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EV Charging Concept for the Indian Market

Robert Bosch Engg & Buss Soln Ltd.-Tarang Garg, Viswanatha Lingala, Prabhakar G
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2502
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Predominantly the biggest question that haunts the EV Market is the charging infrastructure that should eventually ease the nervousness of the consumers and allowing EV to penetrate the Indian market with changes done within urban areas and highways. There are multitude of options available ranging from onboard charging via home charging point to a Fast DC off board charger that can be used to charge an EV. There are multiple factors that can be used to evaluate the options and their pros / cons. Some of these factors are: • Cost, time to charge, health of battery, charging and discharge rate of the battery, etc… • Convenience and availability of charging point • Ease of operation including payment • Safety and Security • Ambient temperature in which charging is done There are mainly these categories of charging options: • Residential charging based on a home charging point. The charger is mounted on the vehicle (onboard) and the EV cable can be connected to the home plug point. This method of charging could result in heating…
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An Analysis of Solar charging stations for Indian conditions

Manav Rachna International Institute of-Devendra Vashist
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2484
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Electric mobility is the future of tomorrows transport both in the public and private sector. One of the major challenges / issues faced by the electric vehicles is increased time duration of charging. Research classifies Electric Vehicle Charging into level 1, 2, 3 & DC fast charging. Slowest mode being level 1 which needs 120V / 15A, while Level 3 and fast DC charging are faster modes where in less time duration are required for battery charging. In this research a model of solar charging station was analysed for the Indian condition. Analysis indicate that Level 3 and fast DC charging are preferred where in commercial vehicles whereas Level one and 2 are suitable for vehicles that are used for limited periods. An analysis of solar energy as a source of power to charging stations is also made.
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GM underway with plan to build U.S. electric-vehicle charging infrastructure

Automotive Engineering: September 2019

Bill Visnic
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AUTP09_10
Published 2019-09-01 by SAE International in United States

Tesla has its coveted Supercharger network of high-voltage fast chargers, but despite a widely-discussed goal of contributing to a future with zero vehicle emissions, Mike Abelson, General Motors' vice president of EV infrastructure, admitted at the 2019 CAR Management Briefing Seminars conference that his company doesn't “wish to spend our capital to build (DC) fast chargers-we wish to spend our capital to build more electric vehicles.”

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Connectivity Solutions for AVs

Autonomous Vehicle Engineering: July 2019

Chris Borroni-Bird
  • Magazine Article
  • 19AVEP07_04
Published 2019-07-01 by SAE International in United States

The promises of fully connected autonomous vehicles are great, but so are the challenges.

The synergies between electrification, connectivity and automation in future vehicles are creating new business models and causing developments in each to be accelerated. EVs, for example, need connectivity to assist with finding charging stations and autonomous vehicles (AVs) require significant levels of electric power to support their compute demands. But perhaps the greatest synergy lies between connectivity and autonomy.

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Robot-Based Fast Charging of Electric Vehicles

Graz University of Technology-Bernhard Walzel, Mario Hirz, Helmut Brunner
representing BMW Group-Nico Kreutzer
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Automated, conductive charging systems enable both, the transmission of high charging power for long electric driving distances as well as comfortable and safe charging processes. Especially by the use of heavy and unhandy cables for fast charging, these systems offer user friendly vehicle charging - in particularly in combination with autonomously driving and parking vehicles. This paper deals with the definition of requirements for automated conductive charging stations with standard charging connectors and vehicle inlets and the development of a fully-automated charging robot for electric and plug-in hybrid vehicles.In cooperation with the project partners BMW AG, MAGNA Steyr Engineering, KEBA AG and the Institute of Automotive Engineering at Graz University of Technology, the development and implementation of the prototype took place in the course of a governmental funded research project titled “Comfortable Mobility by Technology Integration (KoMoT)”. The charging system basic design and experiments on sensor technologies were carried out as part of contract research commissioned by the Austrian Society of Automotive Engineers (ÖVK).In the present approach, the entire docking and undocking process of the…
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Design of a Grid-Friendly DC Fast Charge Station with Second Life Batteries

