The SAE MOBILUS platform will continue to be accessible and populated with high quality technical content during the coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic. x

Your Selections

Chemicals
Show Only

Collections

File Formats

Content Types

Dates

Sectors

Topics

Authors

Publishers

Affiliations

Committees

Events

Magazine

   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

The study on the influence of factors on vehicle refueling emission test

China Automotive Technology and Research-Chunbei Dai, Taiyu Zhang, Chongzhi Zhong, Qiang Chen, Jiaxing Sun, Xiaoliang Wu, Tiefei Yu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1070
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Two vehicles with ORVR system which are met with the US standard are studied. A comparative of refueling emissions test under different refueling rate and different refueling temperature are studied. The HC chemical analysis was carried out for the fuel gas emission from a sample car. The results show that with the increase of the refueling rates, the refueling emissions decline at first, and then gradually stabilize; with the increase of the refueling temperature, the results of refueling emissions show a gradual increase. Under the condition of 37 L / min refueling flow rate and 20 ℃ fuel temperature, 14 kinds of alkanes were emitted from the fuel, in which isobutane, isopentane and n-pentane were the highest emissive components, accounting for 57.66% of the total amount of VOCs.
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

LOW COST ELECTROMAGNETIC SHIELDING MATERIAL BASED ON POLYPYRROLE-BIO WASTE COMPOSITES

Dongguk University-Ganapathi Nagarajan
Hindustan University-Sheeba Rathina Selvi, Srimathi Krishnaswamy, Puspamitra Panigrahi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0226
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
There is a crucial need of Electromagnetic interference shielding in many of the applications in this digital world with low cost and high efficient shielding materials. Electrically conducting heterocyclic polymer polypyrrole has found its application as an EMI shielding materials due to its conducting property. Electrically conducting polypyrrole (PPy) coated on coconut fibres (coir) with different morphology, were prepared through in-situ chemical polymerization of PPy using strong oxidizing agent like ammonium per sulfate. The synthesized PPy on coconut fibre were characterised using UV-Visible spectrophotometer(UV-VIS) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) which confirmed the product formation. The morphology was done using Scanning electron Microscopy(SEM).Thermal studies were performed by Thermo Gravimetric analysis (TGA). The effect of PPy morphology and content in composite with coir on the DC conductivity and shielding effectiveness (SE) were investigated. The shielding effectiveness was calculated theoretically and well matched with the experimental values.
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Analytical approach to characterize the effect of engine control parameters and fuel properties on ACI operation in a GDI engine

Argonne National Laboratory-Johannes Rohwer, Ashish Shah, Toby Rockstroh
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1141
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Advanced compression ignition (ACI) operation in gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines is a promising concept to reduce fuel consumption and emissions at part load conditions. However, combustion phasing control and the limited operating range in ACI mode are a perennial challenge. In this study the combined impact of fuel properties and engine control strategies are investigated. A design of experiments method was implemented using a three level orthogonal array to determine the sensitivity of five engine control parameters on four engine response variables under low load ACI operation for three 98 RON gasoline fuels, exhibiting disparate chemical composition. Furthermore, the thermodynamic state of the compression histories was studied with the aid of the pressure-temperature framework and correlations were drawn to analogous HCCI experiments conducted in an instrumented CFR engine. Due to the compression ratio constraints imposed by knock limited SI operation, considerable intake temperature heating was required resulting in advanced compression ignition mode resulting in the intermediate to high temperature autoignition regime. The olefin containing fuel was found to require the least amount of intake…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Investigation of the operating conditions on the water and thermal management for a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell by one-dimensional model

