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Effects of In-cylinder flow structures on soot formation and oxidation in a swirl-supported light-duty diesel engine

Lund University-Hesameddin Fatehi, Oivind Andersson
Volvo Cars Corporation-Håkan Persson, Mattias Ljungqvist
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0009
To be published on 2019-08-15 by SAE International in United States
In this paper, computation fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations are performed to describe the effect of in-cylinder flow structures on the formation and oxidation of soot in a swirl-supported light-duty diesel engine. The focus of the paper is on the effect of swirl motion and injection pressure on late cycle soot oxidation. The structure of the flow at different swirl numbers is studied to investigate the effect that varying swirl number imposes on the coherent flow structures. These coherent flow structures are studied to understand the mechanism that leads to efficient soot oxidation in late cycle. Effect of varying injection pressure at different swirl numbers and the interaction between spray and swirl motions are discussed. The complexity of diesel combustion, especially when soot and other emissions are of interest, requires using a detailed chemical mechanism to have a correct estimation of temperature and species distribution. In this work, Representative Interactive Flamelets (RIF) method is employed to describe the chemical reactions, ignition, flame propagation and emissions in the engine. The CFD simulations are validated using experimental measurement…

Chemical and Physical Characterization of Organic Particulate Matter from Last Generation Exhaust Aftertreatment System of Medium Duty Diesel Engine

Istituto Motori CNR-Ezio Mancaruso
Istituto Ricerche sulla Combustione-CNR-Barbara Apicella
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0053
To be published on 2019-08-15 by SAE International in United States
Particulate Matter from Euro 6 Medium Duty diesel engine was analyzed from engine-out, downstream of particulate filter (DPF), and up to the exit of a selective catalytic reactor (SCR) to characterize its chemical and physical nature. Particular attention was devoted to the analysis of particles down to 23 nm. An array of chemical, physical and spectroscopic techniques (Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC-MS), mobility analyzer, UV-visible absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy) was applied for characterizing the organic particulate matter (PM, constituted of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), heavy aromatic compounds, soot) in the exhaust. The engine was operated at “full-load” (100% of the total power, representing the best performance of the engine operation) condition, and at different engine speeds. Results showed that the DPF efficiency was greater than 96% in the reduction of the sub 23 nm particles across the speeds range. Soot concentration in the exhaust after the DPF did not undergo any significant further concentration decrease after SCR. By contrast, PAH concentration was found decreasing of about 30 % after the SCR. Also, the…

Heat Transfer characterization of Catalytic Converter Substrates during Warm-up

Aristotle University Thessaloniki-Grigorios Koltsakis
Empa-Viola Papetti, Panayotis Dimopoulos Eggenschwiler
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-24-0163
To be published on 2019-08-15 by SAE International in United States
The transient heat transfer behavior of a real size automotive catalytic reactor has been simulated with OpenFOAM in 1D. The model takes into consideration the gas-solid convective heat transfer, axial wall conduction and heat capacity effects in the solid phase, but also the chemical reactions of CO and C3H6 oxidations, based on simplified Arrhenius and Langmuir-Hinshelwood approaches. The associated parameters have been chosen based on the tuning of experimental data. The impact of different initial catalytic converter temperatures, inlet flow temperatures and inlet flow rates have been quantified, even in terms of overall cumulative emissions. . A dimensional analysis is proposed and dimensionless temperature difference and space-time coordinate are defined. Using this suitably modified coordinates, for the case of negligible axial solid conduction, computed solid temperature at the reactor outlet lay on the typical S-curve. For 4 different values of dimensionless length along the catalytic converter, an analytical function is offered (similar to Arrhenius or Viebe curves). This will allow predicting the thermal response based on an analytical expression with two tuning parameters, without the…

Chemical Treatment for Aluminum Alloys, Low Electrical Resistance Coating

AMS B Finishes Processes and Fluids Committee
  • Aerospace Material Specification
  • AMS2474E
  • Current
Published 2019-06-25 by SAE International in United States

This specification establishes the engineering requirements for producing chemical-film coatings on aluminum and aluminum alloys and the properties of such coatings.


