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Service Brake Structural Integrity Requirements—Truck and Bus

Truck and Bus Foundation Brake Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J1404_201904
  • Current
Published 2019-04-24 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Recommended Practice presents requirements for the structural integrity of the brake system of all new trucks, buses, and combinations of vehicles designed for roadway use and falling into the following classifications: a Truck and Bus—Over 4500 kg (10 000 lb) GVWR b Combination Vehicles—Towing vehicle over 4500 kg (10 000 lb) GVWR The requirements are based on data obtained from SAE J294.
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Rapid Optimal Design of a Light Vehicle Hydraulic Brake System

Politecnico di Torino-Pier Giuseppe Anselma, Shirish Padmakar Patil, Giovanni Belingardi
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Designing automobile brake systems is generally complex and time consuming. Indeed, the brake system integrates several components and has to satisfy numerous conflicting government regulations. Due to these constraints, designing an optimal configuration is not easy. This paper consequently proposes a simple, intuitive and automated methodology that enables rapid optimal design of light vehicle hydraulic brake systems. Firstly, the system is modeled through cascaded analytical equations for each component. A large design space is then generated by varying the operational parameters of each component in its specific reasonable range. The system components under consideration include the brake pedal, the master cylinder, the vacuum-assisted booster, the brake line and the brake pistons. Successful system configurations are identified by implementing the requirements of the two most relevant safety homologation standards for light vehicle brake systems (US and EU legislations). Ergonomics constraints and the compensation for the fluid losses are then retained as further design requirements. Finally, the optimal design identification is carried out based on overall system braking performance and the cost. Particularly, optimal braking performance is…
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Developing a Track Simulation Tool for Formula Student Race Cars Using Python

Ain Shams University-Sherif Khedr, Hashim Elzaabalawy, Mohamed Abdelaziz
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Formula Student is a competition held on yearly basis in multiple countries around the world. Students from different universities participate in this competition implementing some of the most sophisticated techniques in design and analysis of Formula Student car performance. In this research a track simulation tool is developed using Python to analyze the effect of different systems on the car performance, and to test the performance of the car on the Autocross track. For simplicity, the car is modeled as point mass in straight roads and corners. Intensive studies were carried out leading to a conclusion that, in some cases, point mass modeling leads to some inaccuracy and in others it provides the solution. Therefore, to achieve simulation accuracy, the point mass model was replaced with four degrees of freedom, or “bicycle”, model counterpart when it couldn’t provide an accurate solution, and the difference between both models results are discussed. The brake bias ratio selected for the brake system versus human force applied on the brake pedal was optimized and the optimization technique is discussed…
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Brake Vacuum Booster Characterization

Carr Engineering, Inc.-James Walker, Robert Rucoba, Dan Barnes, Steven Kent
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Brake vacuum booster characteristics are of great importance to understanding overall brake system operation in light vehicles so equipped. In recent years, engineering reports relevant to traffic crash reconstruction have discussed, among related areas, the operation of brake booster systems at high applied brake pedal force levels and with various levels of vacuum available within the booster. A vehicle-testing framework is presented for characterizing and understanding the operation of a vacuum booster with pedal force ranging above the vacuum runout point, as well as booster operation relative to varying levels of available vacuum and patterns of depletion of stored vacuum. Concepts are illustrated with measurements of exemplar vehicles. The objective of this paper is to promote improved understanding of brake booster operation and to advance more precise articulation of related concepts within the crash reconstruction community.
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A System Safety Perspective into Chevy Bolt’s One Pedal Driving

General Motors LLC-Richard A. Kulas
General Motors Proving Ground-Helen Rieland, Jenna Pechauer
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The Chevy Bolt’s One Pedal Driving feature is a new electrification propulsion enhancement that allows the driver to accelerate, decelerate and hold their vehicle stationary by just using the accelerator pedal. With this new feature, the driver is relieved of having to switch between pressing the accelerator pedal and brake pedal to slow, stop and hold the vehicle stationary. While this feature provides a convenience to the driver, it also presents a paradigm shift in driver engagement and control system responsibility for executing certain functions that the driver was traditionally responsible to perform. Various system safety techniques were involved in the development of such a feature both from a traditional functional safety perspective as well as a Safety of the Intended Functionality (SOTIF) perspective. The safety considerations for this feature included not only the traditional failure scenarios of the sensors, actuators, controllers, serial data, etc. involved with the feature and its functions, but also the anticipated driver behavior that may potentially result from using the feature. For instance, when the driver releases the accelerator pedal…
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Development of Parametrically Integrated Software Platform for Passenger Car Brake System