Tongji Universtiy-Xuhui Wang, Yaqian Dong, Sichuan Xu
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0856
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Water and thermal management is an essential issue that influences performance and durability of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Water content in membrane decides its ionic conductivity and membrane swelling favors the ionic conductivity, resulting in decreases in the membrane’s ohmic resistance and improvement in the output voltage. However, if excessive liquid water can’t be removed out of cell quickly, it will fill in the pores of catalyst layer (CL) and gas diffusion layer (GDL) then flooding may occur. It is essential to keep the water content in membrane at a proper level. In this work, a transient isothermal one-dimensional model is developed to investigate effects of the relative humidity of inlet gas and cell temperature on performance of a PEMFC. Comprehensive physical and chemical phenomenon inside the cell is included, especially the mass transfer of hydrogen, oxygen, vapor and liquid water in gas channels, GDL and CL and non-frozen membrane water in ionomer. Phase change between vapor and liquid water is also considered. The cell’s performances at the conditions of the different…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Simulation-Based Evaluation of Spark-Assisted Compression Ignition Control for Production

Clemson University-Dennis Robertson, Robert Prucka
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-1145
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Spark-assisted compression ignition (SACI) leverages flame propagation to trigger autoignition in a controlled manner. The autoignition event is highly sensitive to several parameters, and thus, achieving SACI in production demands a high tolerance to variations in conditions. Limited research is available to quantify the combustion response of SACI to these variations. A simulation study is performed to establish trends, limits, and control implications for SACI combustion over a wide range of conditions. The operating space was evaluated with a detailed chemical kinetics model. Key findings were synthesized from these results and applied to a 1-D engine model. This model identified performance characteristics and potential actuator positions for a production-viable SACI engine. This study shows charge preparation is critical and can extend the low-load limit by strengthening flame propagation and the high-load limit by reducing ringing intensity. The simulation results also suggest that under certain operating conditions, there can be a significant disparity between the autoignition sensitivity to temperature and pressure. This may dictate different load control or combustion phasing control strategies, and these results are…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Battery Entropic Heating Coefficient Testing and Use in Cell-level Loss Modeling for Extreme Fast Charging

FCA US LLC-Pawel Malysz, Oliver Gross
McMaster Automotive Resource Centre-Jeremy Lempert, Phillip Kollmeyer, Ali Emadi
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0862
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
To achieve an accurate estimate of losses in a battery it is necessary to consider the reversible entropic losses, which may constitute over 20% of the peak total loss. In this work, a procedure for experimentally determining the entropic heating coefficient of a lithium-ion battery cell is developed. The entropic heating coefficient is the rate of change of the cell’s open-circuit voltage (OCV) with respect to temperature; it is a function of state-of-charge (SOC) and temperature and is often expressed in mV/K. The reversible losses inside the cell are a function of the current, the temperature, and the entropic heating coefficient, which itself is dependent on the cell chemistry. The total cell losses are the sum of the reversible and irreversible losses, where the irreversible losses consist of ohmic losses in the electrodes, ion transport losses, and other irreversible chemical reactions. The entropic heating coefficient is determined by exposing the cell to a range of temperatures at each SOC value of interest. The OCV is recorded at each combination of SOC and temperature, and ∂OCV/∂T…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

High resolution global NOx sub-model for embedded system application with low calibration effort

Exothermia GmbH-Konstantinos Michos
Technische Hochschule Nuernberg-Georgios Bikas, Peter Weigand, Marina Brilz
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0246
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
The starting point is a global model of NOx formation for stoichiometric and lean combustion of hydrocarbons developed on the basis of a single non-linear algebraic equation. The latter is the analytical solution of a system of differential equations describing the main kinetic reaction schemes of NOx formation. These take into account the thermal (Zeldovich) and the N2O reaction paths. The model has been validated in another study and proved to be suitable, on the one hand to be embedded in 1D and 3D simulation platforms, on the other hand for direct data evaluation and post-processing of engine testbench data. The non-linear algebraic equation for the calculation of the NOx concentration requires a numerical iterative solution method. This makes the model less attractive for a real-time application based on crank angle resolved information. However, its implementation on embedded systems for "in-situ" and "in memory" analysis of engine process data, or even its application as a virtual sensor, is of great importance due to its global nature and low calibration effort. Beside robustness, fast running times…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Detailed Analyses and Correlation of Fuel Effects on Stochastic Preignition

