustion engine to a hybrid powertrain. This hybrid powertrain consists of a P2 hybrid module containing an offset 48V electrical…
 
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Testing Methods and Signal Processing Strategies for Automatic Transmission Transient Multiplexed Pressure Data

Ford Motor Company-Steve Frait, Ram Sudarsan Devendran
Michigan Technological University-Mark Woodland, Jason Blough, Darrell Robinette, Carl Anderson
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Transmissions have multiple transient events that occur from gear shifting to torque converter clutch application. These transients can be difficult to capture and observe. A six speed front wheeled drive transmission was instrumented with pressure transducers to measure clutches and the torque converter. Due to size restrictions internal to the torque converter the data had to be multiplexed across three different transmitters. A method to capture a transient event through the use of multiplexed data was developed to create a data set with the transient event occurring on each channel. Once testing is completed, the data has to be split into individual channels and synced with the operational data. The data then can be used in both time and frequency domain analysis. It is important to understand that the data is not continuous and must be taken into consideration when post processing it for further results.
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Experimental Investigation on Gear Rattle Noise Reduction in Passenger Car

Maruti Suzuki India Limited-Devendra Kumar Khare, Abhishek Lakhanlal Vaishya, Archan Sunibhai Pujara, Radhe Krishna, Kingshuk Satpathy, Ved Prakash Choudhary, Anant Pandey
Published 2019-06-05 by SAE International in United States
Gear rattle noise reduction inside the passenger cabin is one of the major challenges for customer comfort enhancement. Therefore, it becomes a prime target during transmission design and development. Gear rattle is generated due to meshing teeth collision of free gears, which is caused due to torsional vibration of engine transferred through clutch. Vibrations are generated due to free gears teeth impact and are transferred to shaft, bearings and transmission housing. The sound absorption and structural vibration of transmission housing was optimized by changing the geometrical features of the transmission housing that affects radiated noise.Experimental approach for gear rattle noise reduction through transmission housing modification is described in this paper. Moreover, CAE method is also incorporated with the experiments for optimization of future vehicle transmission system designs.
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SAE No. 2 Friction Test Machine 3600 rpm Stepped Power Test

Automatic Transmission and Transaxle Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2487_201905
  • Current
Published 2019-05-23 by SAE International in United States

This SAE Recommended Practice is intended as the definition of a standard test, but may be subject to frequent change to keep pace with experience and technical advances. This should be kept in mind when considering its use.

 

Fault Diagnosis Approach for Roller Bearings Based on Optimal Morlet Wavelet De-Noising and Auto-Correlation Enhancement

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Helwan University Faculty of Engineering, Egypt-Mohamed El Morsy
  • Journal Article
  • 06-12-02-0010
Published 2019-05-02 by SAE International in United States
This article presents a fault diagnosis approach for roller bearing by applying the autocorrelation approach to filtered vibration measured signal. An optimal Morlet wavelet filter is applied to eliminate the frequency associated with interferential vibrations; the raw measured signal is filtered with a band-pass filter based on a Morlet wavelet function whose parameters are optimized based on maximum Kurtosis. Autocorrelation enhancement is applied to the filtered signal to further reduce the residual in-band noise and highlight the periodic impulsive feature. The proposed technique is used to analyze the experimental measured signal of investigated vehicle gearbox. An artificial fault is introduced in vehicle gearbox bearing an orthogonal placed groove on the inner race with the initial width of 0.6 mm approximately. The faulted bearing is a roller bearing located on the gearbox input shaft - on the clutch side. The test stand is equipped with two dynamometers; the input dynamometer serves as internal combustion engine; the output dynamometer introduces the load on the flange of output joint shaft.
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Application of Empirical Asperity Contact Model to High Fidelity Wet Clutch System Simulations