Etching of Fluoropolymer Insulations

AE-8A Elec Wiring and Fiber Optic Interconnect Sys Install
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP6167
  • Current
Published 2019-06-11 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) describes the etching of fluoropolymer electrical wire insulations to ensure that all facets of the process from the chemistry to the processing, to the storage and handling are well defined.
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Runway Deicing Product Anti/Deicing Performance Assessment: Review and Future Directions

UQAC - AMIL-Jean-Denis Brassard, Caroline Laforte, Marc Mario Tremblay, Christophe Volat
Published 2019-06-10 by SAE International in United States
Every winter, northern airport operations are disrupted by heavy snowstorms and freezing precipitations. A simple snow accumulation or a thin layer of ice can affect aircraft operations (take-off, landing and taxi), and increase the risk for passengers and crew members, by rendering the runway slippery. Any deficits in deicing operations can also lead to flight delays and even cancellations that cost a lot to the industry. In order to maintain the runway and taxiway in a safe and useable condition, airport authorities use mechanical tools, but also chemical products. Chemical products available on the market for use in airports are principally in solid forms and liquid form, and are denominated as Runway Deicing Product (RDP). All of the products used in airport should meet the technical requirements of one of the two Aerospace Materials Specifications (AMS) documents: the AMS1431D Compound, Solid Runway and taxiway Deicing/Anti-icing and the AMS1435C Fluid, Generic, Deicing/Anti-icing Runways and Taxiways. Most of the products are used as freezing point depressants and are applied on snow, ice or packed snow covers to…
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Modular Blocks Enable Plug-and-Play Diagnostic Devices

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34604
Published 2019-06-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Over the past decade, many researchers have been working on small, portable diagnostic devices based on chemical reactions that occur on paper strips. Many of these tests make use of lateral flow technology, which is the same approach used in home pregnancy tests.


Systems and Methods for Correcting Optical Reflectance Measurements

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34625
Published 2019-06-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Optical spectroscopy can be used to determine the concentration of chemical species in samples. The amount of light absorbed by a particular chemical species is often linearly related to its concentration through Beer’s Law. For nontransparent materials such as powders, tablets, natural materials (soil), blood, skin, and muscle, optical information can be collected via diffuse reflectance spectroscopy.


One-Pot Bioconversion of Distiller’s Grains to Advanced Biofuels

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34615
Published 2019-06-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

Increase in bioethanol production throughout the US has led to an increase in the process coproduct — distiller’s grains with solubles (DGS). DGS can be used to feed livestock; however, product inconsistency and contamination issues have greatly reduced demand, resulting in significant surplus. In order to commoditize this DGS surplus, a team at Sandia developed a “one-pot” bioconversion process that converts the major biochemical pools (carbohydrates, proteins, and lipids) into valuable biofuels, industrial chemicals, and high-value acids for fertilization.


Assessment of Hydrotreated Vegetable Oil (HVO) Applicability as an Alternative Marine Fuel Based on Its Performance and Emissions Characteristics

SAE International Journal of Fuels and Lubricants

Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Norway-Sergey Ushakov, Nicolas Lefebvre
  • Journal Article
  • 04-12-02-0007
Published 2019-05-16 by SAE International in United States
In current study, the combustion and emission characteristics of hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO) were studied and compared to those of conventional marine gas oil (MGO). The main goal was to verify its applicability as an alternative marine fuel. All experiments were performed using generator set and propeller-law test cycles, i.e., standardized E2 and E3 cycles respectively. Additional emphasis was paid to the particulate matter (PM) emissions combining gravimetric and particle number measurements. The obtained results indicate average 10-15 % reduction in nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions, while total unburned hydrocarbons (THC) emissions were reduced by 50-55 %. It is believed that a much higher cetane number of HVO together with its superior chemical composition (overall higher H/C ratio, absence of aromatics and heavy-boiling compounds) plays a vital role here. This may also explain the observed around 30 % PM mass reduction, which however showed a strong dependence on load (fuel-air ratio) and speed (time available for combustion) settings. Measured particle size distributions showed a clearly unimodal nature for both the tested fuels with pronounced accumulation (soot)…
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