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Multi body dynamic simulation of tyre traction trailer

International Centre For Automotive Tech.-Gopal Singh Rathore
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2430
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Tyre Traction Trailer is a device designed to find the Peak Brake co-efficient of C2 and C3 tyre as per ECE R117. The trailer is towed by the truck and is braked suddenly to evaluate braking co-efficient of specimen tyre. It is a single wheel trailer equipped with load cell to capture tire loads (Normal and longitudinal)while braking. Traction Trailer is modelled in MSC Adams and rigid body simulation is carried out for static stability of the system. Dynamic simulations were performed to understand locking of wheels during braking. Body frame was further modelled as flex body to perform structural analysis of the frame. The paper contains stress and deformation plots of trailer Structure under various loading conditions, change in Centre of gravity, weight transfer and forces on springs during braking and cornering, plots of tractive and normal load on tyre during braking.
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Effect of variable payload on Vehicle dynamics of Passenger buses in Indian usage conditions

VE Commercial Vehicle-Abhishek pyasi
VE Commercial Vehicles, Ltd.-ABHOY CHANDRA
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2411
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
A high impetus from Government on road infrastructure development, is giving a fillip to passenger CV space. This has resulted in making the passenger CV segment lucrative enough, thereby pulling in many operators in the business. The quality of road has immensely improved over a decade, as a result of which the average speed and hence the quantum of distance covered by passenger buses has increased significantly. People are preferring to travel in buses over trains, owing to at par ticket cost, high availability, reduced travel time and also improved level of comfort. Aligned to the market need and the trend, OEM's are offering buses with capable powertrains to cater the need of speed, reduced trip time as well as a lot of attention is also being paid to tune in the comfort level for long hauls. A big chunk of passenger travel is catered by the bus operators especially during major festivals in India. However, the passenger demand is not so consistent in this industry due to seasonality and hence is the operator earnings,…
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The Dynamic Stability Index Calculator for Agricultural Tractors Equipped with Front End Loader

Mahindra & Mahindra, Ltd.-Pravin Balasaheb Arote
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2420
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
The study aims to evaluate the lateral stability of tractor-front end loader system in consideration with difficult work conditions based on various loader bucket lifting heights from ground while driving a system on transversal slopes. In the proposed method the centre of gravity of tractor-front end loader system was calculated and analysed to evaluate the transversal overturning of the system. This overturning of the system was analysed by applying mathematical equations presented in past studies and compared with the newly developed prediction model for 3 test tractors of 25 HP. The excel spreadsheet comprised of mathematical equations used to calculate the Tractor Stability Index (TSI) on transverse slope with respect to loader bucket height and payload in dynamic condition. A criterion has been defined to categorize the Tractor Stability Index (TSI) poor to excellent on a scale of 0 to 4 where <0 being the very poor, 0-2 Poor, 2-4 Good and >4 being the excellent. It was observed that the centre of gravity of the system became lower after lowering the loader bucket closer…
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Landing Gear Shock Absorption Testing of Civil Aircraft

A-5B Gears, Struts and Couplings Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP5644
  • Current
Published 2019-04-17 by SAE International in United States
The intent of this document is to provide recommended practices for conducting shock absorption testing of civil aircraft landing gear equipped with oleo-pneumatic shock absorbers. The primary focus is for Part 25 aircraft, but differences for Part 23, 27, and 29 aircraft are provided where appropriate.
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Arresting Hook Installation, Land-Based Aircraft

A-5B Gears, Struts and Couplings Committee
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP1538B
  • Current
Published 2019-04-17 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) covers the recommended criteria and performance requirements for the design and installation of land-based aircraft emergency and operational arresting hooks for use on runway arresting systems. Design criteria for fully operational hooks and for carrier-based aircraft hook installations are contained in specification MIL-A-18717.
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Has Electronic Stability Control Reduced Rollover Crashes?

Toyota Motor Corp.-Rini Sherony
Virginia Tech-Luke Riexinger, Hampton Gabler
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Vehicle rollovers are one of the more severe crash modes in the US - accounting for 32% of all passenger vehicle occupant fatalities annually. One design enhancement to help prevent rollovers is Electronic Stability Control (ESC) which can reduce loss of control and thus has great promise to enhance vehicle safety. The objectives of this research were (1) to estimate the effectiveness of ESC in reducing the number of rollover crashes and (2) to identify cases in which ESC did not prevent the rollover to potentially advance additional ESC development.All passenger vehicles and light trucks and vans that experienced a rollover from 2006 to 2015 in the National Automotive Sampling System Crashworthiness Database System (NASS/CDS) were analyzed. Each rollover was assigned a crash scenario based on the crash type, pre-crash maneuver, and pre-crash events. The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety ESC availability database was matched to each NASS/CDS case vehicle by the vehicle make, model, and model year. ESC effectiveness was computed using the quasi-induced exposure method.From 2006-2015, control loss was a factor in 29.7%…
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A Non-Contact Overload Identification Method Based on Vehicle Dynamics