Aramco Research Center-Vincent Costanzo
General Motors LLC-Elana Chapman
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0612
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Stochastic or Low-Speed Preignition (SPI or LSPI) is an undesirable abnormal combustion phenomenon encountered in forced induction, direct injection, spark-ignition engines. It is characterized by very early heat release and high cylinder pressure and can cause knock, noise and ultimately engine damage. Much of the focus on mitigating SPI has been directed towards the engine oil formulation, leading to the emergence of the Sequence IX and second-generation GM dexos® oil requirements. Engine design, calibration and fuels all contribute to the prevalence of SPI. As part of a recently completed research consortium, a series of engine tests were completed to determine the impact of fuel composition on SPI frequency. Abnormal combustion events were identified by both high cylinder pressure and early heat release. The fuel blends had varying levels of paraffins, olefins, aromatics and ethanol. Engine tests were performed on a 2-litre turbocharged, direct-injection spark-ignition engine and comprised of multiple repeats of low-speed, high-load, steady-state test segments, interspersed with low load segments, with engine calibration and boundary conditions adjusted to amplify the appearance of SPI. Comprehensive…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Fuel Properties and their Impact on Stochastic Pre-Ignition Occurrence and Mega Knock Severity in Turbocharged Direct Injection Engines

FEV North America Inc.-Patrick Haenel, Dean Tomazic, Henning Kleeberg, Joseph Ciaravino
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0614
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Stochastic Pre-Ignition (SPI) or Low Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI) is an abnormal combustion event that can occur during the operation of modern, highly boosted direct-injection gasoline engines. This abnormal combustion event is characterized by an undesired and early start of combustion that is not initiated by the spark plug. Early SPI events can subsequently lead to violent auto-ignitions that are referred to as Mega- or Super-Knock in literature and have the potential to severely damage engines in the field. Numerous studies to analyze impact factors on SPI occurrence and severity have been conducted in recent years. While initial studies have focused strongly on engine oil formulation, calibration and engine design and their respective impact on SPI initiation, the impact of physical and chemical properties of the fuel have also become of interest in recent years. There is still significant uncertainty about the best way to characterize a fuels impact on SPI occurrence and severity though. We therefore performed an experimental study that attempts to link fuel characteristics to SPI event occurrence as well as assesses their…
   This content is not included in your SAE MOBILUS subscription, or you are not logged in.

Detailed Chemistry based Analysis of the Water Effect on Auto-Ignition of different Octane Number Fuels

Brandenburg University of Technology-Tim Franken, Fabian Mauss
Chalmers University of Technology-Andrea Matrisciano
  • Technical Paper
  • 2020-01-0551
To be published on 2020-04-14 by SAE International in United States
Water injection can be applied to spark ignited (SI) gasoline engines to increase the Knock Limit Spark Advance (KLSA) and improve the thermal efficiency. The KLSA potential of 6°CA to 11°CA is shown by many research groups for EN228 gasoline fuel using numerical tools and experimental methods. The influence of water is multi-layered since it reduces the in-cylinder temperature by vaporization and higher heat capacity of the fresh gas, it changes the chemical equilibrium in the end gas and prolongs the ignition delay and laminar flame speed. The aim of this work is to extend the investigation of water injection to different octane number fuels (RON0, RON20, RON50, RON80, RON90 and RON100). The investigation is performed for high load operating conditions at three different engine speeds at 1500rpm, 2000rpm and 2500rpm. The numerical toolbox used for the analysis consists of a detailed reaction scheme for gasoline fuels that was previously used to evaluate the water effect on thermodynamics and chemistry, the quasi-dimensional Stochastic Reactor Model and the Detonation Diagram. The detailed reaction scheme is used…