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Independent Aftermarket (IAM) and the Three Dimensions of Friction Material Evaluation

LINK South America-Pedro Oliveira, Henrique Rodrigues, Eduardo Ferro
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0006
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
It is well known the difference between development levels and engineering investment applied to passenger car brake pads when compared to Original Equipment Manufacturer (OEM) and items sold in the Independent Aftermarket (IAM). Based on these differences, the objective of this paper is to propose a simple evaluation for the IAM that can provide at least some level of the understanding of frictional material behavior. Based on a tripod of variables, or three Dimensions Development, described in this work as Performance, Comfort (NVH) and Durability; and using internationally and established testing procedures to measure these dimensions in order to meet the IAM demands for the cost-benefit engineering investment. An important part of the proposed tool is to position friction material against competition for market known issues, and, more importantly, to ensure end product safety and reliability.
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Regressions of brake pads compressibility from experimental data

TMD Friction do Brasil S.A.-André Garcia Lima Suetti
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0014
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
One of the critical characteristics in a brake pad is its deformation when subjected to compressive loads. This deformation is called compressibility, which can be obtained quantitatively through compression cycles performed by a specific test bench. However, such testing is costly and long enough not to meet the demand of manufacturers of friction materials.To overcome this difficulty, this work presents regressions for the estimation of compressibility through the natural frequencies of the pads, since they can be obtained quickly and at low cost through a simple modal analysis. The theoretical basis for the correlation between compressibility and natural frequencies includes the theory of elasticity - which defines an inverse relationship between strain and stiffness - and the theory of vibrations, which defines the natural frequencies of a mechanical system as a function of its mass matrices and stiffness. Since the dependent variable (compressibility) and explanatory variable (natural frequency) are linked to stiffness, it is theoretically plausible to direct estimative.As additional explanatory variables, in addition to the experimental data of natural frequencies, the work uses the…
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Influence of Pads and Brake Disc wear on Brake Squeal Noise

Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais / FCA - Fiat Chrysler A-Marco Túlio Batista dos Anjos, Juan Carlos Horta Gutiérrez, Cláudio Junior Ferreto, Felipe Dornellas Silva, Lázaro Valentin Donadon
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-36-0005
Published 2020-01-13 by SAE International in United States
The present work aims to investigate the influence of wear of the pads and brake disc on the brake squeal behavior with the help of the Finite Element tool. Brake discs basically work by the pressure of the brake pads against a rotating disc. The friction between the pads and the disc causes the latter to decelerate, but it can also cause dynamic instabilities of the system giving rise to noises. Among the main noise in vehicle brake systems, there is the squeal noise, which is usually associated with the coupling of two neighboring natural modes. One possible way to identify unstable modes is by extracting complex eigenvalues from the system. An unstable mode can be identified when, in the result of the extraction of the complex eigenvalues, the real part of the eigenvalue is positive. In the present work, a brake system (disc and positioned pads and their respective materials and friction coefficients) was duly modeled and validated. The validation was done by means of a correlation between the frequency of the noises found…
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Fabrication and Wear Characteristics Basalt Fiber Reinforced Polypropylene Matrix Composites

Dhanalakshmi Srinivasan Institute of Technology-Krishnaraj M, Thirugnana Sambandha T, Arun R
Trichy Engineering College-Vaitheeswaran T
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2570
Published 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Generally brake pads are manufacturing by use of asbestos materials, that materials are chemically harmful and toxic nature to affect the human health. The present investigation is to fabricates polypropylene composites with mixing constant volume [5 vol.%] of alumina nano particles and different volume percentages [0%, 5%, 10% & 15%] of basalt Fiber by hand layup compression technique. The wear characteristics of polypropylene matrix composites were tested by dry sliding condition. The test was carried out pin on disc apparatus, configured with hardened steel counter-face at elevated temperature. The load was applied 10 N to 30 N with the interval of 10 N and varying of sliding speed 300 rpm to 900 rpm with the interval of 300 rpm for the time period of 0-180 sec. The wear rate was decreases with addition of alumina nano particle and the frictional force was increases due to basalt Fiber content present in the composites. The co-efficient of friction was increases 0.1 to 0.66 under normal loading condition.
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Road Vehicles - Friction Materials - Finished Brake Pad Normalized Elastic Constant of Friction Material

Brake Linings Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J3175_201911
  • Current
Published 2019-11-20 by SAE International in United States
This SAE standard specifies a method for testing and measuring a normalized elastic constant of brake pad assemblies using ultrasound. This document applies to disc brake pad assemblies and its coupons or segments used in road vehicles.
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Friction Material Elastic Constants Determination through FRF Measurements and Optimization

Brake NVH Standards Committee
  • Ground Vehicle Standard
  • J3013_201911
  • Current
Published 2019-11-20 by SAE International in United States
This SAE Standard specifies necessary procedures and control parameters in estimating anisotropic elastic constants of friction material based on pad assembly FRF measurements and optimization. It is intended to provide a set of elastic constants as inputs to brake NVH simulation, with the objective of ensuring pad assembly vibration correlation between simulation and measurements.
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Analysis of Metal Pick-Up Formation Process within Automotive Brake Pad

