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Impact of Vehicle Electrification on Brake Design

Maruti Suzuki India, Ltd.-Vipul Gupta
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2499
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Electric vehicles have come full circle from being primary vehicle type in 19th century (much before IC powered vehicles) to 21st century where major stake holders in mobility have announced plans towards vehicle electrification. Apart from battery & powertrain system, braking system is area which will undergo major changes because of vehicle electrification. But Why? Major keywords are regenerative braking, increased vehicle weight, no or insufficient vacuum from engine and silent powertrains. This paper tries to outline potential impact on hydraulic brake system & its component design for M1 and N1 category of four wheelers with advent of vehicle electrification. Needless to say extent of change will vary depending upon extent of electrification and extent of recuperation during regenerative braking. Extent of electrification depends upon whether vehicle is range extender type hybrid vehicle, plug in hybrid vehicle, battery electric vehicle, fuel cell vehicle etc. Extent of electrification defines in turn extent of recuperation possible, extent of increase in vehicle weight, availability of vacuum and NVH of powertrains. Extent of recuperation is constrained by motor generator…


Dhanalakshmi Srinivasan Institute of Tec-Thirugnana Sambandha T, Arun R
Dhanalakshmi Srinivasan institute of tec-Krishnaraj M
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-2570
To be published on 2019-11-21 by SAE International in United States
Generally brake pads are manufacturing by use of asbestos materials, these materials are chemically harmful and toxic, affects human health. The present investigation fabricates polypropylene composites with mixing constant volume [5 Vol.%] of alumina nano particles and different volume percentages [0%, 5%, 10% & 15%] of basalt fibre by hand layup compression technique. The wear characteristics of polypropylene matrix composites were tested by dry sliding condition using pin on disc apparatus configuration with hardened steel counter-face at elevated temperature. The load was applied 30N to 70N with the interval of 20N and varying of sliding speed 300 rpm to 900rpm with the interval of 300rpm for the time period of 0-180 sec. The wear rate was decreases with addition of alumina nano particle and also increases the frictional force for the effect of basalt fibre content present in the composites. The co-efficient of friction was increases from 0.1 to 0.66 under normal loading condition.

Fatigue Life Prediction of Heavy Duty Automobile’s Brake Drum Through Coupled Thermo-Mechanical Analysis

Vellore Institute Of Technology Chenna-Krishnamoorthy Annamalai
Vellore Institute of Technology-Chooriyaparambil Damodaran Naiju
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0031
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
The aim of this paper is to demonstrate the methodology to simulate the induced stresses/strains due to thermo-mechanical loading of automobile brake drum.. The brake drum undergoes mechanical load due to applied brake pressure and thermal load due to friction generated between brake pad and brake drum while brake is applied. This coupled thermo-mechanical loading affects the life of the brake drum as the stiffness of the brake drum is reduced. The conventional method of simulating this problem is done using Lagrangian discretization in which the load is applied and inertia effect due to angular velocity is applied to a drum at static condition. In contrast, in this paper Eulerian discretization is adopted for finite element analysis, in which drum brake model is discretized as spatially dependent that facilitates actual rotation of brake drum with simultaneous application of brake load resulting more precise simulation. A sequentially coupled transient thermo-mechanical analysis is carried out using ABAQUS 6.12 simulation tool to predict the induced stresses/strains and fatigue life of the brake drum.

Exploration of dry sliding wear behaviour of sisal fiber-reinforced Cashew Nut Shell Liquid and epoxy polymer matrix composite as an alternative friction material in automobiles

Sri Krishna College of Engg. and Tech.-Soundararajan Ranganathan, Shanthosh Gopal, Tharunkumar Magudeeswaran, Ramamoorthi Rangasamy
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0173
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Brake pad is one of the foremost imperative part in the vehicle. Due to the environmental requirement, natural material/composites were the alternate source for component manufacturing. The composite made using hot press techniques by mixing ingredients such as natural fiber (treated sisal), cashew nut filler, graphite and alumina with resin (cashew nut shell liquid - CNSL and epoxy). Two formulas and four samples of each set were composed by varying the resin type and prepared the test samples with attain better hardness. The main intern of this proposed work is to appraise the dry sliding wear and friction performance of the prepared composites. The composites are taken for tribo test by varying the load of 10,20,30,40 N and sliding distance of 1000, 2000 m respectively. Experiments were performed at stated process parametric conditions to record the responses. The result shows that the CNSL resin composites specific wear resistance and frictional coefficients are found better than epoxy resin composites. The addition of filler element cashew nut shell particular shows a better wear resistant and friction coefficient.…

Surface modification of Aluminium alloy 5083 reinforced with Cr2O3/TiO2 by friction stir process

Bannari Amman Institute of Technology-Dinesh Dhanabalan
Vellore Institute of Technology-Adarsh Singh, Govindasamy Rajamurugan, Prabu Krishnasamy
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-28-0179
To be published on 2019-10-11 by SAE International in United States
Surface properties have vital role in overall performance of parts like brake shoe pad. The mechanical and residual stress measurements of aluminium alloy 5083 were investigated on friction stir processed plates using reinforcements of chromium oxide (Cr2O3) and Titanium di oxide (TiO2) separately as well as combination of these powders. A comparative analysis was performed to study the effects of reinforcements and tool type (cylindrical and threaded) keeping the FSP parameters and volume fraction of reinforcements as constant. This investigation shows that there was a significant increase in surface hardness (118 HRC) as well as decrease in residual stress compare to the base metal. This study also reveals that the threaded tool with a reinforcement of Cr2O3 and TiO2 reflected better mechanical properties than the cylindrical tool. The SEM image shows that the even distributions of reinforcement particles are presence in the processed zone. Mechanical properties like surface roughness, surface hardness and residual stress of samples were investigated. The significant improvement in the surface plates can be used in brake pad in automobile industries.