Suizhou-WUT Industry Research Institute-Gangfeng Tan
Wuhan University of Technology-Daolin Zhou, Yiran Ding, Shimin Yu, Xiaofei Ma, Shuai Wang, Zhenyu Wang
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The vehicle overload seriously jeopardizes traffic safety and affects traffic efficiency. At present, the static weighing station and weigh-in-motion station are both relatively fixed, so the detection efficiency is not high and the traffic efficiency is affected; the on-board dynamic weighing equipment is difficult to be popularized because of the problem of being deliberately damaged or not accepted by the purchaser. This paper proposes an efficient, accurate, non-contact vehicle overload identification method which can keep the road unimpeded. The method can detect the vehicle overload by the relative distance (as the characteristic distance) between the dynamic vehicle's marking line and the road surface. First, the dynamics model of the vehicle suspension is set up. Then, the dynamic characteristic distance of the traffic vehicle is detected from the image acquired by the calibrated camera based on computer vision and image recognition technology. The data error caused by the vehicle vibration can be reduced by the filter set up in this paper. Finally, the actual axle load of the vehicle can be obtained combined with the established…
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Inter-Vehicular Sliding Friction and Crush Energy Losses in Impulse Momentum Planar Collision

Biomechanical Research & Testing-Judson Welcher
Collision Dynamics Analysis-Nicholas Carpenter
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
New in this study is the mathematical formula for calculating energy dissipated due to sliding under the action of Coulomb kinetic friction in the context of Impulse Momentum Planar Collision (IMPC) with isotropic restitution. The surface sliding dissipated energy theorem established here is precisely consistent with the laws of physics underlying IMPC. A principal goal of distinguishing between surface sliding energy dissipation and energy dissipation due to vehicle crush is to improve the rational basis for use of crush energy analysis with IMPC. Also new in this study is a consistent interpretation of Newton's, Poisson's and Stronge's restitution hypotheses as they apply to IMPC with Coulomb kinetic friction. While this paper adds to the understanding of energy dissipation, the IMPC method presented here is not new. The IMPC method features a yaw velocity component and two translational velocity components referenced to the dynamic center of mass of each vehicle as well as an impulse vector acting at the point of impact between the colliding vehicles, all of which are related by way of Newton's laws…
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A Novel Dual Nonlinear Observer for Vehicle System Roll Behavior with Lateral and Vertical Coupling

Beijing Institute of Spacecraft Environment Engineering-Dong Li, Gongbo Ma
Beijing Institute of Technology-Yechen Qin
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The study of vehicle coupling state estimation accuracy especially in observer-based vehicle chassis control for improving road handling and ride comfort is a challenging task for vehicle industry under various driving conditions. Due to a large amount of life safety arising from vehicle roll behavior, how to precisely acquire vehicle roll state and rapidly provide for the vehicle control system are of great concern. Simultaneously, uncertainty is unavoidable for various aspects of a vehicle system, e.g., varying sprung mass, moment of inertia and position of the center of gravity. To deal with the above issues, a novel dual observer approach, which combines adaptive Unscented Kalman Filter (AUKF) and Takagi-Sugeno (T-S), is proposed in this paper. A full-car nonlinear model is first established to describe vehicle lateral and vertical coupling roll behavior under various road excitation. Considering the variation of vehicle sprung mass in the movement process, an AUKF approach is adopted to identify the sprung mass by tuning various road classification process variances of the vehicle system in real time. Then, by combing the identification…
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Inertia Tensor and Center of Gravity Measurement for Engines and Other Automotive Components

Ohio State University-Dennis Guenther
SEA Ltd.-Dale A. Andreatta, Gary Heydinger, Scott Zagorski
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
A machine has been developed to measure the complete inertia matrix; mass, center of gravity (CG) location, and all moments and products of inertia. Among other things these quantities are useful in studying engine vibrations, calculation of the torque roll axis, and in the placement of engine mounts. While the machine was developed primarily for engines it can be used for other objects of similar size and weight, and even smaller objects such as tires and wheels/rims.A key feature of the device is that the object, once placed on the test table, is never reoriented during the test cycle. This reduces the testing time to an hour or less, with the setup time being a few minutes to a few hours depending on the complexity of the shape of the object. Other inertia test methods can require up to five reorientations, separate CG measurement, and up to several days for a complete test.The device uses a system of pivots, springs, and three sensors to get the three moments and three products of inertia, plus the…
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