SAE International Journal of Materials and Manufacturing

Ask Technica Corporation, Japan-Hirokazu Noda
University of Yamanashi, Japan-Takahiro Takei
  • Journal Article
  • 05-13-01-0003
Published 2019-11-19 by SAE International in United States
Metal Pick-Up (MPU) is a problematic phenomenon in automotive disc brakes. MPU generally forms as some metal lumps on the surface of the brake pad. If brake pads have MPU, during braking they would cause grooving of the disc rotor, generating brake noise and deteriorating the performance of the brake. The previous literature has so far reported that the source of the MPU is an Fe component from a disc rotor or brake pads. However, only a few of the generation mechanisms of MPU have been proven. We investigate MPU to completely elucidate the mechanism of MPU generation by using different analyses than the previous literature. First, to find out the source of MPU generation, we focus on the chemical reaction of a certain component with wear debris during braking, and some of the verification experiments are conducted under the conditions of simulated friction interface. Second, to clarify the change in the form of the MPU growth process, the crystal structure of MPU is analyzed in detail by using the world’s largest synchrotron radiation facility…
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A Predictive Tool to Evaluate Braking System Performance Using Thermo-Structural Finite Element Model

SAE International Journal of Passenger Cars - Mechanical Systems

Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Malaysia-Wan Zaidi Wan Omar
University of Sciences and Technology of Oran, Algeria-Ali Belhocine
  • Journal Article
  • 06-12-03-0014
Published 2019-10-14 by SAE International in United States
The braking phenomenon is an aspect of vehicle stopping performance where with kinetic energy due to the speed of the vehicle is transformed into thermal energy produced by the brake disc and its pads. The heat must then be dissipated into the surrounding structure and into the airflow around the brake system. The thermal friction field during the braking phase between the disc and the brake pads can lead to excessive temperatures. In our work, we presented numerical modeling using ANSYS software adapted in the finite element method (FEM), to follow the evolution of the global temperatures for the two types of brake discs, full and ventilated disc during braking scenario. Also, numerical simulation of the transient thermal analysis and the static structural analysis were performed here sequentially, with coupled thermo-structural method. Numerical procedure of calculation relies on important steps such that Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) and thermal analysis have been well illustrated in three-dimensional form (3D), showing the effects of heat distribution over the brake disc. This CFD analysis helped us in the calculation…
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Fatigue Life Prediction of Heavy Duty Automobile’s Brake Drum through Coupled Thermo-Mechanical Analysis

Vellore Institute Of Technology Chenna-Krishnamoorthy Annamalai
Vellore Institute of Technology-Chooriyaparambil Damodaran Naiju
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the methodology to simulate the induced stresses/strains due to thermo-mechanical loading of automobile brake drum.. The brake drum undergoes mechanical load due to applied brake pressure and thermal load due to friction generated between brake pad and brake drum while brake is applied. This coupled thermo-mechanical loading affects the life of the brake drum as the stiffness of the brake drum is reduced. The conventional method of simulating this problem is done using Lagrangian discretization in which the load is applied and inertia effect due to angular velocity is applied to a drum at static condition. In contrast, in this paper Eulerian discretization is adopted for finite element analysis, in which drum brake model is discretized as spatially dependent that facilitates actual rotation of brake drum with simultaneous application of brake load resulting more precise simulation. A sequentially coupled transient thermo-mechanical analysis is carried out using ABAQUS 6.12 simulation tool to predict the induced stresses/strains and fatigue life of the brake drum.
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Exploration of Dry Sliding Wear Behaviour of Sisal Fiber Reinforced Cashew Nut Shell Liquid and Epoxy Polymer Matrix Composite as an Alternative Friction Material in Automobiles

Sri Krishna College of Engg. and Tech.-Soundararajan Ranganathan, Shanthosh Gopal, Tharunkumar Magudeeswaran, Ramamoorthi Rangasamy
Published 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The brake pad is one of the foremost imperative parts of the vehicle. Due to the environmental requirement, natural materials were the alternate source for products manufacturing. The product composite made by using hot press techniques with mixing ingredients such as natural fiber (treated sisal), cashew nut filler, graphite and alumina with resin (cashew nut shell liquid - CNSL and epoxy). Two formulas and four samples of each set were composed by varying the resin type of CNSL and epoxy and prepared the test samples with attaining better hardness. The main intern of this proposed effort is to appraise the wear in dry sliding and performance of friction of the prepared composites. The composites are taken for tribo test by varying the load of 10,20,30,40 N and sliding distance of 1000, 2000 m respectively. Experiments were performed at stated process parametric conditions to record the responses. The result shows that the CNSL resin composites specific wear resistance and frictional coefficients are found better than epoxy resin composites. The addition of filler element cashew nut shell…
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