The Influence of Differential Pad Wear on Low-Frequency and High-Frequency Brake Squeal

SKR Consulting Inc.-Seong K. Rhee
Technische Universitat Braunschweig-Johannes Otto, Georg-Peter Ostermeyer
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2130
To be published on 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
The NVH behavior of disc brakes in particular, is in the focus of research since a long time. Measurements at a chassis dynamometer show that brake pad wear has a significant influence on the occurrence of low- and high-frequency squealing [1]. It is suspected that high-frequency squealing is more likely to occur when the wear difference between the inner and outer brake pad is small. In the other case, if the differential wear rate between the inner and outer pads becomes higher, the prevalence of low-frequency squealing increases.In order to examine this hypothesis, this work focuses on a simplified model of a commercial brake system [2]. In a first step, the inner pad’s wear is iteratively increased, while the wear on the outer pad remains unaffected. In a second step, the coefficient of friction at the worn pad is iteratively increased to investigate the influence on the low and high-frequency squealing. With the aid of the Complex Eigenvalue Analysis (CEA), the real part of the eigenvalue is used as a quantification measure in order to…

Objective Method for Crack Detection in Brake Friction Material

Industrial Measurement Systems Inc.-Donald Yuhas, Carol Vorres
KBAutoSys America-Richard Kaatz
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2113
To be published on 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
Friction material manufacturing is a complex process where numerous raw materials are mixed, pressed, and cured to make brake pads. It is important to have a consistent manufacturing process that can produce a brake pad that satisfies the vehicle braking requirements. A basic and critical requirement for any brake pad is structural integrity with no internal cracks. In this work a series of processing changes were made to intentionally produce internal cracks in the friction material. Various pad crack detection methods were studied, and their advantages and disadvantages are discussed in detail. One of the crack detection methods used an ultrasonic measuring instrument which gives objective data in the form of calculated modulus of elasticity and signal loss. The details of the machine and how the measurements are obtained are discussed. The modulus calculation is also described. Additionally, random pads with and without cracks were selected and checked using subjective and objective crack detection methods. The comparison analysis is discussed, and authors were able to show the difference between cracked and non-cracked pads using several…

A Study on the Optimum Reduction of Required Brake Fluid Level for Improvement of the High Speed Continuous Brake Distance

Hyundai Motor Company-Junggyu Kim, Kwang Yun Kim, Eue-sub So
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2121
To be published on 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
The high speed continuous braking distance assessment is the worst condition for thermal fades. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between fade characteristic and friction materials & brake fluid amount for improving braking distance. So, we used the dynamometer to measure the friction coefficient, braking distance and required brake fluid amount. Through the measurements, the research was carried out as follows. First of all, we studied the influence of friction coefficient about different shapes (chamfer shape, area of the friction material, number of slots) on the same friction material. Secondly, we knew the effects of braking distance by the shape of the friction material. Through these two studies, the shape of the friction material favorable to the fade characteristics was derived. Finally, we measured the amount of required brake fluid in caliper after 10 consecutive braking cycles through Dynamometer. And then, we measured the amount of compression deformation and uneven wear of the friction material. It was found that the above two factors cause the increase the amount of required brake fluid. Through…

Benefits and Application Bandwidth of Phenolic Piston Material in Opposed Piston Calipers

General Motors LLC-David B. Antanaitis, Mark Riefe
SBHPP-Chris Ciechoski
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2123
To be published on 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
The use of reinforced phenolic composite material in application to hydraulic pistons for brake calipers has been well established in the industry - for sliding calipers (and certain fixed calipers with high piston length to diameter ratios). For decades, customers have enjoyed lower brake fluid temperatures, mass savings, improved corrosion resistance, and smoother brake operation (less judder). However, some persistent concerns remain about the use of phenolic materials for opposed piston calipers. The present work explores two key questions about phenolic piston application in opposed piston calipers. Firstly, do opposed piston calipers see similar benefits? Do high performance aluminum bodied calipers, where the piston may no longer be a dominant heat flow path into the fluid (due to a large amount of conduction and cooling enabled by the housing), still enjoy fluid temperature reductions? Are there still benefits for judder with the much shorter length to diameter ratio the pistons have in these applications? Secondly - it is clear that the much shorter length to diameter ratio of the piston in opposed piston calipers will…

Development of Regenerative Brake Control Strategy to Remove Brake

Hyundai & Kia Corp-Sora Jang, Gwichul Kim
  • Technical Paper
  • 2019-01-2125
To be published on 2019-09-15 by SAE International in United States
This study is the development concept of regenerative braking cooperative control to reduce creep groan noise considering fuel efficiency. Creep groan noise is a traditional brake system noise that has been improved with advances in technology such as brake materials, surface treatment and transfer path. However, recently creep groan noise is again an issue in electronic vehicle which applied a drive motor. Generally, creep groan noise frequently occurs when rust occurs on the friction surface of the brake disc and the brake pad is humidified, but it is easily removed by friction braking several times. However, in the case of electric vehicles which applied regenerative braking system, it is hard to remove. In case of electric vehicle, instead of friction braking, most of brake toques are made by motor regenerative braking. Therefore, even if the same conventional brake system and chassis system are applied, the noise level of the electric vehicle is higher than gasoline or diesel vehicle, and the field claim is also higher. To improve the noise, regenerative braking cooperative control logic was…