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A comparative study between abrasion techniques to improve the adhesion of rubber and metal bond for commercial vehicle applications.

VE Commercial Vehicles Ltd-Mahendra Parwal
VE Commercial Vehicles, Ltd.-Arushi Dev
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0475
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Engine mounts are an integral part of the vehicle that help in reducing the vibrations generated from the engine. Engine mounts require a simple yet complicated amalgamation of two very different materials, steel and rubber. Proper adhesion between the two is required to prevent any part failure. Therefore it becomes important that a comprehensive study is done in order to understand the mating phenomenon of both. A good linking between rubber and metal substrate is governed by surface pretreatment. Various methodologies such as mechanical, chemical are adopted for the same. The aim of this paper is to present a comparative study as to which surface pretreatment has an edge over other techniques in terms of separation force required to break the bonding between the two parts. The study also presents a cost comparison between the techniques so that best possible technique can be put to use in the commercial vehicle industry.
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The study on the influence of factors on vehicle refueling emission test

China Automotive Technology and Research-Chunbei Dai, Taiyu Zhang, Chongzhi Zhong, Qiang Chen, Jiaxing Sun, Xiaoliang Wu, Tiefei Yu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1070
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Two vehicles with ORVR system which are met with the US standard are studied. A comparative of refueling emissions test under different refueling rate and different refueling temperature are studied. The HC chemical analysis was carried out for the fuel gas emission from a sample car. The results show that with the increase of the refueling rates, the refueling emissions decline at first, and then gradually stabilize; with the increase of the refueling temperature, the results of refueling emissions show a gradual increase. Under the condition of 37 L / min refueling flow rate and 20 ℃ fuel temperature, 14 kinds of alkanes were emitted from the fuel, in which isobutane, isopentane and n-pentane were the highest emissive components, accounting for 57.66% of the total amount of VOCs.
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LOW COST ELECTROMAGNETIC SHIELDING MATERIAL BASED ON POLYPYRROLE-BIO WASTE COMPOSITES

Dongguk University-Ganapathi Nagarajan PhD
Hindustan University-Sheeba Rathina Selvi, Srimathi Krishnaswamy PhD, Puspamitra Panigrahi PhD
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0226
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
There is a crucial need of Electromagnetic interference shielding in many of the applications in this digital world with low cost and high efficient shielding materials. Electrically conducting heterocyclic polymer polypyrrole has found its application as an EMI shielding materials due to its conducting property. Electrically conducting polypyrrole (PPy) coated on coconut fibres (coir) with different morphology, were prepared through in-situ chemical polymerization of PPy using strong oxidizing agent like ammonium per sulfate. The synthesized PPy on coconut fibre were characterised using UV-Visible spectrophotometer(UV-VIS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) which confirmed the product formation. The morphology was done using Scanning electron Microscopy(SEM).Thermal studies were performed by Thermo Gravimetric analysis (TGA). The effect of PPy morphology and content in composite with coir on the DC conductivity and shielding effectiveness (SE) were investigated. The shielding effectiveness was calculated theoretically and well matched with the experimental values.
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Investigation Into Improved Low-Temperature Urea-Water Solution Decomposition by Addition of Titanium-Based Isocyanic Acid Hydrolysis Catalysts and Surfactant

Southwest Research Institute-Ryan Hartley, Nolan Wright, Cary Henry
University Of Texas - San Antonio-Zachary Tonzetich
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1316
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Mitigation of urea deposit formation and improved ammonia production at low exhaust temperatures continues to be one of the most significant challenges for current generation SCR aftertreatment systems. Various technologies have been devised to alleviate these issues including: use of alternative reductant sources and thermal treatment of the urea-water solution (UWS) pre-injection. The objective of this work is to expand the knowledge base of a potential third option, which entails chemical modification of UWS by addition of titanium-based urea/isocyanic acid (HNCO) decomposition catalysts and/or surfactants to the fluid. Physical mixtures of urea and varying concentrations of ammonium titanyl oxalate (ATO), oxalic acid, and titanium dioxide (TiO2) were generated, and the differences in NH3 and CO2 production were evaluated. It was found that addition of 2.0 mol % ATO to urea increased CO2 production by 821 % and NH3 production by 96 % at temperatures ≤ 215 °C, indicating significantly enhanced hydrolysis of HNCO. Conversely, is was demonstrated that addition of oxalic acid or TiO2 to urea exhibited little effect on NH3 and CO2 production, indicating…
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Analytical approach to characterize the effect of engine control parameters and fuel properties on ACI operation in a GDI engine

Argonne National Laboratory-Johannes Rohwer, Ashish Shah, Toby Rockstroh
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1141
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Advanced compression ignition (ACI) operation in gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines is a promising concept to reduce fuel consumption and emissions at part load conditions. However, combustion phasing control and the limited operating range in ACI mode are a perennial challenge. In this study the combined impact of fuel properties and engine control strategies are investigated. A design of experiments method was implemented using a three level orthogonal array to determine the sensitivity of five engine control parameters on four engine response variables under low load ACI operation for three 98 RON gasoline fuels, exhibiting disparate chemical composition. Furthermore, the thermodynamic state of the compression histories was studied with the aid of the pressure-temperature framework and correlations were drawn to analogous HCCI experiments conducted in an instrumented CFR engine. Due to the compression ratio constraints imposed by knock limited SI operation, considerable intake temperature heating was required resulting in advanced compression ignition mode resulting in the intermediate to high temperature autoignition regime. The olefin containing fuel was found to require the least amount of intake…
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Material development for low viscosity oil