Ohio State University-Matilde D'Arpino, Massimo Cancian
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
DC-fast charge (DCFC) may be amenable for widespread EV adoption. However, there are potential challenges associated with implementation and operation of the DCFC infrastructures. The integration of energy storage systems can limit the scale of grid installation required for DCFC and enable more efficient grid energy usage. In addition, second-life batteries (SLBs) can find application in DCFC, significantly reducing installation cost when compared to solutions based on new battery packs. However, both system architecture and control strategy require optimization to ensure an optimal use of SLBs, including degradation and thermal aspects. This study proposes an application of automotive SLBs for DCFC stations where high power grid connection is not available or feasible. Several SLBs are connected to the grid by means of low power chargers (e.g. L2 charging station), and a DC/DC converter controls the power to the EV power dispenser. The architecture of the DC bus, the size and state of health of the battery system determine efficiency, cost, and reliability of the station. A technical and economic comparison is proposed, evaluating solutions with…
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Electric Vehicle Fast Chargers Present Some Overlooked Circuit Protection Challenges

  • Magazine Article
  • TBMG-34153
Published 2019-04-01 by Tech Briefs Media Group in United States

The first mass-produced electric vehicles (EVs) hit the road late in 2010 with the introduction of the Nissan Leaf, which remains the world’s top-selling, highway-capable, all-electric car. In the United States, sales of EVs are gaining momentum, with 2017 sales up by 25% over 20161. EVs, however, are still outnumbered by roughly 300 to 1 by vehicles powered by internal combustion engines. EVs are unlikely to become fully mainstream until there is a nationwide network of charging stations that can charge a vehicle quickly enough to get travelers back on the road in a matter of minutes rather than hours.

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Ecosystem Feasibility and Sustainability of Aluminium - Air Battery Powered Electric Vehicle

V.J.T.I.-Rohin Apte
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
The Indian government has announced Bharat Stage -6 emission norms to be implemented by 2020 all across Indian cities. The stringent emission norms have resulted in increase of vehicle cost, since they have to be fitted with advanced emission after treatment systems. The emission norms will eventually lead to compromise of power output of vehicles to fit within the norms. With the deteriorating air quality and legalization of stringent emission norms, the trend is towards shifting to use of electric vehicles.The conventional electric vehicles available in current market comprise of lithium-ion battery pack of 11 to 18 kWh energy capacity and giving range of 100 to 150 km. This battery packs have to be charged for 5-6 hours with a dedicated source for complete recharging or for 1 hour fast charging to attain sufficient state of charge to reach the destination. The travel is dependent on charge of battery leading to "range anxiety" among consumers. To deal with it, battery swapping models have been proposed, but implementing such model has not been success till date.…
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Alternate Solution for EV Charge Point Infrastructure in Crowded Urban Areas along the Shore

General Motors-Tushar Khanzode
General Motors Technical Center India-Varun Chakrapani, Shivayogi Tippannanavar
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
Many countries including India have aggressively aimed to implement electric vehicles (EVs) usage from 2030 onwards. Companies such as General Motors, Uber, Waymo and Nissan etc. are exploring the realm of autonomous vehicles (AV) for use as taxis as early as 2019. Above facts logically arrive at the solution of Autonomous EVs as taxis. With the commitment towards enabling an all-electric future, there exists a need to provide suitable infrastructure for recharging. Major urban cities located by the shoreline such as New York, Hong Kong, Mumbai, Los Angeles etc. have been facing the space crunch, with real estate prices sky-rocketing exponentially. With this premise, the operating company would need a large amount of space to store their EVs for charging which attributes to a longer downtime. This brings a need for an economical charging location that has a reduced usage of urban infrastructure and energy consumption. This study explores the possibility of an alternate charging location for electric AV ride sharing fleet charging with “e-Barge”, a barge dedicated to charge EV vehicles onboard with self-generated…
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R134a Refrigerant Charge Determination Test Method

HFTC6, Operator Accommodation
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J3023_201809
  • Current
Published 2018-09-11 by SAE International in United States
The purpose of this document is to establish guidelines for determining the critical R134a refrigerant charge for off-road, self-propelled work machines as defined in SAE J1116 and Agricultural Tractors as defined in ANSI/ASAE S390. It will develop a minimum to maximum refrigerant charge range in which the HVAC system can maintain proper operation. Operating conditions and characteristics of the equipment will influence the optimum charge. Since these conditions and characteristics vary greatly from one application to another, careful consideration should be taken to determine the optimum R134a refrigerant charge for the HVAC system.
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