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Characterization and Durability of Mold-In-Color Engineering Plastics

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Sandeep Kumar Shukla
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2542
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Plastics are prone to photo oxidative and thermal oxidative degradation under usage conditions due to their chemical nature. From sustainability and cost standpoint, there is an increasing focus on Mold-In-Color (MIC) plastic materials. Simultaneously customer’s expectations on the perceived quality of these MIC parts has been increasing with attractive color and glossy appearance. A study was conducted to analyze the product quality and durability aspects over a prolonged exposure to accelerated weathering condition. Material selected for this study were injection molded specimens of ABS and PC/ABS used in automotive passenger vehicles. Comparative analysis was conducted before and after weathering exposure at defined intervals by using the various tools like Fourier Transform infra-red spectrometer (FTIR), thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) and universal testing machine (UTM), Izod impact tester, dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA) to understand the impact on their chemical and mechanical properties. This study will be useful in understanding material behavior, durability, performance and product quality.

High Durable PU Metallic Monocoat system for tractor sheet metal application.

Mahindra & Mahindra Kandivali-SUDHIR SAWANT
Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd-Yogesh keskar, Nitin pagar
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2541
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
In sheet metal painting for various applications like Tractor, Automobile, most attractive coating is metallic paints and it is widely applied using 3 coats 2 bake or 3 coat 1 bake technology. Both options, results in high energy consumption, higher production throughput time & lower productivity in manufacturing process. During various brainstorming & sustainable initiatives, paint application process was identified for alternative thinking to reduce burden on environment & save energy. Various other industry benchmarking & field performance requirement studies helped us identify the critical to quality parameters. We worked jointly with supplier to develop mono-coat system without compromising the performance & aesthetical properties. This results in achieving better productivity, elimination of two paint layers, substantial reduction in volatile organic content, elimination of one baking cycle and energy saving. Metallic mono-coat formulated using strong polyurethane resins & latest technology pre-coated aluminum pigment for achieving metallic effect in finish. With new resin technology further, reduction of baking temperature is possible & reduce further energy consumption. The proposed technology is fully validated on component and ready. Proposed…

Design and Analysis of Aluminium-Flyash Composite for Connecting Rod

Geethanjali College of Engg. and Tech.-Suresh Nuthalapati, Devaiah Malkapuram
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0166
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
In this modern era of rapid growth of technology and need of economical machining processes and materials, there is an increasing demand for new materials for different mechanical applications. Composites with fly ash as reinforcement are likely to overcome the cost barrier for wide spread applications in automotive and small engine applications. To improve wettability, elements such as Mg and Si are added into Al melt to incorporate the ceramic particles. The chemical composition and engineering properties of fly ash, its physical and chemical properties make it an ideal raw material for producing various application based composites. The main objective this paper is to fabricate an aluminium- fly ash composite material suitable for parts like engine connecting rod which demand high strength and temperature sustainability at comparatively less weight. The composite will be made using casting process and Engine connecting rod will be designed in AutoCAD software. The design will be analyzed with the help of ANSYS with aluminium and aluminium- fly ash composite (at different compositions).

Characterization of Areca and Tamarind fiber reinforced hybrid polymer composites for structural applications

Sree Vidyanikethan Engineering College-Binoj Joseph Selvi, Manikandan Natarajan, Bhanu Prakash Palampalle
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0168
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
In recent years, natural fibers reinforced composites are used in various engineering arenas owing to its specific rewards like biodegradable, low cost, readily available, easy processing, less toxic and eco-friendly physiognomies. However, the commonly used E-glass fiber polymer composite was just inverse to the properties of the reported natural fibers. Therefore, in the present work discarded areca and tamarind fibers was collected, extracted, fabricated and evaluated for its overall performance and to implement it as an alternative for synthetic fiber composites. Composite specimens are fabricated with different proportions of fiber/matrix and investigated for their potentiality by exploring its mechanical, physical, chemical, water absorption and thermal properties as per standard test procedures. Moreover, the obtained areca and tamarind hybrid composite results are better than their individual based composites and in par with the existing synthetic fiber products. In addition, the fractography study of the fractured composite specimens are examined using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) for inspecting the failure of the material. Hence, the tested results shown that the fabricated hybrid composites exhibits better specific properties and…