NOK Corporation-Keita Otani, Kenichi Kunieda, Yuki Sato
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0232
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
In recent years, it is a big trend to decrease oil viscosity as regards in the drive-train system in order to progress the fuel efficiency by reducing frictional loss of each mechanical unit. However, we found that the oil-seal performance get worse in cold environment with applying the low viscosity oil, and it leads to oil leakage. The presumed mechanism is that the rubber material used in the oil-seal loses its flexibility at a low temperature to deteriorate the shaft runout followability, while the low viscosity oil can flow even such environment. Concerning rubber material, acrylic rubber (ACM) is widely used as a seal component for automobiles including drive-train system because it has a good balance of heat resistance, cold resistance, and oil resistance. As results of investigation low viscosity oil under development using our lineup ACM which has excellent low temperature property (TR-10:-37℃), we confirmed that the shaft runout limit deteriorates with decrease oil viscosity, and this result shows the need of further enhanced rubber material. In this study, we describe the improvement in…
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Investigation of the operating conditions on the water and thermal management for a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell by one-dimensional model

Tongji Universtiy-Xuhui Wang, Yaqian Dong, Sichuan Xu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0856
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Water and thermal management is an essential issue that influences performance and durability of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Water content in membrane decides its ionic conductivity and membrane swelling favors the ionic conductivity, resulting in decreases in the membrane’s ohmic resistance and improvement in the output voltage. However, if excessive liquid water can’t be removed out of cell quickly, it will fill in the pores of catalyst layer (CL) and gas diffusion layer (GDL) then flooding may occur. It is essential to keep the water content in membrane at a proper level. In this work, a transient isothermal one-dimensional model is developed to investigate effects of the relative humidity of inlet gas and cell temperature on performance of a PEMFC. Comprehensive physical and chemical phenomenon inside the cell is included, especially the mass transfer of hydrogen, oxygen, vapor and liquid water in gas channels, GDL and CL and non-frozen membrane water in ionomer. Phase change between vapor and liquid water is also considered. The cell’s performances at the conditions of the different…
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Battery Entropic Heating Coefficient Testing and Use in Cell-level Loss Modeling for Extreme Fast Charging

FCA US LLC-Pawel Malysz, Oliver Gross
McMaster Automotive Resource Centre-Jeremy Lempert, Phillip Kollmeyer, Ali Emadi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0862
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
To achieve an accurate estimate of losses in a battery it is necessary to consider the reversible entropic losses, which may constitute over 20% of the peak total loss. In this work, a procedure for experimentally determining the entropic heating coefficient of a lithium-ion battery cell is developed. The entropic heating coefficient is the rate of change of the cell’s open-circuit voltage (OCV) with respect to temperature; it is a function of state-of-charge (SOC) and temperature and is often expressed in mV/K. The reversible losses inside the cell are a function of the current, the temperature, and the entropic heating coefficient, which itself is dependent on the cell chemistry. The total cell losses are the sum of the reversible and irreversible losses, where the irreversible losses consist of ohmic losses in the electrodes, ion transport losses, and other irreversible chemical reactions. The entropic heating coefficient is determined by exposing the cell to a range of temperatures at each SOC value of interest. The OCV is recorded at each combination of SOC and temperature, and ∂OCV/∂T…
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An Intricate Comparison of Existing and Future Automobile Industry Applications between the Hybrid Materials : Metal-Organic Frameworks and Covalent Organic Frameworks

A.K Farmaan
KPIT Technologies GmbH-Padmanaban Dheenadhayalan
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0776
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
This quantitative research study was conducted to illustrate the relationships between Metal-Organic Frameworks and Covalent Organic Frameworks. Research on hybrid materials has been going on for decades and the results are quintessential. In modern times, surplus researches are being undertaken to keep the material more efficient and long-lasting for a suitable price to industrialize. To overcome the influence of the essential factors, MOF’s and COF’s play a substantial role in its properties and applications for critical fields of engineering. Conventional materials are limited to their manufacturing methods and equipment. This paper illustrates a predominant case where the use of the modern materials in various applications like the gas storage tank, high-tech battery technology, catalyst for multiple chemical reactions, gas purification reactions, efficient semiconductors, and supercapacitors are observed. The Foreseen applications in the automobile industry of MOF materials are manipulated in such a way that they can be incorporated in the catalytic converter as exhaust materials to reduce the NOx production, COF materials which can be used as the base storage tank and surge tank material…
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High resolution global NOx sub-model for embedded system application with low calibration effort

Exothermia GmbH-Konstantinos Michos
Technische Hochschule Nuernberg-Georgios Bikas, Peter Weigand, Marina Brilz
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0246
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The starting point is a global model of NOx formation for stoichiometric and lean combustion of hydrocarbons developed on the basis of a single non-linear algebraic equation. The latter is the analytical solution of a system of differential equations describing the main kinetic reaction schemes of NOx formation. These take into account the thermal (Zeldovich) and the N2O reaction paths. The model has been validated in another study and proved to be suitable, on the one hand to be embedded in 1D and 3D simulation platforms, on the other hand for direct data evaluation and post-processing of engine testbench data. The non-linear algebraic equation for the calculation of the NOx concentration requires a numerical iterative solution method. This makes the model less attractive for a real-time application based on crank angle resolved information. However, its implementation on embedded systems for "in-situ" and "in memory" analysis of engine process data, or even its application as a virtual sensor, is of great importance due to its global nature and low calibration effort. Beside robustness, fast running times…