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Computational Analysis of Flap Camber and Ground Clearance in Double-Element Inverted Airfoils

Delhi Technological University-Vishesh Kashyap, Sourajit Bhattacharjee
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-5065
Published 2019-06-11 by SAE International in United States
Drag and lift are the primary aerodynamic forces experienced by automobiles. In competitive automotive racing, the design of inverted wings has been the subject of much research aimed at improving the performance of vehicles. In this direction, the aerodynamic impact of change in maximum camber of the flap element and ground effect in a double-element inverted airfoil was studied. The National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA) 4412 airfoil was taken as the constant main element. The camber of the flap element was varied from 0% to 9%, while ground clearance was varied from 0.1c to 1.0c. A two-dimensional (2D) Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) study was performed using the realizable k-ε turbulence model in ANSYS Fluent 18.2 to analyze the aerodynamic characteristics of the airfoil. Parameters such as drag coefficient, lift coefficient, pressure distribution, and wake flow field were investigated to present the optimum airfoil configuration for high downforce and low drag. It was observed that while an increase in flap camber improves the lift coefficient substantially, this change is dependent on the angle of attack…
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1D Tire Model Parameter Synthesis for Vehicle Handling Targets Assessment “A Strategy of Optimization and Evaluation of Tire Math’s”

Tata Motors Ltd-Sunil Kumar, Shoaib Iqbal
Tata Technologies Ltd-Arunmohan Pattathil
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
Handling performance of a vehicle is a key characteristic determining the response of vehicle under different operating scenarios. An insight into these vehicle-handling characteristics at early stage can be extremely useful in the design and development process. Tire characterization and tuning is important and mandatory to scrutinize each functional and individual parameter of tire. Tire force and moment data is having a significant effect in vehicle handling. Segregation of tire parameter, which is contributing vehicle-handling performance, helps to identify and perform optimization for improvisation.The main objective of this study is development and integration optimized 1D tire model into multibody dynamics model of the vehicle to observe various vehicle compliances towards its handling performance target. First part of the work deals with 1D tire model parameter synthesis tool development utilized for calculation of tire parameters such as lateral force and aligning torque for different loading condition and varying slip angle. These parameters are the function of slip angle and inclination (camber) angle and slip ratio. Second part of the work focuses on vehicle handling assessment using…
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To Study the Influence of Variation in Camber and Toe on Handling of Passenger Vehicle during Cornering

VIT Vellore-Digvijay Bhosale, Shubham Rahate, Keyur Rege, Sakthivel Palanivelu
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
Study of Vehicle dynamics has always been the essential area for automotive industries. The vehicle performance, handling and ride comfort are realized because of at most care and the effort that has gone into design and assembly of components and subsystems. Steering and suspension system takes its due importance as it provides the driver not only to give the necessary input for the vehicle motion but also for its directional control and stability. Hence, this subsystem needs to be optimized in order to obtain good handling and ride control of the vehicle. The wheel alignment is the key requirement for the vehicle that depends on steering axis inclination, scrub radius, camber, castor and toe angles, out of which toe and camber are easily adjustable time to time. For frequent cornering events these parameters can’t remain same. Camber plays important role in deciding cornering force during maneuver, on straight roads it doesn’t affect much but on frequent cornering event it must be adjusted such that it should give good handling characteristics. Multi-body dynamic model of a…
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Effects of Kingpin Inclination and Caster Angle on Kinematics and Lateral Dynamics of Long Wheelbase School Bus

Indian Institute of Technology Madras-Sagar Jambukar, Sujatha Chandramohan
Published 2019-01-09 by SAE International in United States
Camber angle of steered wheels varies with steering angle as a function of the kingpin inclination angle (KPIA) and caster angle. Thus, the aim of the study herein was to understand the possibility of control of KPIA and caster angle and thus also control camber angle during turn. Hence a detailed study has been done to evaluate the effects of KPIA and caster angle on kinematics and lateral dynamics of the school bus. TruckSim® simulation tool has been used to carry out a simulation study on an 8.5 tonne 6.45 m wheelbase bus model. This open loop study was done to evaluate individual and combined effects of the aforementioned input variables on camber angle which directly influences the kinematic and dynamic response of the bus. Thus, for both KPIA and caster angle variation, handling response metrics were studied for three different manoeuvres, namely straight path driving, steady-state circles and double lane change. The handling response metrics which were analysed include radius of turn, tyre side-slip angles, body slip angle, steering effort as well as aligning…
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Numerical and Experimental Second Law Analysis of a Low Thickness High Chamber Wing Profile

