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Sensor Integrated Substrate for Future Exhaust System of Two Wheelers

Vitesco Technologies Japan. K.K., Vitesco Technologies Emite-KOSAKU ITO, SVEN SEIFERT, FRANCOIS JAYAT, THOMAS CARTUS
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0617
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
By upcoming new global two wheelers emission legislation, it is expected that it will become more and more challenging to control exhaust emissions. Therefore, not only optimized catalyst specifications to meet OBDII or RDE, but also new components will be required for future applications in two-wheeler exhaust systems. In such applications, beneath applying new components, it is necessary to ensure mountability while maintaining vehicle design but improving function of the exhaust system at the same time. As exhaust system layout of two wheelers is generally strongly limited by many factors, such as steeply bended exhaust pipes and catalysts which are hard to resize, one of the most challenging tasks is the positioning of sensor behind the catalyst, due to two wheelers unique exhaust design. In order to overcome the challenge, this work describes designs like the catalyst with integrated lambda sensor, which is developed to contribute to high efficient future two wheelers exhaust systems.
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Performance Investigation of a PFI Gasoline Engine by Applying Various Kinds of Fuel Injectors

Bosch Corporation-Toshiya Iio, Yudai Miyatani, Akira Tsunoi
Chiba University-Fuchao Shen, Yasuo Moriyoshi, Tatsuya Kuboyama
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-32-0546
To be published on 2020-01-24 by Society of Automotive Engineers of Japan in Japan
In this report, the effect of injection specification, such as droplet size, lengths of nozzle tip and spray angle, on the engine performance was investigated using a 1.2 L port fuel injection (PFI) four-cylinder gasoline engine. The experimental conditions were selected to cover the daily operating mode, including the cold start and catalyst heating process. The experiments were conducted by varying not only the injectors but also the injection timing which was shifted from the exhaust to intake stroke. The results were evaluated by the fuel consumption and exhaust gas emissions. When these tests were conducted on a production engine, a carefully designed tumble generator was installed at the intake port to enhance the intake air flow. As a result, the injection specifications showed a potential to obtain less fuel consumption and lower engine-out emissions was evaluated.
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Development of a new method to measure the rotational force acting on the piston rings of a gasoline engine

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tokyo City University,-Kenta Tomizawa, Akemi Ito
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2366
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Oil consumption of an engine causes particulate matter, poisoning catalysts and sometimes abnormal combustion like pre-ignition. One of the factors of oil consumption is oil transport via a piston ring-gap. Coincident of ring-gaps at a same position may cause an increase in oil consumption. It was assumed that the rotation of a ring in the circumferential direction is affected by cylinder bore shape, piston motion, distribution of ring tension and so on. The force which caused ring rotation was measured by a newly developed cantilever type of load cell which is set in the ring gap. The force was assumed to be closely related to the piston motion.
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Development of a Sheet Metal Turbine Housing for a Diesel Engine

Calsonic Kansei Corporation-Masaaki Ashida, Satoru Yokoshima, Shunichi Mitsuishi, Hiroyuki Okamoto
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2264
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
This study presents the development of a new sheet metal turbine housing for a turbo diesel engine that improves diesel vehicle emission and fuel economy. Compared to a conventional solid casting housing, it can realize earlier catalyst light-off using less heat mass and has a longer engine stop period due to higher heat retention through its unique hollow structure constructed with sheet metal. For anticipated thermal deformation, a casting and sheet metal hybrid structure is adopted as a countermeasure to ensure concentricity of the turbine shaft. Consequently, this sheet metal turbine housing shows high environmental performance and reliability.
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Catalyst Design Study of Detailed Reaction Model including Gas Diffusivity into the Washcoat

Honda R&D Co. Ltd., Automobile R&D Center-Osami Yamamoto, Yuichi Matsuo, Shinichi Tosa, Tatsuya Okayama
RES Group Inc.-John Tolsma, Zhiwei Zhang, Bradley Niesner
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2327
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
To understand the effect of diffusion into catalyst washcoat pores on the NOx purification performance, the pseudo-2D model was developed, combining diffusion theory and the elementary reaction model. Using a Pt/Al2O3 + CeO2 catalyst, the rate coefficients for NOx storage and reduction reactions were determined with a plug flow reactor. As utilization, the sensitivity analysis on the performance showed that meso pore properties, particle size, and washcoat thickness were found to have large influences. Moreover, by the combination of machine learning as material informatics approach, it was possible to comprehensively calculate the performance under various washcoat properties.
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Analysis of NH3 Diffusion Phenomena in a Selective Catalytic Reduction Coated Diesel Particulate Filter Catalyst Using a Simple One-Dimensional Core Model