F.C.C. CO., LTD.-Masatoshi Miyagawa, Takahiro Tsuchiya, Shinji Nakamura, Matthew Wendel, Hiroya Miyoshi
Ford Motor Company-Hiral Haria, Yuji Fujii, Gregory M. Pietron
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Wet clutches are complex hydrodynamic devices used in both conventional and electrified drivetrain systems. They couple or de-couple powertrain components for applications such as automatic shifting, engine disconnect and torque vectoring. Clutch engagement behaviors vary greatly, depending on design parameters and operating conditions. Because of their direct impact on vehicle drivability and fuel economy, a predictive CAE model is desired for enabling analytical design verification processes. During engagement, a wet clutch transmits torque through viscous shear and asperity contact. A conventional Coulomb’s model, which is routinely utilized in shift simulations, is inadequate to capture non-linear hydrodynamic effects for higher fidelity analysis. Extensive research has been conducted over the years to derive hydrodynamic torque transfer models based on 1D squeeze film or 3D CFD. They are typically coupled with an elastic asperity contact model for mechanical torque transfer. However, the recent advancement reveals no significant asperity deformation at the frictional surface during engagement and establishes a new empirical asperity contact model. This paper describes the integration of the empirical asperity contact model with CFD for developing…
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A New Analytical Model for Clutch System Modeling and Design Optimization

Maruti Suzuki India Ltd.-Rahul Shandilya, Vikas Rawla
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0840
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
In manual transmission vehicles, Clutch has direct interaction with the driver and plays a significant role in defining the drivability and NVH of a vehicle. These key performance factors depend on the interaction of diaphragm and cushion springs of a clutch. For an automobile manufacturer, it’s essential to optimize the characteristics of these springs based vehicle performance requirements. A state of the art analytical model has been developed by modeling the diaphragm and cushion spring with exponential equations. Based on these models, response functions for release load, torque build-up, and pressure plate lift have been derived. Results achieved from these response functions are correlated with test data. Key contributing factors for peak clutch pedal load, vehicle launch acceleration, and disengagement point have been identified by sensitivity analysis. Multi-objective optimization is performed to select optimized parameters for vehicle performance improvement
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In-Gear Slip Control Strategy of Dry-Clutch Systems Using a Sliding Mode Control

Hyundai Motor Co.-Jinsung Kim, Juhyun Nam
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This paper proposes a clutch control strategy during in-gear driving situations for Dual Clutch Transmissions (DCTs). The clutch is intentionally controlled to make small amount of a slip to identify the torque transfer capacity. The control objective of this phase is to ensure the clutch slip fairly remaining the specified value. To achieve this, the micro-slip controller is designed based on sliding mode control theory. Experimental verifications performed on onboard control system of the DCT equipped vehicle demonstrate that the proposed controller good tracking performance of the desired slip speed.
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Conceptual Design and Analysis of Hybrid Torque-Vectoring Differential (H-TD)

Industrial Technology Research Institute-Yun-Jui Chung
National Taiwan University-Cheng-Kai Lin, Po-Jen Cheng, Tyng Liu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-0333
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
This study proposes a motor-controlled torque-vectoring differential equipped with electric hybrid functionality, hereinafter referred to as H-TD (Hybrid Torque-vectoring Differential). The mechanism of H-TD consists of an open differential, a planetary gearset, an electric motor, a clutch brake, and a clutch. The main difference between H-TD and preciously published TVD (Torque Vectoring Differential) systems is that it uses the electric motor to be able to not only distribute torque between output shafts, but also provide additional hybrid power. Hence, H-TD provides the possibility to integrate multiple functions into a single system. Furthermore, H-TD can be utilized in both hybrid electric vehicles and electric ones. Firstly, the constitution of H-TD mechanism is introduced, and three operation modes of the system, control strategy, as well as the dynamic models for the system are presented. Secondly, after considering the possible design requirements and the possible powertrain configurations of H-TD on four-wheeled vehicles, a set of feasible design parameters of the system is given. After completing the conceptual design of H-TD, this study uses a numerical simulation program prepared…
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