Henri Coanda Labs LLC-Shivesh Sharma
Sheffield Hallam University-Michele Trancossi
Published 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
This paper presents a coupled numerical and experimental study of an unconventional wing profile such as cp-180-050-gn (Cambered plate C = 18% T = 5% R = 0.78). This wing profile deals with low speeds. It is not currently used on any aircraft model. Otherwise, it presents interesting performances that can be exploited for the design of low-speed STOL or VTOL aircraft by mean of the very high lift that it can generate and can fit with different uses such as VAWT, cyclorotors drones, which are designed explicitly for low-speed operations. After a preliminary CFD assessment of the wing a complete experimental characterisation also at high angles of attack has been performed. The excellent agreement between CFD and experiments has allowed producing a complete analysis of the behaviour of the wing profile both before and after stall conditions. This study has the objective of analysing the viability of such an unconventional wing in traditional or over-stalling conditions. A complete modelling of the specific wing is produced with the definition of its potential deployment into unconventional…
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Theoretical and Fundamental Consideration to Accord between Self-Steer Speed and Rolling in Maneuverability of Motorcycles

Kindai University-Hideki Sakai
Published 2018-10-30 by SAE International in United States
This paper considers the phenomenon that the self-steer speed when riders bank a motorcycle. This paper points out that this phenomenon originates from capsize mode. Further, it is specified that the first order differential equation representing capsize mode is included in the equation of motion of the steering system. Furthermore, it is specified that this differential equation is the first order differential equation for the roll angle. Therefore, as the roll angle increases, the roll angle further increases and the steering angle also changes, which is the mechanism of capsize mode. Finally, as a result of parameter studies, it is stated that the design parameters that most affect capsize mode were front and rear camber stiffness.
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Identification and Resolution of Vehicle Pull and Steering Wobble Using Virtual Simulation and Testing

Mahindra & Mahindra Ltd.-Baskar Anthonysamy, Vishal Barde, Naveen Medithi, Senthil S, Balaramakrishna N
Published 2018-10-05 by SAE International in United States
A vehicle drifts due to several reasons from its intended straight path even in the case of no steering input. Vehicle pull is a condition where the driver must apply a constant correction torque to the steering wheel to maintain a straight-line course of the vehicle. This paper presents an investigation study into the characteristics of a vehicle experiencing steering drift. The aim of the work is to study vehicle stability and the causes of vehicle drift/pull during straight line to minimize vehicle pull level and hence optimize safety measures.A wobble in the steering wheel feels like the steering wheel is shaking to the left and right. This may get worse, if speed increases.This paper focuses on modelling and evaluating effects of suspension parameters, differential friction, brake drag variation, Unbalanced mass in the wheel assembly and C.G. location of the vehicle under multibody dynamic simulation environment.Asymmetry of geometry and compliance between left and right side to be causing the drift. The sensitivities of the suspension parameters are presented for each driving condition. In case of…
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Device for Measuring Efforts Generated by Tire in Steering Conditions

Centro Universitário da FEI-Walace Chicuta, Bruno Afonso, Roberto Bortolussi, Sergio Delijaicov
Published 2018-09-03 by SAE International in United States
Currently, large companies as well as universities have increased the studies into vehicular dynamic behavior, mainly in order to improve driver and passenger safety. Simulations with complete model vehicle have been used for these studies. The tire is one of the most important vehicular component as the only connection with the ground and responsible for transmitting all vertical, longitudinal and lateral forces, consequenetly it is the main component on the model vehicle, being crucial for the correlation between computer simulations results and field tests, This paper presents a methodology, development and construction of a device to obtain lateral forces in any combination of toe and camber angles for different conditions of normal load, the tests can be performed on any type of ground, whether dry or wet. The tire datas used as reference were obtained through an experimental test using “Flat Trac” equipment. Based on these data, the components used to measuare the tire force, were developed. After the device construction, bench tests were performed in order to validate all project assumptions and calibrate the…
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FSAE suspension development in virtual environment

Universidade Federal do ABC, Santo André-José Lucas Lima Berretta, Guilherme Canuto da Silva
Published 2018-09-03 by SAE International in United States
Through Adams/Car software, it was developed a complete template of a double wishbone suspension with a single shock absorber per axle for a formula SAE prototype. With this template it is intended to perform a series of simulations to test its kinematics and dynamics in the situations which the vehicle will be submitted at the competition, then the shock absorber’s parameters, double wishbone geometries, camber, caster, toe and kingpin inclination can be improved, validating the system viability and getting a higher performance.
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Consideration of Effective Chassis Control in Electric Vehicle

Kogakuin University-Ryo Yamaguchi, Hiromichi Nozaki
Published 2018-08-06 by SAE International in United States
In this study, we focus on “camber angle control” and “derivative steering assistance” using “steer-by-wire” as maneuverability and stability improvement techniques that are appropriate for the electric vehicle (EV) era. Movements that produce a negative camber angle generate camber thrust, and vehicle motion performance improvements extend from the fact that the tire side force is increased by the camber thrust effect. In our experimental vehicle, a proportional steering angle system was used to create negative camber angle control via an electromagnetic actuator that allowed us to confirm improvements to both the effectiveness and stability of steering control in restricted cornering areas. More specifically, we determined that it is possible to improve critical cornering performance by executing ground negative camber angle control in proportion to the steering angle. Steer-by-wire refers to an electrical steering technique that allows the steering angle of the entire vehicle to be controlled independently of the front wheel steering angle, thereby providing a high level of steering system control freedom. When derivative steering assistance control is applied, the phase of the front…
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