Study of Mechanical Properties and Multi Response Optimization of Process Parameter for Showing Signs of Improvement Product Quality in Drilling of Alsi7cu4 Utilizing GRA in Taguchi Method

SRM Institute Of Science And Technology-Sundar Singh Sivam Sundarlingam Paramasivam, Krishnaswamy Saravanan, Durai Kumaran, Raj Rajendran
TISHIK University-Ganesh Babu Loganathan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0058
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Showing and streamlining of cutting parameters are a champion among the most essential components in drilling processes. This examination displays the change of drilling procedures parameters on AlSi7Cu4 made by Gravity Die Casting and with replies in light of OA with Taughi GRA and ANOVA. The effects of alloying parts were bear on the Chemical Composition, microstructures, mechanical property, Hardness, X-Ray and S Das response is particularly analyzed. Motivations on the progression of Drilling parameters using the Taguchi strategy to obtain slightest surface Roughness (Ra), Circularity Error, Burr size and Thrust Force. Different Drilling preliminaries were coordinated using the L9 OA on CNC Milling machine. The examinations were accomplished on AlSi7Cu4 composite piece cutting tool of an ISO 460.1-1140-034A0-XM GC3 of 12 mm measurement with Tool 140 degrees, used all through the preliminary work under dry cutting conditions. The central and participation effect of the data factors on the foreseen responses are analyzed. The foreseen regards and estimated regards are really close. The given system could be utilized to pick the level of infiltrating constraints.…

Banana Stem Based Activated Carbon as Filler in Polymer Composites for Automobile Applications

Hindustan Institute of Tech. and Science-John Presin Kumar Ayyaswamy, Sivakumar Sattanathan, Balaji Ramachandran, Mukesh Nadarajan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0093
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Activated carbon was produced from a new part of banana plant namely true stem in this current research and used as fillers in polymer composites for automobile application. True stems of banana plants are the main wastes in banana or fruit markets which refer to the remains after banana fruits are removed from the supporting stems. Conversion of raw material into activated carbon particles is done by chemical and heat activation. The raw material used here were dried samples of banana plant’s true stem. This material was heated in a crucible at 400°C and then powdered. These crushed samples were activated using hydro-chloric acid at 120°C for 5 hours and finally in a furnace for thermal activation at 700°C for 1 hour. These particles were incorporated as fillers in composites at proportions of 10%, 15%, 20% and 25%. The activated carbon samples were characterized by determining its fixed carbon content and bulk density. Scanning electron microscopy was done to analyze the morphology of particles. Mechanical tests were conducted for tensile strength, modulus of rupture and…

Turning of Inconel 825 with coated carbide tool applying vegetable-based cutting fluid mixed with CUO, Al2O3 and CNT Nanoparticles by MQL

Vellore Institute of Technology-Venkatesan Kannan, Devendiran Sundararajan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0060
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Inconel 825 is nickel (Ni)-iron (Fe)-chromium (Cr) alloy with additions of copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), and titanium (Ti). The alloy has excellent resistance to corrosion and is often the most cost-effective alloy in sulphuric acid piping vessels and chemical process equipment. No attempt of applying MQL with the addition of nanoparticles was reported conferring to the works accessed. The present study is focused on evaluating the effect of the addition of nanoparticles (CUO, Al2O3 and CNT) in vegetable oil applied by MQL mode during turning of Inconel 825 with coated carbide tool. Cutting force, surface roughness and tool wear are evaluated. The results showed that the addition of nCNT substantially improved the machining performance, smaller flank and crater wear on the tool edge, while the adhesion and abrasion are observed as wear mechanism and better results are obtained at 0.5% of nCNT+ vegetable oil to produce the lowest values.