Wuhan University of Technology-Xuexun Guo, Wei Zhou, Xiaofei Pei, Hao Pan
Zhejiang Wanxiang Precision Industry Co.-Jin Pan, Jie Zhang
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
The hydraulic servo brake system for passenger car plays a central role in occupant protection, which directly affects the automotive active safety and road handling. In this paper, an integrated parameterized software platform of hydraulic servo brake systems is proposed to realize fast and efficient braking system development. At first, according to the structure and working principle of the hydraulic servo brake system, the relationship among amount of fluid required for brake caliper, pedal feel and performance of the brake system is analyzed. Then, based on kinematics and dynamics of the hydraulic servo brake system, a simulation model for analyze pedal feel and amount of fluid required for brake caliper is built in AMESim, which is composed of brake pedal, vacuum booster, brake master cylinder, brake hoses and brake calipers, etc. In addition, the accuracy of the simulation model is verified by bench tests, and the significantly influential factors on the amount of fluid required for brake calipers are analyzed through orthogonal experimental design. The ranking of their influence is diameter of brake wheel cylinder…
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Regenerative Braking Pedal Decoupling Control for Hydraulic Brake System Equipped with an Electro-Mechanical Brake Booster

Jilin University-Jian Zhao, Zhiqiang Hu, Bing Zhu
Published 2019-04-02 by SAE International in United States
Electrification and intelligence are the important development directions of vehicle techniques. The Electro-Mechanical Brake Booster (Ebooster) as a brake booster which is powered by a motor, can be used to replace the traditional vacuum booster. Ebooster not only improves the intelligence level of vehicle braking and significantly improves the braking performance, but also adapts to the application in new energy vehicles and facilitates coordinated regenerative braking. However, Ebooster cannot complete pedal decoupling independently. It needs to cooperate with other components to realize pedal decoupling. In this paper, a pedal decoupling control algorithm for regenerative brake, which is based on the coordination control of Ebooster and ESP, is proposed. First, regenerative braking strategy is designed to distribute the hydraulic brake force and regenerative braking force. Then, the coordinated control strategy of Ebooster and ESP is proposed, and the decoupling of brake pedal and brake wheel cylinder is realized. Finally, series of simulations are carried out under regenerative braking condition. The results show that the control algorithm introduced in this paper can achieve the decoupling of brake…
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High-Preload Deflection and Compressibility Test Procedures for Friction Materials

Brake Linings Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J2468_201811
  • Current
Published 2018-11-12 by SAE International in United States
This standard specifies a method for testing and measuring the deflection of friction materials assemblies and compressibility of friction materials. This standard applies to disc brake pad assemblies and its coupons or segments, brake shoe lining and its coupons or segments, and brake blocks segments used in road vehicles. This SAE test method is consistent in intent with the ISO 6310 and the JIS 4413.
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Integrated Rudder and Brake Pedal Unit, General Requirements for Fly-By Wire Transport and Business Aircraft

A-6A3 Flight Control and Vehicle Management Systems Cmt
  • Aerospace Standard
  • ARP6252
  • Current
Published 2018-10-15 by SAE International in United States
This Aerospace Recommended Practice (ARP) provides general requirements for a generic, integrated rudder and brake pedal unit, incorporating a passive force-feel system that could be used for fixed-wing fly-by wire transport and business aircraft. This ARP addresses the following: The functions to be implemented The mechanical interconnection between captain and F/O station The geometric and mechanical characteristics The mechanical, electrical, and electronic interfaces The safety and certification requirements
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Correlation of Objective and Subjective Evaluation in Automotive Brake Pedal Feel

Tongji Univ.-Jingyi Zhang, Dejian Meng, Jialin Liu
Published 2018-10-05 by SAE International in United States
In order to establish the correlation between objective and subjective evaluation of brake pedal feel for passenger cars, road tests of brake pedal feel were carried out and an evaluation method was proposed. In the road tests, subjective scores and objective measurements were obtained under the conditions of uniform and emergency braking. The objective measurements include pedal preload, low deceleration pedal force and travel, moderate deceleration pedal force and travel, brake response time and brake linearity. Using the theory of analytic hierarchy process (AHP), the design process of the evaluation method was established. Key setups including the hierarchical structure model, the judgement matrix and the score calculation method of objective measurements were described in detail. Then, the correlation between subjective and objective scores was analyzed. It can be concluded that the evaluation method is effective and it can be applied to brake pedal feel assessment and adjustment.
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