Waseda University-Ken Sahara, Yoshihisa Tsukamoto, Akihisa Ishimaru, Takao Fukuma, Jin Kusaka
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2236
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
This paper describes a method for estimating constants related to NH3 gas diffusion phenomena to the active sites in a selective catalytic reduction diesel particulate filter (SCR/DPF) catalyst. A simple one-dimensional NH3 gas diffusion model based on the pore structure inside the catalyst was developed and used to estimate the intracrystalline diffusion coefficient. It was shown that the estimated value agreed well with experimental data.
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A Study on the Performance Deterioration of SCR for Heavy-Duty Diesel Vehicles

Department of Automotive Engineering, Kookmin University-Seangwock Lee
Graduate School of Automotive Engineering, Kookmin Universit-Manjae Kwon, Giyoung Park, Hyunjae Lim, Jungjun Kim
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2235
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
In this study, a six litres displacement, commercial vehicle engine that meets the EURO-5 regulation was used to evaluate the durability and performance deterioration of the SCR system mounted on a heavy-duty diesel vehicle. ESC and ETC modes were used for emission test. Characteristics of emissions by SCR catalyst deterioration were investigated using mileage vehicles of 0 km, 120,000 km, and 360,000 km. EDS (Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy) analysis on PM filters and CT scan to catalyst substrate were carried out in order to investigate the status of catalyst by each mileage. As a result, it was found that NOX, slipped NH3 as well as PM due to unreacted ammonia and urea increased as the mileage of the catalyst increased.
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Control of the Distillation Curve of Biodiesel Fuel by Cross-Metathesis Reaction Based on Fatty-Acid Composition

The University of Shiga Prefecture-Kiyoshi Kawasaki, Koji Yamane, Ryohei Umeno
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2187
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
Biodiesel fuel (Fatty acid methyl esters: FAME) have lower volatility than petro-diesel fuel due to the larger molecular size of FAME. Recent studies report that the distillation temperature of biodiesel fuel can be lowered by the cross-metathesis reaction with short-chain olefin using ruthenium catalyst. In this study, the effect of cross-metathesis reaction conditions on the distillation characteristics of reformulated biodiesel fuel is investigated to reveal the reaction conditions for fitting the distillation curve of biodiesel fuels to that of petro-diesel fuel. Furthermore, the reactivity of typical biodiesel fuels such as RME (rapeseed oil), SME (soybean oil), and WME (waste cooking oil) for cross-metathesis reaction were examined to reveal the reaction conditions appropriate for their fatty-acid compositions.
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Investigating the engine behavior of a hybrid vehicle and its impact on regulated emissions during on-road testing.

Beijing Institute of Technology, China-Xin Wang, Yunshan Ge
University of Leeds, UK-Daisy Thomas, Hu Li, Karl Ropkins
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2199
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents the emissions results and operational behavior of two hybrid vehicles over EU legislative Real Driving Emissions (RDE) and other on-road testing cycles. The behavior of one hybrid vehicle during real world driving is investigated, including analyses of air-fuel ratio and catalyst temperature changes, in order to elucidate the reasons for the emissions results seen in the other hybrid vehicle over an RDE cycle. It was observed that the catalyst cooled down over time when the hybrid vehicle SI (Spark Ignition) engine was turned off, meaning that when the engine restarted the catalyst efficiency was decreased until it was able to light-off once again. This leads to increases in the tailpipe emissions of CO, NOx and hydrocarbons after the engine restarts. In addition to this problem, the engine restarts demanded fuel enrichment, which resulted in incomplete combustion and further increases in CO and PN emissions. Finally, the rate of catalyst temperature decrease during engine-off and increase during engine start/restart were also investigated and quantified for one of the hybrid vehicles.
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ICE Vehicle Challenge toward Zero Emissions: Future Technology Harmonization in Electrified Powertrain System

TOYOTA MOTOR CORPORATION-Bungo Kawaguchi, Kazuhiro Umemoto, Seitaro Misawa, Shigemasa Hirooka, Takashi Kawai
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2217
Published 2019-12-19 by SAE International in United States
BEVs and FCEVs are getting more popular since they can contribute to reduce the concern of global warming and the environmental pollution, especially in urban area, they do not emit exhaust gas emissions. In other words, the expectation of a Zero emission society increases. On the other hand, HEVs and PHEVs which have internal combustion engines have realized a drastic reduction of fuel consumption and exhaust gas emissions thanks to optimal power management of the motor and the engine. They already achieved a great contribution toward CO2 reduction in global level. In order to realize emission free society, this research addresses “Zero-Emissions challenge” of PHEV exhaust gas emissions (to be able to consider equal to BEV in well to wheel), contributing to the global environment pursuing new value for the internal combustion engine. In this investigation, the possibility of the emissions achievement of the 1/10 level of SULEV30 was confirmed by harmonizing new technologies such as optimized combined control of engine and motor, catalyst development, and model based prediction control, which achieved reduction of emissions…
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