Machinability and parametric optimization of Inconel 600 using Taguchi-Desirability analysis under dry environment

Vellore Institute of Technology-Venkatesan Kannan, Devendiran Sundararajan, Abhishek Chahal, Devesh Raj
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0068
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Inconel 600 is a face-centered cubic structure and nickel-chromium alloy. Alloy 600 has good resistance to oxidation, corrosion resistant, excellent mechanical properties and good creep rupture strength at higher temperature. Alloy 600 is used in chemical and food processing, heat treating, phenol condensers, soap manufacture, vegetable, and fatty acid vessels. In this context, the present paper investigates the machinability characteristics of Alloy 600 under dry environment. Also, the parametric effect of cutting speed, feed rate and cutting depth on the force, surface roughness and tool wear are carried out using 3-Dimensional surface and 1-Dimensional plots. The optimal parameters are determined systematically based on Taguchi-desirability analysis with turned with TiAlN coated carbide insert. From the graphical analysis of collected data, the low rate of feed and moderate cutting for roughness and cutting force and average feed rate for tool wear with low cutting depth. Probability test at 95% confidence reveals the residual of machining data falls reasonably on a straight line and can be taken for factor optimization. Variance test reveals that the cutting depth (68.34%)…

Investigation of thermal shock resistance of CeO2 coating on Titanium alloy by magnetron sputtering

AAA College of Engineering & Techology-Balamurugan Subburaj
Mepco Schlenk Engineering College-Bala Manikandan Cheirmakani, Balamurugan Pandian, Lionel Beneston
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0103
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Titanium alloy (Grade V) is used in aerospace, medical, marine and chemical processing industries. To improve the thermal shock resistance and corrosion resistance of the titanium alloy at elevated temperatures, Thermal barrier coating (TBC) has been predominantly used. Cerium oxides have been proposed as TBC, due to their high thermal expansion coefficient, higher thermal shock resistance, good adhesion strength, low corrosion rate and excellent tribological performance. In this study, CeO2 were coated on Titanium alloy by magnetron sputtering by varying the deposition time. The microstructure and mechanical properties of CeO2 coatings were systematically investigated. Deposition time was varied as 30 mins, 60 mins and 90 mins respectively, to achieve the variation in thickness of the coating on the substrate. The thickness of the coated specimen was measured by atomic force microscopy and found to be 500 nm, 180 nm and 70 nm respectively. Surface roughnesses of the coated surface are 152.28 nm, 86.25 nm and 18.65 nm. The Vickers hardness was found to increase with increasing amount of CeO2. Corrosion ability of the coated specimen…

Development of a Dedicated CNG Three-Way Catalyst Model in 1-D Simulation Platforms

FPT Industrial SpA-Stefano Golini, Francesco Giovanni Rutigliano
Istituto Motori CNR-Carlo Beatrice, Valentina Fraioli
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0074
To be published on 2019-09-09 by SAE International in United States
A growing interest towards heavy-duty engines powered with NG, dictated by stringent regulations in terms of emissions, has made it essential to study a specific Three-Way Catalyst (TWC). Oxygen storage phenomena characterize the catalytic converter efficiency under real world driving operating conditions and, consequently, during strong dynamics in Air-to-Fuel ratio (AFR).A numerical “quasi-steady” model has been set-up to simulate the chemical process inside the reactor. A dedicated experimental campaign has been performed in order to evaluate the catalyst response to a defined λ variation, thus providing the data necessary for the numerical model validation. In fact, goal of the present research activity was to investigate the effect of very fast composition transitions of the engine exhaust typical of the mentioned driving conditions (including fuel cutoffs etc.) on the catalyst performance and on related emissions.A surface reactions kinetic mechanism, representing CH4, CO, H2 oxidation and NO reduction, has been appropriately calibrated in steady-state operation, using a step-by-step procedure all over the engine operating conditions at different AFRs. Then transient conditions were numerically reproduced, through cyclical and…